Osteological complexes of the Bronze to Iron Age transitional period, and the Early Iron Age, in the hillfort of Maray 1

(Ishim River region)  

Tsembalyuk S.I. (Tyumen, Russian Federation), Kisagulov A.V., Nekrasov .. (Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation)


              page 99109


The article deals with osteological complexes of the Maray 1 hillfort located in the forest-steppe area of the Ishim River region. The research materials were obtained from the excavations carried out in 2010 and 2019. The main periods of the site habitation recorded for the hillfort are the early chronological horizon represented by the settlement of the Krasnoozerka Culture of the Bronze to Iron Age transitional period (9th7th c. BC), and the late cultural layer which is marked by the hillfort of the beginning of the Early Iron Age, left by the population of the Baitovo Culture (4th2nd c. BC). From each layer associated with different periods of the site habitation, archaeozoological collections have been selected. The purpose of this work is to determine the type of economy of the Maray 1 population during the two major habitation phases. The essential research materials comprised of osteological collections obtained from the Krasnoozerka and Baitovo layers. The research technique included bone determinations based on comparison with the reference skeletal collections from the Museum of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Yekaterinburg), using anatomy atlases [Gromova, 1950]. Determination of subfossil bird bones was carried out in the same institute, and it included comparison of the bones from the settlement with the reference osteological collection of modern bird species. The species attribution was based on morphological structure of the bones and their fragments. The osteological collection of the Maray 1 hillfort is stored in the Museum under No. 2361. Analysis of the species composition of osteological complexes from the two main habitation periods allowed distinguishing domestic and wild animals, including birds. The proportions of the number of bones and representatives of domestic and wild fauna have been analyzed. In the Krasnoozerka Culture materials, significant predominance of wild animal bones has been determined, which suggests that the economy of the Krasnoozerka settlement was dominated by the appropriating activities with a significant role of hunting (mainly elk). In the Baitovo layer, bones of domestic animals significantly prevail over those of wild fauna, suggesting that the economy was based on producing sectors.

Key words: Ishim River basin, Krasnoozerka Culture, Baitovo Culture, osteological complexes, archeozoology, appropriating economy, producing economy.


Funding. The article has been written within the State Project No. -17-117050400147-2. Processing of the osteological collection was performed within the framework of project 18-04-00982 A.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Accepted: 07.09.2020

Article is published: 27.11.2020


Tsembalyuk S.I.

Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation



Kisagulov A.V.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS, 8 March st., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation




Nekrasov ..

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of Ural Branch RAS, 8 March st., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation