Bronze-casting workshops of the Vengerovo-2 settlement (Baraba forest steppe)
Durakov I.A., Mylnikova L.N.
Vestnik arheologii, antropologii i etnografii, 2021, ¹ 2 (53)
The formation of the early bronze-casting production in Baraba and the appearance of products of the Seima-Turbino type were completed within the 3rd — early 2nd mil. BC — during the existence of the Krotovo Culture. Plenty of work has been devoted to its characterization; the presence of bronze-casting on the sites has been noted, but special studies of this type of sources are extremely few. The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of the production areas associated with the processing of non-ferrous metals, based on materials of the Vengerovo-2 settlement of the Krotovo Culture. Production sites were studied in six dwellings of the settlement. The uniformity of the workshops has been revealed in terms of site planning and principles of organization of the production, although differences in scale have been noted. The use of two types of the forges has been recorded. In all these workshops and in other sites of the culture, a multifunctional sub-rectangular hearth buried in the ground with the walls and floor lined with fragments of ceramics or clay coating was found (with dimensions of 1.65×0.87–2.3×0.9×0.21–0.52 m). The second type of the forges is less common — a small round or oval pit (0.4–0.5 m in diameter) with the bottom and walls lined with baked clay or fragments. The smelting was carried out with forced air supply. The casting of the metal was taking place next to the forge. Crushed bones were used as fuel. The production complex demonstrates extensive external economic and commercial ties. This is manifested by penetration of significant volumes of non-ferrous metal into the ore-barren areas of the Central Baraba, as well as by the presence of imported foundry equipment (molds made of marl and talc). The simultaneous presence inside the casters’ dwellings of bones of taiga-zone animals and those living in the southern, steppe regions indicates significant length of the supply routes. The specific features and unification of the production of the manufacturing equipment, nature of the work carried out, volume of heats, and a large number of similar-type forms suggest specialization of the village in the bronze casting production.
Key words: Krotovo culture, Baraba forest steppe, Western Siberia, bronze-casting sectors, production, technology.
Funding. The study was supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for basic research, project No. 18-09-40051.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Article is published: 28.05.2021
Durakov I.A., Institute of Archeology and Ethnography Siberian Branch RAS, Acad. Lavrent'ev àv., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8526-9257
Mylnikova L.N., Institute of Archeology and Ethnography Siberian Branch RAS, Acad. Lavrent'ev àv., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, E-mail: L.Mylnikova@ yandex.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0196-5165