VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   4 (47)  (2019)

rchaeology

 

Graphic reconstruction of a Kashino dwelling dating back to the Early Iron Age 

Zimina O.Yu., Chikunova I.Yu. (Tyumen, Russian Federation)

 

              page 5767

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The article presents the results of archaeological studies carried out at the Yakushkino 3 settlement attributed to the Kashino culture of the Early Iron Age (subtaiga Tobol area, Western Siberia). The settlement was preliminary dated at the 4th3rd centuries BC. In this work, the authors set out to study the house-building tradition of the Kashino culture using the Yakushkino 3 settlement as an example, create its graphic visualisation; identify certain characteristics of the structure defining the nature of the settlement seasonal use or place of permanent residence, which indicate the adaptation strategies of the population. In 20162017, two structures connected by a passage were studied at the settlement. The former is interpreted as a residential structure, whereas the latter is thought to have been used for utility purposes. The multi-chamber residential structure (ca 48 m2) was chosen for the reconstruction. To this end, the authors employed the method of theoretical reconstructions. Drawing on the planigraphy and stratigraphy of the excavation site, the main elements (foundation pit boundaries, pits, ditches, etc.) of the structure were identified. The authors defined the layout of the structure on the basis of the characteristic arrangement of structural elements; identified techniques used in the construction of walls and roofs; determined the possible use of certain building materials; as well as suggested interior variants. Finally, a graphic image of the structure was created. As a result of the study, the following assumptions were made. The structure consisted of 4 near-square rooms: the main central chamber (1) 25 m2; chamber 2 12.5 m2; chamber 3 6.75 m2; chamber 4 3.5 m2. The second chamber was divided into two unequal parts, with ceramics being concentrated in its larger part, which could serve as a kitchen or a dining area. Chambers 3 and 4 could be used as bedrooms or as utility rooms. There was no hearth in the structure. The structure had a frame, with vertical posts providing support for the roof beams and being part of the frame-wall construction. The walls could be constructed of wicker boards or erected by leaning poles against the upper beam of the frame. The roof could be gable, covered with reeds and poles. Against the background of uniform buildings of the Early Iron Age, Kashino dwellings are characterised by one common structural detail that was traced in the layout of the dwelling from the Yakushkino 3 settlement additional chambers (utility or sleeping rooms) attached to the main room without an additional corridor. This fact distinguishes these buildings from the dwellings of the Sargatka or Gorokhovo cultures of the Early Iron Age (Western Siberia). The absence of a hearth and the lightness of the construction suggests that the dwel-ling from the Yakushkino 3 settlement was used in the spring-autumn period.

Key words: Western Siberia, Trans-Urals, Early Iron Age, Kashin culture, settlement, Yakushkino 3, house-building.

 

https://doi.org/10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-5

 

Funding. The article is written within the framework of the State Project No. -17-117050400147-2.

 

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Submitted: 16.09.2019

Accepted: 30.09.2019

Article is published: 30.12.2019

 

Zimina O.Yu.

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation

E-mail: o_winter@mail.ru

 

Chikunova  I.Yu.

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation

E-mail: chikki@mail.ru