VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   4 (51)  (2020)

Anthropology  

 

Comparison of urban and rural groups of school-age children of the Tuva Republic according to Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

in the context of transformation of traditional lifestyle   

Batsevich V.., Permiakova .Yu., Mashina D.., Yasina O.V., Khrustaleva O.V. (Moscow, Russian Federation)

 

              page 148160

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This study is concerned with the assessment of body composition indicators for urban and rural schoolchildren (related to the same adaptive type) of the Republic of Tuva in the context of transformation of the traditional lifestyle. Comprehensive surveys of the population in this region were started by anthropologists back in the 1970s; therefore, this research should be considered as a continuation of the work on the dynamics of adaptation processes among the indigenous population in the light of changes of the environmental factors, primarily socio-economic and cultural. Comparison of morphological characteristics and growth rates of urban and rural schoolchildren is particularly interesting, as changes in the lifestyle of the population during the transition to urban conditions entail significant increase in anthropometric indicators, which is especially pronounced in comparison with children of the same age living in less urbanized environment. As such, the relevance of this study is determined by the necessity to assess the degree of adaptation of those modern indigenous groups of the Tuva Republic, which are at the transitional stage from one ecological niche to another. Comparative anthropo-ecological studies have been carried out according to the standard morpho-physiological program in two groups of school-age children: the first one was examined in the city of Kyzyl (406 individuals) in 2018, and the second one in the Todzhinsky kozhuun (district) of the Tuva Republic (435 individuals) in 2019. Schoolchildren examined in the capital of the republic (as the place of their birth and residence) can be classified as conditionally urban. This is the first generation born within or moved to the city with parents from various rural areas of the steppe zone of the republic. A large number of internal migrants from other areas have also been found in the villages of Todzha, where previously Todzhan Tuvans represented the ethnic majority. In this study, we assessed the overall body dimensions and body composition indices, acquired using the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. The obtained results show that there are virtually no significant differences between the anthropometric data from urban and rural groups of schoolchildren by overall dimensions and body composition across the entire age range. The observed differentiation at individual age points is more likely related to sample specifics. The age of menarche is not different in urban and rural groups: for urban girls it is 13.1 years, for rural girls 13.0 years. The physical characteristics of schoolchildren indicate a relatively small shift in socio-economic conditions in regions with different extent of urbanization. The differences are smoothed by the gradual withdrawal of the traditional way of life (stockbreeding), which is more intense among the indigenous groups of Siberia. Thus, our interim results of anthropo-ecological study conducted in Tuva Republic show significant desadaptive changes among the local indigenous population, both within the rural and the emerging urban communities.

Key words: anthropoecology, adaptation, children and adolescents, total body size, body composition, Tuva.

 

https://doi.org/10.20874/2071-0437-2020-51-4-13

 

Funding.This work was supported by the RFBR grant No. 18-09-00417 New anthropoecological studies in the Tuva Republic. Monitoring of the adaptive processes in 40 years and also was carried out as a part of research No. AAAA-A19-119013090163-2.

 

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Accepted: 07.09.2020

Article is published: 27.11.2020

 

Batsevich V..

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation

E-mail: batsevich53@mail.ru (Batsevich V..);

ekaterinapermyakova@gmail.com (Permiakova .Yu.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3833-1588

 

Permiakova .Yu.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation

E-mail: ekaterinapermyakova@gmail.com (Permiakova .Yu.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6490-4004

 

Mashina D..

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation

E-mail: darya.mashina@gmail.com (Mashina D..)

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5130-2939

 

Yasina O.V.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation

E-mail: okyasina@yandex.ru (Yasina O.V.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9133-0440

 

Khrustaleva O.V.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mokhovaya st., 11, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation

E-mail: o.hrustalyova@mail.ru (Khrustaleva O.V.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7832-1363