VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   1 (48)  (2020)

rchaeology

 

Economic activity of the Berezov posad population in the 17th18th centuries

(on the basis of osteological materials from excavation site No. 2)

Bachura O.P. (Yekaterinburg,  Surgut, Russian Federation), Lobanova T.V. (Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation),

Vizgalov G.P.(Surgut, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation), Martynovich N.V. (Kaliningrad, Russian Federation),

Gimranov D.O. (Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation)

 

              page 5364

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Berezov is one of the first Russian towns in the north of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area). This article is aimed at describing the household structure, the commercial activities of the population inhabiting the posad of the town on the basis of animal bone remains, as well as at determining the degree of integration of the Russian and native population in the region. The study was carried out using the osteological collection (approximately 12,000 items) obtained during the excavations on the site in 20082018. Having compared the materials belonging to different construction layers, we identified three chronological periods covering the time from the mid-17th (the moment this site was built) up to late 18th centuries. When describing bone remains, species composition, skeleton element, as well as the degree of fragmentation, were determined. The age structure of domestic animals was described. During the period under review, as the urban economy was developing, foraging activities decreased in the town of Berezov, whereas production increased. Cattle and reindeer played a dominant role in the diet of the posad population. Starting from the end of the 17th century and later in the 18th century, the raising of predominantly beef cattle was gradually giving place to the raising of dairy cattle. Simultaneously, the region was witnessing a rapid development of large-scale reindeer herding, with the involvement of the Russian population of northern towns in this process. Thus, the lack of domestic meat was compensated for by domestic reindeer meat. The population of the posad kept a small number of pigs, sheep, horses and hens. Dogs were used for hunting and transportation. Game hunting (especially wild geese, ducks and capercaillies), as well as fishing, played an important role in the economy of the population. The population fished mostly large species of fish (sturgeon, pike, nelma) and hunted for elks, hares, as well as fur-bearing animals. The analysis of archaeozoological materials, as well as archaeological data, revealed that mixed Russian and original population resided in the posad of Berezov in the 17th18th centuries. The economy of the population was typical for Russian towns, exhibiting local natural characteristics and involving the use of all available commercial resources, as well as active cooperation with the original population of the region.

Key words: the Western Siberia, Khanty-Mansy Autonomous Area, the Late Middle Ages, Russian and original population, domestic animals, hunting.

 

https://doi.org/10.20874/2071-0437-2020-48-1-6

 

Funding. The processing of the collections was made according to state agreement with the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS. The analysis of data was supported by the presidential grant
18-2-007554.

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted: 06.09.2019

Accepted: 19.12.2019

Article is published: 02.03.2020

 

Bachura O.P.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS, 8 Marta st., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation

Surgut State University, prosp. Lenina, 1, Surgut, 628412, Russian Federation

E-mail: olga@ipae.uran.ru

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4865-5167

 

Lobanova T.V.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS, 8 Marta st., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation

E-mail: lota_64@mail.ru

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5762-7734

 

Vizgalov G.P.

Surgut State University, prosp. Lenina, 1, Surgut, 628412, Russian Federation

Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of Siberian Branch RAS, prosp. Acad. Lavrentyeva, 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation

E-mail: vizgalovgp@mail.ru

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6861-7715

 

Martynovich N.V.

Museum of the World Ocean, nab. Petra Velikogo, 1, Kaliningrad, 236006, Russian Federation

E-mail: martynovichn@mail.ru

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8988-3978

 

Gimranov D.O.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS, 8 Marta st., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9592-5211