VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII   2 (61)  (2023)

Anthropology  

 

Fedotova T.K., Gorbacheva A.K.

Ethnic variability of growth processes through the prism of sexual dimorphism of body dimensions (based on data of early and first childhood children)

Abstract. The study deals with the process of forming of the level and vector of sex somatic differences through early and first childhood, specific peculiarities of sexual dimorphism at 36 years of age as compared to the sexual dimorphism of adults, ethnic heterogeneity of sexual dimorphism dynamics of main anthropometric dimensions (height, weight, chest girth); most adequate algorithms of analysis of data considering age peculiarities. Generalization of vast material on children of Russia and former USSR of 1950s2010s (over 200 samples) allowed to describe convincing conformities of intergroup distribution of sex somatic dimorphism; different by sex vector of significant correlations of standardized levels of sexual dimorphism of dimensions with average population values of dimensions themselves positive for boys , negative for girls, which may be interpreted as confirmation of the contribution of somatic variability of both sexes to forming of sexual differences. When analyzed of data locally, under greater enlargement, sexual dimorphism allowed to estimate inter-ethnic specificity of somatic growth dynamics. In particular, definite sex synchrony of growth dynamics of Russian children regardless of the ecological niche of development through early and first childhood; similar synchrony for some groups of different ethnicity. To fix well known in age physiology effect of decreasing of growth activity before semigrowth spurt, which chronological age differs between populations, for the case of more homogeneous groups. Thus, the results show the sensitivity of sexual dimorphism of body dimensions as the informative indicator of ethnoterritorial diversity of somatic status and growth dynamics through early and first childhood.

Keywords: auxology, total body dimensions, intersex distinctions, children aged 3 and 6 years, wide specter of ethnic groups, anthropological variability.

 

Fominykh .A., Kiselev V.V., Zakharova A.N., Ulanov V.S.

Mikhail Mikhailovich Gerasimov (19071970) and his method of face reconstruction from the skull

The article is dedicated to the 115th anniversary of the birth of Mikhail Mikhailovich Gerasimov, a worldfamous scientist, pioneer of historical and forensic portrait reconstruction, founder of the Plastic Reconstruction Laboratory at the Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union (currently the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences). M.M. Gerasimov created the most famous gallery of sculptural portraits of a number of historical persons, and also recreated the appearances of fossil people from the available bone remains. A man of encyclopedic knowledge, anthropologist, archaeologist and sculptor rolled into one, Gerasimov laid the foundations of craniofacial reconstruction and created his own scientific school. For his invaluable contribution to science and practical anthropology, as well as to forensic medicine and forensic science, the scientist was awarded the State Prize in 1950, as well as the title of Honored Scientist of the RSFSR in 1969. The method of facial reconstruction developed by Gerasimov formed the basis of modern methods equipped with advanced imaging and computer technologies. The laboratory created by M.M. Gerasimov exists and is actively functioning up to the present days, and his students successfully continue the work he started. For decades, the authority of M.M. Gerasimov in anthropological reconstruction has remained unshakable, the method of reconstruction of the appearance of fossil people, developed by the scientist, has received worldwide recognition, and it is fundamental for modern researchers. Followers of M.M. Gerasimov continue to develop and improve the method, which is of paramount importance in paleoanthropology, ethnography, historical sciences, and which has found practical application in forensic science, forensic medicine and plastic surgery.

Keywords: craniofacial reconstruction, Mikhail Mikhailovich Gerasimov, historical portrait reconstruction, personal identification, forensic anthropology.