Enshin D.N.

Neolithic ceramic complex of the settlement of Mergen 6 in the Lower Ishim (groups I and II): characteristics and interpretation

The article discusses a ceramic complex (groups I and II) of the early Neolithic settlement of Mergen 6 (Lower Ishim River region, Western Siberia, 7th millennium BC). The aim of the work is to analyze the materials from the perspective of the cultural and chronological correlation of the Boborykino and Koshkino antiquities of the Trans-Urals. The research is based on the elements of the historical-cultural and formal-classification approaches. The source base consists of 236 vessels. As a result of the analysis carried out in several stages (morphology of the vessels, tool and technique for applying ornamentation, structural components of the decor, nature of the system organization of the ornamental components, relationship of the image components with the structure of the vessels' shape), it was found that the products of group I correspond to the Boborykino cultural tradition, and group II to the Koshkino. The simultaneous occurrence of these vessels made it possible to speak of the coexistence within the same society of representatives of the traditions of their manufacture. On this basis, there has been proposed a clarification of several positions regarding the pattern of the cultural and chronological development of the Boborykino antiquities in the Trans-Urals. The emergence of an early flat-bottomed ceramic complex in the River Ishim region allows it to be included in the range of materials of a similar appearance (Satyginsky, Mulymyinsky, Amninsky, Kayukovsky, Barabinsky) identified in the mountain-forest Trans-Urals, Kondinsky lowlands, Irtysh River region and Baraba. Identification of the Mergen vessels of group I as belonging to the Boborykino Culture, dating from the Early Neolithic, makes it possible to pose the question of identifying the early phase of the antiquities of this cultural group. Location of the Koshkino and Boborykino groups of vessels in the same sites attests to the coexistence and contacts of the two traditions and their mutual influence.

Keywords: Early Neolithic, Western Siberia, Lower Ishim River Region, Mergen 6, ceramic complex, Boborykino culture, Koshkino Culture.


Kiryushin K.Yu., Kiryushin Yu.F., Solodovnikov K.N., Frolov Ya.V., Shapetko Ye.V., Schmidt A.V.

On the relative and absolute chronology of early burials at the Firsovo-XI burial ground (Barnaul Ob River region)

The present work addresses the issues of the absolute and relative chronology of early burials at the Firsovo-XI burial ground on the right bank of the Upper Ob River. Description of four burials of the site and results of their AMS 14C dating are reported, alongside with the cultural and chronological analogies among the contemporaneous monuments of Altai. Eight burial places were discovered at Firsovo-XI, including five single graves, two double graves and one collective burial. The burials were arranged in two rows in the direction from northwest to southeast. The deceased were oriented with their heads to the north and northeast. The research concluded that the burials which form the cultural “core” of the Firsovo-XI burial place (burial grounds nos. 14, 15 and 42) belong to the Early Neolithic period, and their radiocarbon age is determined by the middle of the 5th millennium BC, while their calendar age fits into a very narrow interval of several decades or several centuries (a one-sigma interval of 5710–5460 cal BC and a two-sigma interval of 5740–5360 cal BC). The Neolithic burials of Firsovo-XI constitute a single chronological group with burials nos.1 and 13 of the Bolshoi Mys burial ground. It stands to reason that this group may grow in size over time, as the work on AMS 14C dating of early necropolises and single burials of the Upper Ob region expands. At this stage of research, the problem of identifying cultural and chronological markers for the selected group of burials remains urgent. Within the framework of this study, it has been suggested that the ornaments made from the teeth of a bear and a horse (?), or an onager (?), take the role of such markers. It cannot be ruled out that with the appearance of new data such markers may include the ornaments made from wolf teeth and double-sided polished knives with a concave blade. As a working hypothesis, it has been suggested that the date obtained for the cemetery no. 18 of Firsovo-XI (GV-02889 9106±80 BP) was not accidental and that this burial actually belongs to the final Mesolithic or early Neolithic period. The chronological and ritual specifics of this burial are also emphasized by the craniological specificity of the buried male, and by the large total size of the skull, which distinguishes him from the rest of those buried at the burial ground.

Keywords: ground burial place, final Mesolithic period, Neolithic burial, cultural and chronological markers.


Skochina S.N., Ěîsin V.S.

Stone equipment of the Poludensky complex of the Kedrovy Mys-1 site

The paper deals with the complex analysis of the stone equipment of the Kedrovy Mys-1 site associated with the Poludensky tradition, classical for the Trans-Urals, dated to the Late Neolithic period. On the basis of typological and functional analyses, aimed at the study of tool shapes and identification of their correlation with the functional purpose, specifics of the stone industry of the Poludensky complex have been determined. The tools manufactured at the site of Kedrovy Mys-1 were produced from the materials from the valley of the river Miass, situated behind the Ilmensky ridge, approximately 2025 km away from the site. Dominant materials are phtanitoids and sealing-wax green jade; these quality materials were scarce, so that local chalcedonies were used. The stone industry based on the prismatic flaking was aimed at the production of plates as the feedstock for the tools. For the production of tools, preference was given to the medium-width plates, with a little use of small plates. A feature of the complex is represented by the tools indicating the existence of the insert technique, such as plates with the rounded back and face, chamfered tips, “triangle”, and unretouched plates used as knives. Mainly blunting retouching, and sometimes sharpening, was used for the plate processing from the back side. A cutter spalling as the tool shaping technique was used occasionally. No cutters were found. Typologically identified tools are represented by arrow tips, end scrapers, piercers, borers, scrapers on the flakes and nucleus cleavage, chopping tools, abrasives, and a retoucher. Specifics of the Poludensky toolset of the Kedrovy Mys-1 site allows suggestion that during this period of the site the main activity of the population was concerned with food processing meat cutting and catch processing. This is evidenced by the predominance of the knives for meat/fish cutting. The proportion of tools used for the production of wooden equipment is quite small, which is probably due to the sampling, although morphologically it is very prominent. In the meantime, the presence of tools for processing of skin, stone, bone, and for repair of ceramics indicates a full cycle of the production activity ensuring efficient adaptation in the lake system environment.

Keywords: mountain-forest Trans-Urals, Poludenskaya Culture, Late Neolithic, technical-morpholo-gical analyzes, use wear analysis, stone inventory, features of the economy.


Chechushkov I.V., Epimakhov A.V.

Chronological relationship between the fortified settlement of Kamennyi Ambar and the Kamennyi Ambar-5 cemetery in the Southern Trans-Urals: capabilities of the Bayesian statistics

By means of the Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates, a comparison of chronologies of the Kamennyi Ambar settlement and the cemetery of Kamennyi Ambar-5 of the Late Bronze Age Syntashta-Petrovka period has been carried out. Both sites are situated in the valley of the Karagaily-Ayat River in Kartalinsky district of Chelyabinsk Region (Russia). Comparison of the pottery assemblages of the settlement and the cemetery demonstrates their similarity, which suggests existence of a genetic link between the sites. The purpose of this work is development of a generalized chronological model of the two monuments. This is achieved by comparison of uncalibrated intervals of radiocarbon dates and calculation of chronological boundaries of the existence of the settlement and cemetery by means of Bayesian modeling of the calibrated dates. The method consists in that, in the beginning, the stratigraphic position of each date is determined, and then the dates suitable for the analysis are arranged in the chronological order and calibrated, while the algorithm of the OxCal 4.4 calibration program is queried for calculation of the boundaries of the given periods and their duration. Also, the paper reports complete sets of the radiocarbon dates: 61 dates have been obtained from the materials of the settlement of Kamennyi Ambar, while 19 measurements originate from the Kamennyi Ambar-5 cemetery. Correlation of the radiocarbon dates and development of the Bayesian chronological models have demonstrated contemporaneousness of the settlement and the cemetery with slightly later beginning of the activity at the latter. This observation is in agreement with the concept of the genetic link between the sites and, arguably, can be extended onto other pairs of fortified settlement kurgan cemetery attributed to the Sintashta-Petrovka period. Our conclusion is also consistent with the concept of building the complex of monuments by a newly-arrived population, who founded a settlement, occupied the new territory for some time, while the first deaths occurred some time afterwards. That said, the settlement of Kamennyi Ambar existed for no longer than a century in the 1950s  1860s BC, while the cemetery of Kamennyi Ambar-5 was used for 7080 years within the same chronological interval.

Keywords: Late Bronze Age, radiocarbon dating, Bayesian analysis, Southern Urals, Sintashta


Chikunova I.Yu., Ilyushina V.V.

The ceramic complex of the ancient settlement of Ust-Vasyegan 1

This paper presents the results of the study of the ceramics collection from two periods Eneolithic and Medieval, assembled during the fieldwork at the ancient settlement of Ust-Vasyegan 1 in the Northern Priobye (Western Siberia). The Eneolithic ware is represented by fragments of 30 vessels decorated with alveolate, rhombic, nail-imprints, and corner patterns. There are fragments of a boat-shaped vessel and vessels with handles. The complex has analogies in the materials of the settlement of Gorny Samotnel-1 and is dated to the end of the 4th–3rd centuries BC. The Medieval ceramics are represented by 296 vessels. On the basis of typological analysis, two groups of vessels have been identified: group 1 ware with sparing ornamentation comprising 1–4 lines of the ornament; and group 2 ware with an ornament comprising 5–8 and more lines. A characteristic feature of the group 2 vessels is the use of a cord and various shaped stamps. In the cultural layer of the settlement, ceramics of both groups was deposited side by side, which suggests their contemporaneity. In order to determine the degree of similarity/difference of the derived groups of vessels, a technical-technological analysis was carried out on 20 items. It appeared that potters who manufactured the group 1 vessels routinely used blend compositions of grus and grus with wool. Organic mortars were rarely used. The smoo-thing of the vessels was performed mainly with a wood splinter, knife, or spatula. The craftsmen who manufactured the vessels of group 2 used medium to heavily oversanded clays along with slightly oversanded material. While making the molding compositions, a blend of grus and organic mortar was used more often. Wool was rarely utilised. The vessels were smoothed with soft materials and a knife or spatula, the outer surfaces were subjected to hand tamping. The noted differences suggest, that in the Middle Ages two groups of potters, who had distinctive pottery-making skills, were living at the settlement. Vessels of the group 1 have similarities with materials of the “Bichevnik” type from the Pechersky Trans-Urals, whereas vessels of the group 2 in the materials of the Yarsalinsky, Ust’-Poluisky, and Yudinsky Cultures of the Iron Age and Early Middle Ages of the Middle and Lower Priobye and Lower Tobol River region. Obtained radiocarbon dates and some artefacts (a bronze signet ring and an iron dagger), which have analogies in the Middle Trans-Urals, define the time span of the activity for the ancient settlement of Ust-Vasyegan 1 within the 7th–13th centuries.

Keywords: Northern Ob region, Eneolithic epoch, Medieval epoch, ceramic complex, technical and technological analysis.


Senotrusova P.O., Ekkerdt A.A., Mandryka P.V.

Finds of ornitomorphic images of the End of the Early Iron Age in the Lower Angara region

The paper concerns the ornithomorphic images found at the Pinchuga VI burial ground. The site is located in the lower course of the river Angara (Middle Siberia). The chronological boundaries of the study span the second quarter of the 1st millennium AD (end of the Early Iron Age). All burials at the burial ground were performed according to the rite of cremation outside the cemetery. Two intact objects and fragments of the third image of a bird were found at the necropolis. Figures were found in different contexts. One of them was found in the filling of a grave pit, the second item within an assemblage of various articles in the inter-grave space. The third item was broken and lost as the result of illegal excavations. All articles share similar characteristics. These are realistic images of diurnal birds of prey “frozen” in a diving flight; the images are shown en face, with a high-relief head, with the tucked wings and feet pulled up with talons. A geometric decor conveys their feather, and a stylized mask is present on the chest of one item. The images are slightly convex, their front side is polished. The closest analogies to the Angara images of birds are known in Western Siberia, including the Tomsk burial ground, the Kholmogory treasure, the Ishim collection, and materials from the Parabel cult place. All this makes it possible to attribute the analyzed items to the Kholmogory stylistic group of the Kulai cult casting. Products of this group became widespread in Western Siberia in the second quarter of the 1st millennium AD. The ornithomorphic images found at the Pinchuga VI cemetery extend the geographical range of the items of this style to the territory of Middle Siberia. Apart from the figurines of birds, the necropolis also yields other items of the Western Siberian cult casting, including disks with concentric ornaments, a hollow image of a fish head, and a bird-head belt applique. Bronze items were imported, and in the course of exchange they were spreading over considerable distances. This proves the existence of established cultural ties between the populations of the Lower Angara region and Western Siberia at the End of the Early Iron Age.

Keywords: Lower Angara region, the end of the Early Iron Age, West Siberian cult casting, ornito-morphic images, chronology, importation.


Berlina S.V., Tsembalyuk S.I., Yakimov A.S.

Structural and technical characteristics of the fortification system of the Dikaya Yama hillfort of the Early Iron Age in the Middle Tobol River area

The paper reports the results of the studies of the fortification system of the Early Iron Age Dikaya Yama hillfort situated in the Middle Tobol River region of the Western Siberian forest-steppe zone. The hillfort was built by the population of the Sargatka Culture, and it is dated to the 3rd c. BC 1st c. AD. The defence lines at the junction of two adjacent fortified platforms have been studied. It has been determined that the earthwork of the first platform was built up from turfen blocks; the presence of traces of postholes suggests that the earthwork was reinforced with a wooden-frame wall a wattle fence. The ditch between the platforms had a trapezoidal shape with the size of 3.2–4 m of the upper part and 1.2–1.6 m of the lower part. The soil from the ditch was placed into the mound of the rampart of the second platform. The mathematical analysis of the volume of earth making the mound of the rampart allowed establishing its height of 2.0 m. Analysis of the stratigraphy and planigraphy revealed the remains of a frame structure set on the rampart. The wattle fence on top of the rampart and the parapet along it have been reconstructed. Moreover, there have been identified the remains of a frame-and-pillar structure installed into the body of the rampart, which was aimed to strengthen the mound and prevent untimely slipping. A graphic reconstruction of the appearance of the fortifications existed on the studied site has been created. Carcass fortifications of the wattle fence type, a wall constructed in “zaplot” technique, set on the rampart, have analogies in the Early Iron Age hillforts of the Tobol-Irtysh interfluve: Kolovskoe, Rafailovskoe, Ak-Tau, and Pavlinovo. There existed a tradition of mounting a palisade into a ditch-trench such structures have been recorded at the hillforts of Borovushka, Likhachevskoe, Bochanetskoe, Inberen 4 and Rozanovo, Mar'ino Ushchel'ye 4 and Malo-Kazakbaevskoe. The fortification system of the hillfort of Dikaya Yama, which, structurally, is represented by the earthwork ramparts on top of which there were mounted wooden walls in the technique of the wattle fence, is consistent with the traditional scheme of the fortifications of the Early Iron Age population. The question of simultaneous or sequential building of the platforms of the hillfort will be addressed in future work. However, the unified planning solution in organizing forms of the fortification structures implies, in our opinion, preliminary design of the whole settlement and its construction at one time.

Keywords: Middle Tobol area, Early Iron Age, hillfort, fortification system, Sargatka culture, stratigraphy, reconstruction.


Bravina R.I., Solovyova E.N., Petrov D.M., Syrovatskiy V.V.

Birch bark in the funeral rite of the Yakuts: a case-study of the Uchugei-Yuryakh burial (15th–17th cc.)

The Uchugei-Yuryakh birch-bark burial, radiocarbon dated to 14801640 cal AD, was discovered in the southern part of the Tuymaada valley, located in the basin of the Middle Lena River, one of the largest rivers in North-Eastern Siberia. This region is traditionally regarded as the area where the most important events of the Yakut history were taking place over many centuries, and as the area associated with the formation of the Yakut ethnic culture. The purpose of this article is to introduce into scientific discourse the results of the study of the Uchugei-Yuryakh birch-bark burial and to analyze traditions of the burials using birch bark among the Yakuts in the 15th19th centuries, according to archaeological, ethnographic, and folklore data. The research objectives are as follows: to determine the level of knowledge of the problem; to identify peculiarities of the grave goods and morphological features of the Uchugei-Yuryakh burial; to identify types of birch-bark burial chambers of the Yakuts on the basis of available data; to trace back their genesis and to determine their semantics, according to the sacral nature of birch bark in the ritual-worldview practice; and to correlate the features of the Yakut burials with archaeological materials from the regions adjacent to Yakutia. Descriptive and historical-comparative methods, as well as scientific methods such as radiocarbon dating of the bones of the deceased, chemical analysis of bead material, botanical analysis of plant material from the burial site were employed in the course of research. A cha-racteristic feature of this burial is the absence of a coffin and the use of birch-bark sheets to form the interior of the grave, which correlates with the legends about the Khoro tribe, who practiced burial in birch-bark sheaths. There are four types of burials identified on the basis of a detailed analysis of the combination of elements of the currently known birch-bark burial structures: 1) in a birch bark sheath consisting of birch-bark sheets placed above and below the buried body; 2) in a birch bark pouch, the sides of which were reinforced by wooden planks set on edge; 3) in a rectangular birch bark sheet, in which the body of the deceased was wrapped to form a case or a cylinder; 4) in a birch-bark sheath sewn in the form of a boat. Analysis of the features of the burial (atypical “facedown” position of the deceased, scanty set of items of the accompanying goods) revealed a special social status of the buried man. The birch-bark sheets laid above and below the deceased in the considered burial, apparently, imitate the shape of the birch-bark basket tyuktyuye. This suggests the ideas of purification of the soul of the deceased after their death and its rebirth. Birch bark was used in the funeral rites of the nomadic societies of South-Eastern and Western Siberia in the Middle Ages. It is suggested that the tradition of using birch bark in Yakut burials either corresponds with the Samoyed-Yenisei component, indirectly adopted from the medieval population of the Lake Baikal area, or emerged due to direct contacts with the Tungus-Samoyed tribes of the Lower Tunguska.

Keywords: Yakutia, the late Middle Ages, burial, birch bark, birch bark covers and bedding, birch bark coffins, Cisbaikalia, Ob-Irtysh.


Tkachev A.A., Tkachev Al.Al.

Turkic burial accompanied by horses from the Upper Irtysh River region

The second half of the 1st millennium AD is associated with the development and formation of the culture of ancient Turkic peoples, who repeatedly developed several large ethnopolitical associations in the steppe zone of Central Asia. Political and cultural influences of the Turkic state formations were perceived not only by the sedentary population of the states that existed in the territory of East and Central Asia, but also by further north peoples who lived in the steppe and taiga zones. Under the Turkic influence, or with their direct participation, the Kimako-Kipchak proto-state association began taking shape in the Upper Irtysh River region in the 7th century AD. The initial stage of this process, features of the funeral rite, and characteristic elements of the material culture of the population living in the region are almost unknown due to insufficient exploration of the monuments of the developmental stage of this polyethnic formation. The paper describes the materials of the barrow cemetery of Menovnoye XII, located in the territory of the Upper Irtysh River, 2.1 km southeast of the village of Menovnoye, Tavrichesky district, East Kazakhstan Province. Under the barrow mound, there was a fence with outbuildings containing burials of a man, two horses, and two dogs. The central burial was robbed. The sacrificial pit, located north of the main grave, contained the burial of two horses, laid on their stomachs with their legs tucked under their bodies and with their heads oriented to the east. The buried person was accompanied by two dogs: one was laid across the ceiling of the grave, while the other was buried in a separate pit in an additional annex. The grave goods found with the deceased represented by astragali, a bronze ring, and a fragment of an iron arrowhead. The horse harness included stirrups and iron bits. The bridle belts were adorned with bronze items: bells, triplet plaques, bronze onlays, and belt tip ends. Bronze buckles with iron tongues, which were tucked into clips, were used to adjust the tension of the headband straps. The funeral rite features and analysis of the materials collected during the study of the memorial complex make it possible to associate the burials of the 3rd barrow of the Menovnoye XII with the Early Kimak antiquities within the framework of the Turkic era and to date them to the second half of the 7th8th century AD.

Keywords: the Upper Irtysh region, Middle Ages, Turks, Kimaks, mound, funeral rites, inventory, reconstruction of horse harness.


Zakh V.A., Tsembalyuk S.I., Sidorova E.V., Yudakova V.S.

Tarkhansky Ostrog of the 17th18th centuries: directions of search and the beginning of research

The purpose of this paper is to report on the process and results of locating the Russian fortress of Tarkhansky Ostrog of the 17th–18th centuries on the basis of information from written sources and cartographic materials directly related to the location of the site. The objectives of the research included preliminary identification of the presumable remains of the object by means of reconnaissance (20 sq. m) archaeological excavations and the use of geophysical methods (magnetometer mapping with Gem Systems GSM-19WG). This paper considers the information from chronicles, cartographic and written sources of the end of the 17th–19th centuries about Tarkhansky Ostrog, situated at the confluence of the Tura and Tobol Rivers in Western Siberia; the key milestones of its search, undertaken by our research team, and its prospective location and identification are reported. The basis of the investigation was formed by scanty written information about Tarkhansky Ostrog and by the cartographic materials of S.U. Remezov, as well as archaeological reconnaissance works carried out in modern times in the area of confluence of the rivers in the Yarkovsky district of Tyumen Oblast. G.F. Miller was mapping the Russian fortress to the place of the Tatar settlement of Tarkhan-kala, not far from the mouth of the river Tura, on the southeast side of Tobol. According to his description, the fortress was founded in 1628 and represented a citadel with a wooden fence and two turrets. P. A. Slovtsov wrote that Trakhansky Ostrog “at the mouth of the river Tura” was founded in 1631. Following the extensive analysis of the descriptions and cartographic materials, and as the result of the terrain analysis, an ancient butte (250 m ´ 40 m) of a suplra-floodplain terrace was discovered in 2020 on a floodplain inundable during seasonal floods to the southwest of the village of Tarkhany. It corresponds with the description of Yatman hill given by G.F. Miller; even today some traces of, seemingly, “Kuchum’s outpost” can be seen on this height. In the southern part of the butte, we carried down a 4 m ´ 5 m reconnaissance dig. The cultural deposit yielded scanty fragments of the Koptyaki Culture, Late Bronze Age, and Medieval ceramics, although mainly represented by shards of crockery manufactured on a potter’s wheel. Of the artefacts, a clasp knife, a brass thimble, a lead bullet, a gun flint, a lead strap seal, and a silver kopeck of Tsar Fyodor III Alekseyevich have been found. All the articles are dated to the 17th c., with the exception of the lead seal which belongs to the 19th c. With a high probability, we assume that the butte is associated with Tarkhansky Ostrog, although one can only talk about its decisive identification after large-scale archaeological investigations.

Keywords: Western Siberia, Lower Tobol River region, confluence of Tobol and Tura, Tarkhansky Ostrog, written sources, cartographic materials, field research.


Berdnikova N.E., Vorobieva G.A., Berdnikov I.M., Shchetnikov A.A., Filinov I.A., Lipnina E.A., Zolotarev D.P.

Geoarchaeology within the system of archaeological research in the territory of Baikal Siberia

The value of geoarchaeology in archaeological research is discussed with an example of Baikal Siberia. Geoarchaeology is considered as an interface between archaeology and Earth sciences comprising a specific set of approaches, methods, and procedures. Nowadays, geoarchaeology constitutes a full-fledged research branch within the world archaeological practice. However, there are some problems in the determination of the essence and the role of geoarchaeology in archaeological studies, especially in Russia. In particular, the question whether geoarchaeology represents an independent discipline or an interdisciplinary approach has not been resolved yet. Moreover, archaeologists often focus on increasing the number of analytical methods to the detriment of their conceptual basis. In the Russian archaeological practice, the uncertain role of geoarchaeology is manifested by its perception as an auxiliary discipline with limited capabilities for the archaeological interpretations. As a result of many years of research on archaeological sites of Baikal Siberia, we have developed our own concept of geoarchaeology as a source study with a transdisciplinary character. It is based on four principles. Firstly, in our opinion, geoarchaeology constitutes a source study discipline with its own research methods. Geoarchaeological assessment represents one of the most important verification methods aimed at the determination of the degree of correspondence between the results of archaeological and natural science data. Secondly, the main object of research is a geoarchaeological object, which is a composite integral system with a mixture of traces of natural and anthropogenic events encrypted in it. We define the layer with cultural remains, where the natural component predominates, as ‘culture-bearing’. The layer with the predominantly anthropogenic component can be called ‘cultural’. Thirdly, geoarchaeology should be a transdisciplinary branch, the nature of which is determined by the complex origins of the geoarchaeological site. Such an amalgamation allows overcoming disciplinary differences and contradictions which leads to the formation of new knowledge levels. At fourth, geoarchaeological research should be based principally on the methods of actualism and stratigraphy in conjunction with overcoming misidentification of objects and phenomena, as well as on the pedolithological and event-driven approaches.

Keywords: geoarchaeology, Baikal Siberia, research concept, actualism, stratigraphy, pedolithologi-cal approach, event approach, transdisciplinarity.