VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (51) (2020)
The First and the Second Regency excavations in Tobolsk
Anoshko O.M. (Tyumen, Russian Federation)
This publication continues a series of articles which introduce into scientific discourse the results of archaeological research into the cultural layer of Tobolsk — the main city of Siberia during the Russian colonization period. The First and Second Regency excavations were laid on the spit of the Troitsky Cape, on the territory of the Tobolsk Kremlin, in the utility building construction zone of the Tobolsk-Tyumen diocese. Based on the historical and archival data, the identified stratigraphic columns should demonstrate the peculiarities of the formation of cultural strata in different periods of development of the city since its foundation, but unfortunately, as shown by the excavations, the early layers were severely damaged across a large area as a result of constant active reconstructions of the Kremlin. The earliest of the studied objects are the remains of a defensive line that ran along the edge of the cape in the 17th c., protecting the city from attacks. As a result, the structure of the wooden fortifications of the city have been identified, which represented a high log fence, with an adjacent platform — fighting gallery — on the inner side. The presence of such structure suggests that the defensive wall carried loopholes for cannons and culverins, significantly expanding the firing potential. The nature, location and construction of this defensive line is similar to the one we found in the Chukman excavation site, on the nearby cape of Chukman. The ancient objects of the First and the Second Regency excavations include eight structures that have not been fully explored. One of them contained a rare archaeological find — the remains of a tiled stove, faced with terracotta, glazed, polychrome relief and painted tiles. Another building preserved in a form of a brick foundation, during the clearing of which, for the first time in Tobolsk, fragments of porcelain ware from Gardner factory were found, which was considered to be the best in Russia in the 19th century. In general, the obtained materials open new opportunities for studying the early stages of the history and culture of the first Russian capital of Siberia.
Key words: Tobolsk, the territory of the Kremlin, the line of fortifications of the 17th century, buil-dings of the 18–19th centuries, artifacts.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Article is published: 27.11.2020
Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation