VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   3 (46)  (2019)

rchaeology

 

The complex of the Maray 4 fortified settlement in the forest-steppe of Ishim area (beginning of the Early Iron Age)  

Ilyushina V.V., Zach V.A., Enshin D.N., Tigeeva E.V. (Tyumen, Russian Federation), Kisagulov A.V. (Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation)

 

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The article introduces new materials from the Maray 4 fortified settlement (beginning of the Early Iron Age) into scientific circulation. This settlement, located in the forest-steppe of the Ishim area (south-west of Western Siberia), had a ring defence system including a shallow ditch and a rampart. The planigraphic and stratigraphic analyses of a 327 m2 excavation area revealed the remnants of three structures: two above-ground structures and one structure slightly dug into in the mainland. The remnants of the burnt above-ground dwelling provided the basis for reconstructing its appearance, which is in good agreement with the ethnographic analogues of such structures. The collection includes approximately 172 vessels; clay, stone and bronze tools; as well as osteological material (208 specimens of animal bones). These materials were analysed using comparative-typological and statistical methods. Six radiocarbon dates of charcoal found in the occupation layer in residential and defensive structures helped establish the chronology of the complex 7th5th centuries BC. The reconstructed dwelling had a post-frame construction with vertically installed posts connected by beams at the top. The space between the beams was filled with half-logs, poles or planks. The roof and walls were additionally insulated with a layer of bark (including birch bark), grass and soil, which was obtained from pits surrounding the structure. The total area of the house was approximately 30 m2, which was enough to accommodate up to eight people (at a rate of 4 m2 per person). The study of the defensive works revealed a discontinuous shallow ditch from which the soil for the structure located on a small rampart must have been taken. In form and ornamentation, the ceramic collection comprising four main morphological groups of vessels bears resemblance to the Zhuravlevo traditions and ceramics similar to that of the Baitovo culture of the Early Iron Age. Judging by the age and species composition of the paleozoological materials, cattle breeding dominated the economic activity of the inhabitants, with hunting playing a minor role. In terms of household productions, the population engaged in spinning, processing of hides and wood, ware making, as well as bronze casting. The authors expressed two points of view on the cultural affiliation of the materials from the fortified settlement in question. According to one of them, the obtained material indicates the interaction of the local late-Zhuravlevo group and the newly-arrived groups of Baitovo culture from the Tobol area. According to the other, the complex of the Maray 4 settlement is considered to have carried on Zhuravlevo traditions, which resulted in the Early Iron Age complexes (different from the Baitovo complexes of the Tobol area) forming in the forest-steppe of the Ishim area.

Key words: forest steppe Ishim basin, the settlement Maray 4, the Early Iron Age, ceramics, production activity, economy, radiocarbon dating.

 

DOI: 10.20874/2071-0437-2019-46-3-029-047

 

Funding. The article has been written within the State Project No. -17-117050400147-2. The study of archaeological collections was conducted under the Russian Foundation for Basic Research project No. 18-04-00982.

 

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Submitted: 20.05.2019

Accepted: 10.06.2019

Article is published: 26.09.2019

 

Ilyushina V.V.

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625003, Russian Federation

E-mail: vika_tika@mail.ru

 

Zach V.A. 

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625003, Russian Federation

E-mail: viczakh@mail.ru

 

Enshin D.N.

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625003, Russian Federation

E-mail: dimetrius666_72@mail.ru

 

Tigeeva E.V.

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625003, Russian Federation

E-mail: flena84@mail.ru

 

 Kisagulov A.V.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS, March 8 st., 202, Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation

E-mail: akis9119@gmail.com