Environment and man in the Late Palaeolithic Middle Ages in the southern Primorye: review  

Lyashchevskaya M.S., Bazarova V.B., Dorofeeva N.A.

 

VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   2 (61)  (2023)

https://doi.org/10.20874/2071-0437-2023-61-2-8

 

              page 95112

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Abstract

Questions concerning the effect of environment on appearance, development and disappearance of archaeological cultures in the territory of southern Primorye have been addressed in the article. The chronological framework of the research is from the Late Palaeolithic through to the Middle Ages. Thirty three natural sections of different genesis have been examined for reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Holocene environment. Palynological, diatomic and radiocarbon methods have been used for their examination. The data on archaeological periods and cultures have been provided based on the analysis of materials of Primorye archaeological sites (including 14 Palaeolithic, 33 Neolithic, 30 Paleometal, and 15 Medieval). Climatic changes have been discussed in terms of their effect on the resource base of people. The earliest Palaeolithic sites, which 14C date approximately 16,000 years BP, were found in Eastern part of Primorye. Climate warming and rise of sea level in the Early Neolithic (ca. 8,000 years 14C BP) facilitated the growth of resource base and expansion of the Neolithic people with sustainable adaptation models in Primorye. This manifested in the appearance of long-term settlements and differentiation of the tool sets. The beginning of the sea regression around 6,000 14 years BP resulted in the extinction of the Boysman Culture. Slight cooling and aridization of the climate 5,6005,400 14C years BP contributed to the appearance of a new cultural tradition involved with agriculture. The long existence of cultures in the Late Neolithic and Paleometal periods, with significant climatic shifts, can be explained by introducing mixed economy model with increased role of the economy of producing type. In the Late Paleometal and Medieval periods, economic, political and military factors had a great impact on communities, along with environment and climatic factors. Correlation of palaeogeographical and archaeological data demonstrated a certain synchronicity of environmental changes and cultural events. Climatic fluctuations led to migrations, variations in local population density, changes in adaptation strategies of the people, and changes of direction of economic activities.

Keywords: southern Primorye, climate change, Palaeolithic Middle Ages, archaeological cultures, Late Pleistocene Holocene, migrations, cultural adaptations, economic activity, resource base.

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Accepted: 05.12.2022

Article is published: 15.06.2023

 

Lyashchevskaya M.S., Pacific Geographical Institute of Far Eastern Branch RAS, Radio st., 7, Vladivostok, 690041, Russian Federation, E-mail: lyshevskay@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5624-3015

 

Bazarova V.B., Pacific Geographical Institute of Far Eastern Branch RAS, Radio st., 7, Vladivostok, 690041, Russian Federation, E-mail: bazarova@tigdvo.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8680-5544

 

Dorofeeva N.A., Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Peoples of the Far-East, Far Eastern Branch RAS, Pushkinskaya st., 89, Vladivostok, 69001, Russian Federation, E-mail: dnaal@list.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1381-9261