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archeologii, antropologii i etnografii»
Summary and keywords for the last 2 years
THE BONE ARTIFACTS OF THE UST-BELAYA BURIAL GROUND, AND SOME ISSUES OF CULTURAL INTERACTION IN THE NEOLITHIC ON THE NORTH OF THE FAR EAST
The materials of the Ust-Belaya site and burial ground served as a basis for distinguishing the Ust-Belaya culture of Inland Chukotka by N.N. Dikov. However, the results of investigations of the burial ground were partially published, without morphometric and statistical description of the materials at the barrows, including bone inventory. This work is dedicated to analyze the bone inventory from the burial mound 15 and to identify on its basis the cultural and historical links with archaeological materials of cultures of the Late Neolithic — the Early Metal Age in the North of the Far East and the Pacific North. Based on the results of the technical-typological analysis of bone tools, classification elements of the types of bone tools (often cultural markers) were singled out; the economic life of the Ust-Belaya population has been partially reconstructed (namely, the orientation to inland hunting), the question of the presence of harpoons in graves has been considered; the relations (based on comparative morphological analysis) with coastal cultures of the Koryaks, Itelmen, Aleuts and Eskimos are identified, with the latter showing the greatest similarity in the types of bone inventory. Thus, a detailed analysis of the artifacts of the Ust-Belaya Site provides valuable information on the Late Neolithic of the Inland Chukotka.
Key words: Ust-Belaya burial ground, mound 15, Chukotka, the Neolithic, the Paleometal Age, the Chukchi, the Eskimos, bone and antler tools, technical and typological analysis.
Tkachev A.A., Zimina O.Y., Tkachev Al.Al.
SUZGUN FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT ABATSKOE VI IN ISHIM RIVER BASIN
The article introduces into the scientific circulation the materials of the Late Bronze Age of the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI, located in Abatsky district of Tyumen region. The site contains materials from several cultures of different periods of the Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Age, but this area was most often used in the Late Bronze period by the bearers of the Suzgun traditions, which left a well-fortified settlement. The ruins of the buil-dings, characterizing the features of the house-building of the bearers of the Suzgun culture, were investigated at the site. The buildings were semi-dug-outs with square pits of 70–90 m2, 0,3–0,5 m deep. The premises of the eastern row of the dwellings were interconnected by transitions, some had additional exits both in the center of the settlement and in the direction of the shore fence. Features of the interior design allow us to assume that the buildings had a frame-skeleton base, were heated by fireplaces and open-hearth fires. The inventory is represented by products made of metal, stone, bone, clay. Among them, a bronze knife-dagger with an annular stop, a fragment of a clay mold for casting a kelt, bone whips, a fragment of a piece of psalias, adzes, punching, playing astragals with spent facets, fragments of handle, billets and arrowheads, clay spindles. The ceramic complex of the Suzgun culture at the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI is numerous. The analysis of the ornamentation features of the pottery of the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI revealed close indicators with the main characteristics of the ceramic complex of Borki 1 in the Ishim river basin and a certain affinity with the ornamentation of the ceramics of Chudskaya Gora settlement in the Irtysh river basin. The graph of the connections of the main elements of the ornament allows us to speak about the complex structure of the ornament, which demonstrates that several ornamental patterns exist on the monument, somewhat similar to the models of the ornament of the ceramic complexes of the Irtysh river basin. The totality of the data obtained as a result of the analysis of inventory and ceramics allows us to assume that the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI functioned at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC.
Key words: Ishim river basin, Abatskoe VI, the Suzgun culture, house-building, ceramics.
STONE TOOLS IN THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION OF THE LATE BRONZE AGE IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE TOBOL RIVER BASIN
The article presents the results of a complex analysis of stone tools from the sites of the Late Bronze Age in the forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin. The new data were obtained due to using petrographic, typological, traceological methods. They characterized household productive activities of the ancient population. It was found out that raw materials for stone working are represented, first of all, by the local sources such as small rocks and boulders that could be moved by waterways or are located in colluvial-deluvial sediments, reaching the surface of the Tobol river and the Iset river; secondly, imported raw materials originating from the fields of the Middle and Southern Urals due to the trade-exchange relations. Pebbles and tiles of sandstone, siltstone, quartzite, shale were used for household and industrial needs. Primary processing of the stone was reduced to splitting, and secondary, to lining, abrasive technology, polishing. It was the only design of working platforms, at least of the sides or of the perimeter. A multi-stage scheme was used only for making prestigious things, including still and heavy drilling. A significant portion of the tools is represented by raw debris. Minimizing the time spent on production of tools can be regarded as a progressive feature in the economic activity of the population of the Bronze Age in the Tobol river basin. The analysis of signs of use of the tools, their classification allowed us to determine the function of a significant series of products. Stone tools were involved primarily in metal processing — at the stage of casting, forging and finishing the products. Numerous pestles and passive plates were used for crushing and grin-ding of various materials. In other spheres, the stone tools were used sporadically and played a rather secondary role. As in the leather production they were replaced with bone and ceramic tools; metal tools were widely used. In general, a comprehensive analysis of stone tools from the monuments of the Late Bronze Age showed unifor-mity of materials: virtually no recorded cultural and chronological differences in the range of tools and technologies of their production were found, which shows stability and continuity of the main industries.
Key words: the Bronze Age, forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin, stone tools, raw materials, technology, functional attribution.
Kuzminykh S.V., Degtyareva A.D., Tigeeva E.V.
METAL PRODUCTION OF KRASNOOZERKA AND ITKUL CULTURES OF THE TOBOL-ISHIM INTERFLUVE
The data of an analytical study of copper and bronze products of the eastern (Tobol area) variant of the Itkul culture and the Krasnoozerka culture of the Early Iron Age of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve (37 items) are compared. The metal inventory was studied by the methods of X-ray fluorescemce analysis (a laboratory of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and metallographic analysis (Tyumen Scientific Centre of SB RAS). The main vectors of historical and metallurgical contacts between the Krasnoozerka tribes and the eastern group of the Itkul tribes are traced. There are connections with the eastern, mining Altaic metal-producing centers, where the tin and tin-arsenic ligature came from. Western, Gumeshevskiy sources of copper had a little significance only for the eastern Itkul tribes, the Krasnoozersk tribes had no access to that copper. Relatively weak contacts also took place with the Sayan centers, from where a small amount of arsenic bronze was delivered in the form of ingots and finished products. At the very beginning of the Early Iron Age in the Eastern Tobol river basin and in the Ishim river basin, casting techniques of artificial low-alloy tin-arsenic and tin bronzes were predominately used for manufacturing tools and weapons. Forging as a method of obtaining finished products was practiced in isolated cases.
Key words: Western Siberia, the Early Iron Age, metal production, historical and metallurgical contacts.
Anoshko O.M., Rafikova T.N.
NEW DATA ON THE BURIAL RITUAL OF THE YUDINO POPULATION (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF ZAVODOUKOVSKY-3 BURIAL MOUND)
The article presents the results of a study of the Early Medieval burial mound of Zavodoukovsky-3. Almost complete absence of burial complexes of the Early Middle Ages in the forest-steppe and subtaiga Trans-Urals determines the high importance of the materials obtained for reconstruction of the burial rite of the Yudino culture population and, in the future, for reconstruction of genesis, development of chronology and periodization issues of the Yudino culture. The research materials are interpreted from the authors' point of view on the functioning of the Yudino culture during the VII (possibly, the end of the VI) — XIII centuries AD with distinguishing of several stages within the culture [Rafikova, 2015]. By now, only one burial mound of the Pereimino burial ground has been included into the Molchanovo stage. Zavodoukovsky-3 burial ground can be considered the second funerary complex of that time. The necropolis of Zavodoukovsky-3 is of a mound type, a part of its mounds is located on the area of the Bronze Age ancient settlement of Zavodoukovskoe 11. During the excavation of this settlement complex, one burial mound with a collective burial under it was opened up, as well as three graves were. Spatial arrangement of the latter allows us to assume that they were covered with mounds, which got leveled with the ground surface. The diameter of the mound was 5,6 m, the grave was surrounded by a ritual ditch with a break from the south-west side. The remains of wood dust, found at the bottom of an undisturbed part of the grave, give evidence of a floor. All bu-ried people are lying with their heads towards the south and south-west. The burial ground provided two radiocarbon dates indicating that the object functioned in the VI–VII centuries AD. As to grave goods, bone arrowheads were found, which had been in use throughout the Medieval period. The ceramic collection is represented by the Yudino culture vessels. Interestingly, the ornamentation of dishes is poor and is represented by multirow cord and comb lines, zigzags. Figurative stamps typical of the settlement utensils of that period were not found. This tendency — a poor ornamentation of funerary vessels — is characteristic of not only of the Molchanovo stage of the Yudino culture, but also of the Yudino culture in general, and is confirmed by the materials of all Medieval necropoles.
Key words: forest-steppe Trans-Urals, Zavodoukovsky-3, the Middle Ages, the Yudino culture, burial mound, burial rite.
Pererva E.V., Dyachenko A.N.
A STRESS OR MIGRATION MARKER (A STUDY OF THE AUDITORY CANAL EXOSTOSIS IN THE SKELETON MATERIAL OF THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE POPULATION FROM THE LOWER VOLGA REGION BURIAL GROUNDS)
The paper attempts to analyze the incidences of ear exostoses revealed in the skeletal remains of the Middle Bronze Age population of the Lower Volga region. In total, we have revealed 4 incidences of bone (skeletal) formations in the ear canal. The pathologies were observed predominantly in men over 20 years old. The paper presents a description of paleoanthropological material and provides a detailed interpretation of archaeological sites the skeletal remains originated from. We have examined hypothesis of ear exostosis occurrence in the Middle Bronze Age people of the Lower Volga region. The condition may be caused by stress arising from exposure to climatic factors, a specific lifestyle and regular natural inflammatory ear processes. However, the appearance of ear exostoses in the Middle Bronze Age population in the Lower Volga region is most likely to be explained by relocation of some groups from the Trans-Caucasian, Northern Caucasian or Northern Black sea regions. This assumption corresponds to the results of the paleoecological, archaeological and craniological analysis confirming the likely migration of the population of the Trans-Caucasian, Northern Caucasian and the Northern Black sea regions as a result of an ecological crisis at the end of the III — the beginning of the II millennium BC to the territory of the Lower Volga region.
Key words: auditory exostosis, the Middle Bronze Age, paleopathology, skull.
Zubova A.V., Batanina O.V., Panov V.S., Stepanov A.D., Kishkurno M.S.
MATTA, A NEOLITHIC BURIAL IN CENTRAL YAKUTIA. RESULTS OF AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
The article is dedicated to the results of a complex anthropological investigation of the Late Neolithic Matta burial complex. The burial was found in Megino-Kangalas district of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in 1996. Radiocarbon dates obtained from the human bones fall to the second half of the III millennium BC, the time when two Late Neolithic archaeological cultures — Ymyjakhtakh and Belkachi — existed in the region. Burial customs described in the Matta complex differ from both cultures because no grave goods and unusual position of the skeleton were found. The left arm was missing and a hare leg was put in the grave instead. The fragments of the scull, bones and teeth found in the grave were investigated using a complex research program. That included standard protocols of dental anthropological analysis, used in Russia and abroad (ASUDAS), cranial measurements using Martin’s program, and osteological analysis including measurements of bones and registration of enthesopathies, using Mariotti’s method. The results of analysis reveal that morphological features of the women buried in Matta’s grave were closer to Ymyjakhtakh population than to the Belcachi. The isotopic analysis of bone collagen (δ15N and δ13C) was also made. The results allow a suggestion about the prevalence of animal proteins in the Matta women’s diet, low level of fish proteins, and using local C4 plants for food.
Key words: Yakutia, the Neolithic, the Ymyjakhtakh culture, the Belkachi culture, Matta, osteology enthesopathies, dental anthropology, stable isotopic analysis, paleodiet research.
Poshekhonova O.E., Sleptsova A.V.
THE POPULATION OF THE LOWER TOBOL RIVER IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM THE EARLY IRON AGE TO THE MIDDLE AGES ACCORDING TO CRANIOLOGY
Up to the present time, a few craniological samples of the migration period from the Early Iron Age to the Middle Ages from the Lower Tobol river have been introduced in scientific circulation [Zolotareva, 1957; Bagashev, 2000; Poshekhonova et al., 2016]. In addition, there was no acces for observation of the morphology of the cranium of the buried, due to a widespread practice of artificial cranial deformation in that period. Accumulation of materials of the III–VI centuries AD from this region became necessary to form a general sample that would allow investigating its anthropological specificity. Some important conclusions were a result of an extensive comparison of the series with groups of Western Siberia and adjacent territories of the Early Iron Age — the Middle Ages. No doubt, the population that left the burial grounds in the Lower Tobol river basin in the III–VI centuries AD was multicomponent. Those characteristics, which related to the medieval inhabitants of the taiga regions of Western Siberia, and to the Mongoloid part of the population of the previous period predominate during the morphological stage of the study of the group [Bagashev, 2000, 2017]. The population characterized by low facial and cranial length, a minimal nasal protrusion angle and a medium profiled transference. The migration of the groups from the taiga zone to the south in the III–VI centuries AD is not excluded. The Caucasian component in the ge-neral sample from the Lower Tobol river, which is already registered as a minor impurity, is not clearly observed. As a result, it was established, as well as the Sargatka paleopopulation, which became a basis for the formation of the Early Medieval tribes. However, a biological mixing has led to a leveling of the features inherent in various components, they can no longer be correlated with any morphotype of the Early Iron Age. Also we cannot make a conclusion about the migration of the population in the III–VI centuries AD from Western Siberia to the Urals, although this assumption has been repeatedly described in archaeological literature [Matveeva, 2015; Rafikova, 2011]. There is no reason to assume large-scale advancement of groups from the south or east to the territory of the Tobol river during that period, despite the fact that it was demonstrated by an artefact (appearance of a superstratum nomadic component) [Matveeva, 2016].
Key words: Western Siberia, Lower Tobol river, the Early Middle Ages, the Sargatka, Bacal, Karym, Kushnarenkovo cultures, paleoanthropology, anthropological type.
THE MANSI REINDEER HERDING AS A STRATEGY OF SUSTENANCE: FACTORS OF ORIGIN AND DECLINE
This article examines the phenomenon of nomadic reindeer herding in the Severnaia Sosva river basin. This kind of reindeer herding was borrowed from the tundra nomadic Nenets and widely spread in the taiga zone due to its potential as a new strategy of sustenance. The rapid economic development of the region in the XVIII–XIX centuries intensified the fur industry, which also stimulated the introduction of reindeer sledge as the optimum system of movement in the snow period. Thus, due to reindeer herding the Mansi of the Severnaia Sosva basin received a means of transport. There was a specialization of some households: «mobilization» that has led to some reconfiguration of settlement network and economic migrations. The reindeer mobility contributed to the establishment of close cooperation between the traditional types of land usage and contributed to the cultural and ethnic integration in the Severnaia Sosva basin. The reindeer mobility fully provided social communication in winter, ubiquity and increasing speed of communications facilitated extensive cultural contacts with the neighboring territories. The communication network based on reindeer mobility could act as a safety contour at crisis, which preserved variability of adaptation strategies. The system of reindeer mobility after several stages of reforms in the Soviet period lost its transport function. Skin and meat production of reindeer herding (Komi type) was a major and technically developed area, while social and cultural functions of the reindeer herding for indigenous peoples were ignored. The planned economy demanded only large reindeer herd economy of the Komi and small and disperse reindeer husbandry of the Mansi declined. The last private Mansi reindeer herding farms curtailed nomad practices in 1990-s due to the collapse of the socio-economic system of the district, part of which they were. The way of life of a reindeer herder was non-prestigious and difficult for the youth who grew up in Soviet villages. Social and economic network, based on reindeer mobility, did not receive an adequate replacement in the Soviet period, mechanized personal transport is still not affordable to everybody. It turned out that even a snowmobile can provide previous coverage of the space. Vehicles generally involve completely different ways of interaction between people and space. Paradoxically, the cultural isolation of the indigenous peoples of the Severnaia Sosva (Mansi, Komi, Nenets) to the end of the twentieth century increased, although they began to live in large multiethnic villages provided with telecommunications.
Key words: reindeer herding, mobility, Mansi, Severnaia Sosva, social network, sustenance.
Istomin K.V., Liskevich N.A., Ulyashev O.I.
IZHMA-KOMI REINDEER HERDING: ETHNIC INVARIANTS AND LOCAL VARIATIONS
This article raises a problem of reindeer herding types. On the basis of ethnographic flieldwork data the authors compare technological traits and herding techniques of the «classical» Izhma-Komi reindeer herding of Bolshezemelskaya tundra to those observed in the easternmost and the westernmost local groups of Komi herders. This comparison shows significant differences in reindeer herding technology between the groups. This raises questions about the exact content of the term «Izhma Komi Reindeer herding» and about the spheres of its application. The analysis shows that this term can refer to 1) a technological system of reindeer herding that existed among the Izhma-Komi of Bolshezemelskaya tundra in the second half of the 19th century, but currently does not exist anywhere; 2) a certain set of herding techniques, which is used by some, but not all modern Komi reindeer herders as well as representatives of other ethnic groups nomadizing in the same environmental zone; 3) common traits of material, spiritual and normative culture, which can be observed in most (but again not all) groups of Komi reindeer herders, can be related to reindeer herding, but they do not form a part of reindeer herding economy in the strict sense. The third meaning of the term makes the most sense, but it makes the application of the notion rather limited as far as the studies of traditional economy are concerned.
Key words: Izhma-Komi, Izhma-Komi reindeer herding, reindeer herding technology, reindeer her-ding typology.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES
The article discusses general theoretical issues related to features of the structure and functioning of traditional life support systems. A life support system is understood as a set of interrelated natural and social factors (through satisfaction of material and non-material needs), which determine the nature of the existence of human communities on a certain territory. The overall structure of the systems includes natural, material, cultural and social units. Degree of dependence of life-support systems on particular environmental conditions is suggested as a criteria for their assessment. Due to the existing natural zonality, these systems can have «zonal» or «azonal» character. «Zonal» systems are actualized in strict dependence on climatic conditions and resources inherent to a definite natural area, and the «azonal» ones are formed independently of them. «Zonal» systems are aimed at achieving the best adaptation to the natural and resource conditions in the area of residence of the society, but are highly specialized and closed for innovation. «Azonal» systems are more open, they include universal elements, which allow them to be actualized in different natural areas, but at the same time they are less adapted to specific natural conditions. Thus, the «zonal» systems evolve towards strengthening the connection-dependence of human groups with the environment, and «azonal» — towards autonomy from them. Therefore, it can be said that there are two development strategies of life support systems. It is suggested to distinguish two main phases in the development of the systems: «productive» and «reproductive». The definition of phases is based mainly on the predominance of the process of innovation or stereotyping in the system functioning (at a certain time interval). Throughout the life cycle, the formation of a structure and nature of the functioning of life support systems take place, the optimal ways of meeting needs of the society for resources in certain natural and climatic conditions are mastered and selected. In the reproductive phase, there are, mainly, consolidation and development of forms, methods and manners of the activity inherited from the previous generations. The concepts of «fluctuations», «trend» and «transformation» are used to assess the nature and extent of the current changes taking place in the system.
Key words: life-support system of traditional human societies, zonal and azonal systems, productive and reproductive phases of development.
ATTRIBUTES OF POWER IN TOP WEARS OF GUARDIAN SPIRITS OF THE NORTHERN KHANTY IN THE XX — BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY
The article is dedicated to a study of top wears of guardian spirits. It is based on the materials obtained du-ring ethnographic expeditions to the areas of residence of a northern group of the Khanty, and on the items from a museum collection. The aim of the study is to reveal symbols of power and imitations of uniform in the top wear of the guardian spirits. In order to do this, on the basis of a typological analysis, signs which distinguish imitations from traditional clothing were identified, and then initial forms of the uniform were determined. It was revealed that clothing found at the sanctuaries of the Northern Khanty differs in its cut and decorations from the traditional clothes. It is represented by two types. The first type includes clothing of a uniform type, the second one, clothes which imitate the latter. The article presents three imitations, their characteristic features are described, which allow us to correlate them with the uniforms of a certain historical period. The arrangement of clothing buttons in pairs in two (three) rows was considered as the most characteristic feature of the clothes under consideration. Based on these features, a historical analysis of the clothing garment was carried out comparing it with military and civil uniforms of the past. As a result, it was found out that, according to the main features, the top wears of the guardian spirits of the Northern Khanty under consideration are to the most extent similar to the frock coats widely used in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century as top and underway clothing among various officials and employees. It was also determined that a distinctive feature of such a garment was metal hemispherical buttons sewn in a row on each side. Such buttons often had a professional and a state emblem, a sign. If a sign correlated with the Khanty traditional symbols, such buttons were granted a higher status. If it was possible, they were exchanged, bought and used to decorate the clothing of the guardian spirits.
Key words: clothes, costume, dressing gowns, jacket, frock coats, the Northern Khanty, guardian spirits, uniform, buttons, symbols of power, imitation.
Poplavskiy R.O., Templing V.I., Cherepanov M.S., Shisheliakina A.L.
ADAPTATION OF SOCIOCULTURAL COMMUNITIES IN TRANSITION PERIODS OF MODERNIZATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING A RUSSIAN REGION
Modernization paradigm is one of the most authoritative methodological paradigms in the social sciences which explain patterns of human development. Being formed in the second half of the XX century and having undergone a long path of development by now, it focuses on explaining socio-economic, socio-cultural and socio-political changes. The main research trends within this paradigm are verification of the former and creation of new theories of modernization on the basis of data analysis covering changes in dozens of countries over a period of several decades, and specification of «big theories» by means of historical, sociological, cultural and other studies at the local level. The purpose of this work is to develop a conceptual framework for the study of modernization within the second trend. Taking into account the preceding researches, we suggest a conceptual framework for studying the mechanisms of socio-cultural changes in Western Siberia during the XVII–XXI centuries. Historiographic analysis of bibliography on the subject of modernization has revealed both a consensus formed up to date considering interpretation of this concept, and a wide variability of approaches to the study of the process itself, conditioned by methodological solutions on the spatial object and the societal complexity of modernization. This, in turn, determines the diversity of periodizations of this process. The authors of the article outline the boundaries of their conceptual framework for the study of socio-cultural changes in Western Siberia during the XVII–XX centuries and define modernization as a process of changes in the basic spheres of social life (socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-political) which leads to the expansion of human opportunities. In this regard, socio-cultural changes are considered as a part of complex modernization and they are understood as a change in values, norms and practices of communication. Socio-cultural communities acting on the territory of Western Siberia are defined as a social object of modernization. The process of transformations in values, norms and practices of communication at the level of sociocultural communities under the influence of changing conditions which provide human security (socioeconomic changes, wars, ecological disasters) is explained by the authors as cultural adaptation. Transitional periods in West Siberia's modernization from the XVII till the XX centuries are determined in order to chronologically focus the research on cultural adaptation at the level of sociocultural communities.
Key words: modernization, transitional periods of modernization, sociocultural communities, cultural adaptation.
«THE CENTRE OF ALMOST EVERYTHING»: (ON THE EXAMPLE OF KHANTY-MANSI AND YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS OKRUGS)
The author focuses on educational boom in the Tyumen North in 1990–2000s which was manifested a wide-scale « small towns when in almost each of them. À structure which incorporates a wide range of actors such as «basic» university management, rotation lecturers, students and parents' community, municipal board, representatives of local industrial enterprises, business community etc. closely connected to almost every aspect of the life in a small town. It wasbuilt into thetown’s were not limited to rendering educational services. During the period under consideration, it was an assembly location of the local community. Among other things, small town and remote areas were provided through the activities of . The activities of the in the period of the booming education in the Tyumen North have still not received a comprehensive evaluation. If anyting could be said for sure about the affiliated part of a small town’s sociocultural landscape.
Key words: small town, the Tyumen North, affiliated migration .
Arefyev S.P.,Zakh V.A.
TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES AS AN INDICATOR OF FLUCTUATION OF WATER LEVEL IN THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM IN THE BEGINNING OF THE XIX — XXI CENTURY
The article analyzes tree-ring chronologies of contemporary pines growing on different hypsometric marks in relation to the modern level of the Andreevskoe lakes, on the low-ridges of terrace-like formations, floodplain lowlands and riams. The tree-ring chronologies from these areas, their correlation, dependence of the width of the rings on various natural factors, such as fires, harmful insects and fluctuation of groundwaters itself, reflecting the level of lakes in the Andreevskoe lake system are described. As a result of the study, 8 tree-ring chronologies were made, ecological and biological regularities were found out determining the formation of annual pine rings in the lake area due to a change in its level. The longest chronology of the lake coast for 197 years (since 1821) confirmed low water level in the lake, recorded on the map of surveyor Vasily Filimonov, created in November 1829. The use of chronologies was analyzed based on the difference in width of the annual pine rings according to the principle of contrasting biotopes (high — low, dryland — peatland), limited possibilities for reconstructions of this type based on individual ring chronologies are shown. A 174-year-old difference chronology (since 1843) was created, verified by a number of historical evidence, results of studies of lakes in the south of Western Siberia and cartographic material of the recent decades. The difference created chronology is recommended as a basis for reconstruction of the lake's level regime (possibly in combination with certain ring chronologies), although the fluctuation amplitudes can be specified for further dendrochronological reconstructions using old construction timber and fossil wood (in peat bogs).
Key words: Andreevskoe lake system, tree-ring chronologies, annual rings, fires, harmful insects, lake water level.
Bikmulina L.R.,Yakimov A.S., Kupriyanova E.V., Chechushkov I.V., Bazhenov À.I.
GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF THE ASHY LAYER (ZOL'NIC) AT THE BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENT OF STRELETSKOE-1 IN THE FOREST-STEPPE TRANS-URALS
The paper summarizes the results of a geo-chemical study of the soil samples collected from the ashy layer (zol’nic) at the Bronze Age settlement Streletskoye I in the Southern Trans-Urals and from the nearby natural deposition. The site is located on the left bank of the Ui river in Chelyabinsk region, Russia. The data on the distribution of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, sulfur, iron, titanium, rubidium, vanadium, cobalt, zinc and strontium are considered. The comparison demonstrates that concentrations of such elements as phosphorus, calcium, manganese, sulfur, rubidium exceed background values 2–3 times, while levels of potassium, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, and strontium are below background values. At the same time, humus of buried soil underneath the ashy layer demonstrates highest values that exceed the usual one 2–4 times. The statistical analysis (t-statistics) supported the conclusion of very different proportions of elements between the cultural layer and the natural soil deposition, except for vanadium, cobalt, and strontium. There are two zones of element accumulations within the cross-section of the cultural layer, which are the ashy layer and the humus horizon. The conducted analysis contributes to the understanding of the subsistence strategies and craft. The high levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, possibly sulfur and zinc suggest the dominance of livestock breeding. The pre-sence of pottery production indicated by concentrations of manganese, iron, titanium, rubidium, strontium, vanadium and cobalt which could come with raw materials (clay) and broken ceramics. The discovered ashy layer is interpreted as a midden where wastes were repeatedly burned. Thus, layers of ash are complex objects that accumulate information of the economic activities and are unique for each ancient settlement.
Key words: ashy layer (zol'nic), chemical element, cultural layer, soil, t-statistics, Student's test, the Bronze Age, settlement, the Trans-Urals.
FOOD RESOURCES AND LIFE SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE III MILLENIUM BC ON THE TERRITORY OF THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM
Based on a reconstruction of paleolandscapes, the food resource base of the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system in the 3rd millennium BC is described. The complexes of the Shapkul, Bairyk and Andreevskaya cultures are analyzed. Their bearers represent typical groups with appropriating type of economy, based mainly on fishing with nets and, possibly, with traps. Fishing with nets is proved by settlements located, as a rule, near the water, spreading of a cultural layer containing fragments of clay weights on the coast of lakes. Hunting, most likely, played an auxiliary role. The diet could include meat of ungulates and birds, fish, eggs and various wild plants. Assuming that energy demands per day for a man are 2700 kcal, and for a woman are 2100 kcal, we can conclude that a person needed to have an annual diet consisting of approximately 73 kg of animal meat, 73 kg of poultry meat, 365 kg of fish and 730 eggs for a normal life-support. Wild plants, apparently, also formed part of the menu, but it is difficult to calculate their quantity. Keeping in mind the fullness of resources of the Andreevskoe lake system, we believe that a maximum of 250 people could live on its territory at a time, and taking into account possible volume of resources procured, about 130 people. Most likely, they lived in one or two villages. This number is close to the number of inhabitants of non-Slavic yurts according to the information given on the maps of 1701 by S. Remezov and of 1829 by V. Filimonov. In our opinion, the assumption that an increase in the number of monuments in the III millennium BC is related to an increase in the population engaged in fishing with nets, is unfounded.
Key words: Tobol river basin, Andreevskoe lake system, resources, life support, population size.
Sergusheva E.A., Moreva O.L.
AGRICULTUE IN SOUTHERN PRIMORYE IN THE I MILLENNIUM BC ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOBOTANICAL DATA FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF CHEREPAKHA-13
The paper presents the results of an archaeobotanical study of charred seeds obtained with the water flotation technique on the site of Cherepakha-13. The multilevel site is located on the western seacoast of Ussuri Bay in Southern Primorye. The area of the site was totally excavated (7616 ì2) in 2015. Remains of 52 pit-dwellings, one land based dwelling, 114 pits with different functions and 26 burials were unearthed at the site. The site deposits content materials of five chronological periods: the Zaisanovskaya archaeological culture of the Late Neolithic, the Lidovskaya culture of the Bronze Age, the Yankovskaya and the Krounovskaya cultures of the Early Iron Age, the Middle Age (XII c.). The vast majority of the constructions' remains and archaeological materials belong to the Yankovskaya culture. According to the analysis of the ceramic collection of the site and its location in pit-dwellings, we distinguished two chronological periods of the site occupation by the Yankovskaya culture population. More than 150 litres of soils were studied by the water flotation in pit-dwellings of the 1st (¹ 10, 17, 18) and the 2nd (¹ 1, 48) periods of occupation by the Yankovskaya culture and from a pit-dwelling (¹ 19) of the Krounovskaya culture. 420 seeds of plants were obtained from 20 samples. Cultural plants seeds were found in all pit-dwellings. Seeds of foxtail and broomcorn millets dominated among them. We obtained the most numerous millet seeds from the samples of the pit-dwelling ¹ 48, which is 87 % of all seeds in the dwelling. One seed of nuked barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum) and one seed of soybean (Glycine max) were found in the same deposit. But there were not many remains of cultural millets in the deposits of the 1st occupation period by the Yankovskaya culture. Thus, our data demonstrates an increasing role of the millet agriculture in the 2nd period. Seeds of barnyard millet were discovered in the Krounovskaya culture pit-dwelling. It is the first finding of millet of such species in the Prehistoric time of Primorye. The archaeobotanical data from Cherepakha-13 site testify a significant role of the agriculture in the subsistence system of the Yankovskaya culture population that chose to live on the seacoast. Our data do not confirm the importance of barley for the Krounovskaya culture population.
Key words: agriculture, water flotation, seeds, foxtail, broomcorn, barnyard millets, naked barley, soybean, the Early Iron Age, I mil. BC, the South of the Russian Far East.
Sizov O.S., Idrisov I.R., Molchanova K.V.
AN ATTEMPT TO RECONSTRUCT THE ORIGINAL LANDSCAPES USING A LARGE-SCALE MAPPING OF THE TERRITORY OF THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM (INTERFLUVE OF THE TURA AND PYSHMA RIVERS)
The retrospective analysis of geosystems is one of the most important methods of implementation of the historicism principle and assessment of conditions of use of the nature in the Holocene. The initial stage of such studies is analysis of the modern landscape structure and its detailed mapping. The purpose of the research is to develop methods for inventory and mapping of modern landscapes in the reconstruction of the original (natural) properties of anthropogenic complexes based on the interpretation of the Earth remote sensing data using geoinformation systems. The paper presents the results of a large-scale mapping of the restored landscapes of the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system (the interfluve of the Tura and Pyshma rivers). In the process of inventory and mapping of the landscape structure, special attention was paid to the definition of invariant features of landscapes. Vegetation and microrelief are the defining properties in the selection of species of the tracts. In the course of the landscape study, based on heterogeneous materials (space images, topographic maps, field surveys), 170 species of tracts belonging to 9 types of terrain were identified. Based on the experience of deciphering natural complexes and geobotanical studies using DDZ, the spectral angle methods (Spectral angle) and the maximum likelihood method (Maximum Likelihood). Classification with training was carried out in the following software packages: ArcGIS 10.3, ENVI 5.3 and Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin (SCP) module for QGIS 2.18.2. A large-scale map of reconstructed landscapes obtained in digital form is a necessary basic element for spatial modeling and further studies of the life support system and dynamics of the ancient population of the Andreevskoye Lake system and the adjacent territory of the Tura and Pyshma interfluve. A detailed cartographic database contains detailed information on the relief, type of soil and vegetation for each elementary landscape allotment, which will continue to use the resulting map as a factual basis for the evaluation of the territory resource base of the ancient and the modern population. Creation of a cartographic database by means of geoinformation systems will further involve a variety of tools for modeling and spatial analysis to solve research (archaeological) problems.
Key words: reconstruction of the original landscapes, large-scale mapping, decoding, remote sen-sing, paleolandscapes, resource base, life support system.
TECHNOLOGY OF POTTERY PRODUCTION AMONG THE CHERCASKUL CULTURE POPULATION IN THE LOWER TOBOL BASIN (ON THE MATERIALS OF THE SETTLEMENT OF KHRIPUNOVSKOYE 1)
The article presents the results of technical and technological analysis regarding a pottery complex of the Cherkaskul culture from the settlement of Khripunovskoye 1 located in the forest-steppe area of the Tobol River basin. The analysis is made within the framework of historical and cultural approach and the structure of the pottery industry, developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The conducted research revealed heterogeneity of the traditions that existed among Cherkaskul potters of the settlement Khripunovskoye 1. The potters used two types of soft raw material: clays and silty clays. Analysis of the moulding masses showed a variety of artificial impurities, which were used by the potters. Chamotte used with various organic impurities was a dominant tradition, but also they used talc, crushed quartz, calcined bone, crushed river moluscan shells. The construction of «seed-bodies» of the vessels was manufactured in accordance with the bottom-capacitive program. The vessels were made by the method of sculptural modeling on a plane and with the help of a form-basis. The «seed-bodies» and the hollow bodies of the vessels were constructed using patches. The surface treatment of the ceramics was carried out mostly by a simple method of smoothing with hard tools, after which the walls of the vessels were polished. The vessels were fired in simple hearths. Basing on the data obtained and comparing them with information from other territories, it is possible to say that groups of the Cherkaskul population in the Lower Tobol region appeared as a result of their migrations, most likely from the territories associated with the Ural region.
Key words: Lower Tobol basin, the settlement of Khripunovskoye 1, the Chercaskul culture, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation.
Orfinskaya O.V., Tolmacheva E.G., Belova G.A.
LATE ANTIQUE TEXTILES FROM THE GRAVE 213 (DEIR AL-BANAT, FAYUM, ARE)
This paper is aimed to study Egyptian textiles from the grave 213 dated to 5–7 AD that belongs to the Deir al-Banat necropolis (Fayum). These textile finds are published for the first time which would extend our know-ledge on Egyptian Late Antique burial custom and would further enrich our understanding of the function that textiles had in Egyptian funeral practice. Moreover, the data from this burial would help us to study Egyptian weaving technologies of that time. The textile finds from the grave 213/1 are rather diverse. The male body from the grave was stretched out on its back with the head towards the west. It was dressed in three wool and one (closest to the body) linen tunics and wrapped in the fourth wool tunic. A rectangular linen cloth covered the face of the deceased. The head was resting on a pillow, under which an unfinished wool rectangular textile was found. A similar pillow was placed at the foot of the man. Fourteen textiles of different quality were used to wrap the body. Twelve of them were of a poor quality («wrappings» or «coarse funeral shrouds»). Two other textiles from the upper layer of the «wrappings» (probably, reused furnishing textiles) quite differed from the ordinary coarse shrouds. There are different groups of textiles: reused furnishing textiles, coarse funeral shrouds, tunics. Coarse shrouds with simple decorations were woven presumably on a vertical loom with two beams. This kind of loom was rather primitive and could have been used in small workshops specializing in production of large number of low quality textiles for burial needs. The woven-to-shape three-piece tunics and furnishings were not produced on the same loom as the coarse shrouds. Both one-piece and three-piece tunics have starting/finishing borders and were attached to a wooden bar or string but not simply looped around the beam. All these objects were rather heavy and demanded certain skills from a weaver. Besides large and complicated looms, Egyptian weavers could have probably used rather small and simple devices such as a band loom with a rigid heddle. Textiles of different functions were used in burial practice. Among them were both textiles specially intended for burial (coarse funeral shrouds) and reused lifetime items (tunics, furnishing textiles). From other archaeological sources, it is known that Egyptians of Late Antiquity did not have special garments for funeral. The economic context of the textiles from the grave 213 is rather unclear. Some of the objects could have been produced in small household workshops, the others demand professional skills.
Key words: Late Antique Egyptian textiles, burial custom, textile technologies, «Coptic textiles».
Berlina S.V., Kostomarov V.M., Rafikova T.N., Novikov I.K., Tkachev À.À.
THE MEDIEVAL SETTLEMENT OF ISETSKOIE 2 IN THE ISET RIVER BASIN
The article deals with materials of excavations at Isetskoie 2, an unfortified settlement of the Middle Ages, located in the Lower Iset River basin. The published materials are important due to poor previous study of unfortified settlements of the Bakal culture. The place is single-layered which makes it a valuable source for reconstruc-ting house-building traditions and material culture of the Medieval population of the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals. A representative series of radiocarbon dates allows us to refresh a problem of chronology of the Medieval antiquities of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve, indicating that the Bakal culture functioned throughout the Early and High Middle Ages. Fifteen buildings were studied during excavations at the settlement, three types of buil-dings were distinguished: above-ground buildings with log-framed or light-framed walls and deepened framed and pillared buildings. Dwellings erected in log technique were found at a site of the Bakal culture for the first time. Among the buildings, both temporary seasonal dwellings and outbuildings are singled out. The ceramic material of the settlement is represented by vessels of the Bakal culture, separate fragments of Kushnarenkovo dishes which often accompany the Bakal complexes in the territory of Western Siberia, are found as well. Statistical analysis of the ceramic material and a series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the settlement functioned for a long period of time, in the III–XII centuries AD. A lack of system in arrangement of the buildings, weak saturation of the cultural layer, absence of fireplaces inside the buildings, characteristics of the inventory allow us to conclude that the settlement was seasonal.
Key words: Middle Ages, forest-steppe Trans-Urals, the Bakal culture, dwellings, ceramics, chronology.
Tataurov S.F., Tikhonov S.S.
SPECIFICS OF PLANIGRAPHY ÀND IMPROVEMENT OF A SIBERIAN TOWN IN XVI–XVIII CENTURIES
The results of 2007–2016 archaeological excavations of Tara and historical materials on the town planigraphy in the period under consideration gave birth to this work. The study made it possible to reconstruct the history of the territorial development of the town from its foundation until the adoption of an unified urban plan in 1775. The survey allowed to identify the principles of foundation and development of a Siberian Russian city at the end of XVII–XVIII centuries. During the work, we tried to determine the importance of such factors as defenses, availability of transit routes, fire safety, etc. for the development. In the course of excavations at Tara fortress, archaeologists from the Omsk Branch of Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS excavated about 1500 m2 of the cultural stratum with a capacity of 2 m and more. We received information about different aspects of the culture of Tara population at the end of the XVI–XVIII centuries, including about the fortress planigraphy and conditions of its streets. Furthermore, considering the geographical features of the location of Tara stronghold, the authors have studied the roads leading to it. The article presents the results of these works considering the roads leading to Tara fortress from different angles, transitions across the rivers that surrounded it, Tara streets, transformation of planigraphy of the fortress in the late XVIII century. Tara fortress was built with the use of natural barriers. From the West, it was well protected by a marsh and a river. From the East, the road to the castle was complicated by the Irtysh floodplain and the Arkarna River's tributaries. There were only three roads to get to the city, which were covered by the towers of the fortress. Nowadays, these roads turned into streets and are used to travel more often than others located between them. By the end of the XVIII century, Tara had gradually become one of the most comfortable and clean town in Siberia. The town dealt with fires, and arrangements for drainage of wetlands solved the problem of mud at Tara streets. In general, the system of roads leading to Tara started to develop since the fortress was established, correct geometric planigraphy of the town began to take shape in the second half of the eighteenth century, taking into account the existing road. At the same time, indiscriminate housing development disappeared and improvement of the streets began.
Key words: archaeology of Russian Western Siberia, Tara fortress, spatial archaeology, transport, planigraphy.
ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF STUDYING CORRESPONDENCE OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS (A LETTER FROM N.N. BORTVIN TO K.V. SALNIKOV)
The paper contains the analysis of a letter of archeologist N.N. Bortvin to archaeologist K.V. Salnikov. The text is filled with precious information on the history of archaeology in the Urals and in the Trans-Urals in the 1920–1930th years, and information about known archaeological sites of the Southern Urals and Trans-Urals.
Key words: Southern Urals, Trans-Urals, history of Ural archaeology, archaeological sites, museums of the Urals.
Solodovnikov K.N., Tur S.S.
ON ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE NEOLITHIC POPULATION OF THE OB RIVER BASIN NEAR BARNAUL (BASING ON THE MATERIALS OF THE BURIAL GROUND OF FIRSOVO XI)
The results of a study of Neolithic skulls from the burial ground of Firsovo XI, on the right bank of the Ob River near the city of Barnaul, are presented. The restoration resulted in obtaining craniometric characteristics of 7 male and 3 female skulls of different degrees of preservation. The series is characterized by a structure of the facial skull, intermediate between the Caucasoids and the Mongoloids, it contains skulls of a more Caucasoid and a more Mongoloid appearance. According to the results of an intergroup comparison, the Firsovo XI series differs greatly from the Afanasyevo culture series and the similar cultural types of the Altai Mountains, which confirms the conclusion that the Afanasyevo population of Southern Siberia has no local roots. The craniological series under consideration is very similar to the synchronous groups from the Northern foothills of the Altai (burial grounds of Ust-Isha, Itkul, Solontsi V, etc.). There is also a great morphological similarity to the Neolithic series of the more Northern areas of the Ob River Basin near Novosibirsk and Kamen', Kuznetsk Depression, Baraba forest-steppe zone, the Irtysh River basin near Omsk, Northern Kazakhstan, and the forest-steppe Trans-Urals. The similarity to the synchronous groups of the Upper Lena and the Upper Angara is also revealed, as a reflection of racial and genetic connections between the population of the Altai foothill regions and the Neolithic population of the Circum-Baikal region. The male group under consideration also demonstrates a significant morphological similarity to the Neolithic and Early Eneolithic craniological materials from the burial grounds of Lebiazhinka IV and V, Chekalino V, S''iezzhe I in the Volga-Ural interfluve. A hypothesis is made that, before the Bronze Age, an anthropological community of ancient population of the plain forest-steppe zones of Eurasia with intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial features existed in the territories of Western Siberia and Eastern regions of Eastern Europe. Besides, the group, which left the burial site of Firsovo XI, especially its female part, demonstrates presence of brachicranian component, also with intermediate Mongoloid-Caucasoid racial features. Probably, it belongs to the Southern Eurasian anthropological formation, which determined the anthropological composition of the local population of the Altai-Sayan Highland in the Neolithic — Late Bronze Age.
Key words: the Neolithic, Firsovo XI, paleoanthropology, craniometry, Caucasoids, Mongoloids, Western Siberia, forest-steppe zone.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Hakopyan N.G., Zhamkochyan À.S., Engibaryan A.A., Hovanisyan À.À.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS OF THE IX–XI CENTURIES FROM THE MONUMENT OF DVIN (ARMENIA) WITH GROWTH DISORDERS
Irrespective of era and habitat, people paid more attention to extraordinary and unlike phenomena, than to everywhere found and usual ones. This article is about unusual individuals of the 9th–11th centuries from Dvin, among which traces of delay of growth processes were revealed. The paper analyzes individual features of craniological, cranioscopic, odontological, osteological and paleopathological characteristics of two individuals. Basing on a comprehensive anthropological study of finds, an attempt to reconstruct the way of life of the buried was made. Due to the lack of bones of the post-cranial skeleton of the individual No. 1, we can state only nanocephalia. Markers of an incidental stress (hypoplasia of enamel, cribra orbitalia) in this individual indicate systemic influence of negative factors, such as infections, frequent periods of starvation which interfered with normal development of the organism in the childhood. The skeleton No. 2 is characterized by the Laron-type dwarfism (Laron syndrome). The research of bones of the skeleton showed presence of serious pathologies, unrepresentative for so young age, related to excessive exercise stresses. An optional version of the activity is possible: the dwarf was a clown-acrobat. Harris lines, or growth arrest lines are clearly seen on Õ-ray images of two diaphyses of tibial bones. Another marker of growth delays (enamel hypoplasia) is also found in the individual No. 2. Existence of one of the diet indicators (odontolith) and absence of caries indicate similarity of ingredients of the meals of two individuals, and tying, perhaps, proteinaceous origin of their food.
Key words: Armenia, Dvin, IX–XI centuries, ðaleoanthropology, craniology, odontology, osteology, paleopathology, Laron syndrome, gistrions.
MANSI SACRIFICIAL KERCHIEFS (TYPOLOGY AND FUNCTIONS)
The aim of this study is to systematize information on kerchiefs that the Mansi present to the guardian spirits. The analysis is based on the typological method. The article analyzes materials kerchiefs are made of and their ornaments, ways of throwing on and tying, their functions. The research is based on information gathered during ethnographic expeditions, studies of museum collections and ethnographic literature. It is found out that kerchiefs are the most common type of sacrificial offerings at contemporary Mansi shrines. Regardless of sex, they are presented to female and male guardian spirits. A coin tied into a corner is a distinctive feature of sacrificial kerchiefs. Kerchiefs with pendants made of seed beads, beads, bells or small bells sewn on have a special status. Two types of sacrificial kerchiefs are distinguished: home-made and tailor-made kerchiefs. Currently, the most common kerchiefs are tailor-made. It was determined that sacrificial kerchiefs perform a number of functions at sanctuaries. They form part of a costume of the images of guardian spirits as headdresses, belts, bedspreads, etc. Sometimes they completely replace clothes in the images of guardian spirits. Kerchiefs often form a basis of a figure depicting a guardian spirit. They are used to cover the skin of a bear during a bear feast. It is found out that kerchiefs exercise magical (apotropaic and carpogonical) functions in family rites.
Key words: the Mansi, clothes, costume, kerchiefs, shawls, adornments, guardian spirits, sanctua-ries, fabrics, typological analysis, ethnographic researches, images of guardian spirits, magic functions.
TERMINOLOGY AND CONTENT OF RITUALS OF KOMI-PERMYAK WEDDING
The article is dedicated to a study of some components of a wedding ceremony of the Komi-Permyaks. Several problems are solved in this research. First, wedding terms which refer to wedding acts and rituals are divided into groups. Secondly, wedding traditions of the Komi-Permyaks and Russians are compared. Completion of these tasks allows us to identify analogies with the Russian local customs and ethnic specificity of the wedding ritual culture of the Komi-Permyaks. Most of the terms describing wedding acts and rituals of the Komi-Permyaks are borrowed Russian words. In addition, there are designations in the Komi-Permyak language, some of which appeared due to the influence of the Russian language, other terms can be considered as a result of the development of their own language as a part of ritual culture. The system of wedding terminology of the Komi-Permyaks is quite complicated, because it combines vocabularies of different languages and different local versions of the terms for the same ritual. The article analyzes in more detail the wedding rituals and acts which have an ambiguous meaning or, according to their names, suggest an ethnic specificity. Content analysis of the customs shows that the most important moment — action or its symbolic importance — is reflected in the name of a ritual. Perhaps, existence of different names of the same ritual is a result of changes in the wedding ceremony on different territories among local groups of the Komi-Permyaks. Comparative analysis of the Komi-Permyak and Russian wedding traditions indicates that more similarities are observed with those Russians who lives in Kama region and in the European North. A part of the wedding rituals and acts discussed in the article can be considered unique Komi-Permyak traditions, as they have no analogies found among the Russian customs. Among them are acts like eating dumplings at the bachelorette party, treating to people who were not invited to the wedding (kudpydes), a custom when a mother-in-law gives her daughter-in-law a handkerchief, and puts it on her shoulders or on newlyweds’ shoulders.
Kåy words: wedding ceremony, Komi-Permyaks, wedding terminology, engagement, dumplings, bathing of the bride.
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF THE YAMAL NENETS PEOPLE ACCORDING TO ALL-RUSSIAN CENSUSES OF THE 21ST CENTURY
The article is dedicated to demographic characteristics of Siberian Nenets people and identifies their ethno-demographic potential in the 21st century. The work is based on a set of published and unpublished data from the All-Russian Population Censuses of 2002 and 2010 for the Nenets people living in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. We used ideas about demographic security of Novosibirsk Economic and Sociological School and of K.B. Klokov and S.A. Khrushchev about ethnoses as demoi and ethnoses as societies. Common and specific demographic features of the Nenets are identified, the indicators characteristic to the Nenets are compared with other ethnic groups, mainly Russians. The article considers both dynamics of the number of Nenets in general, and in towns and rural areas of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, attention is drawn to the peculiarities of formation of an urban group of the Nenets. Analyzing demographic processes and demographic behavior, we focus, first of all, on the characteristics of age and sex structures and the number of children born by a woman during her life. In addition, indicators characterizing natural population changes in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District by certain nationalities, including the Nenets, are provided for 2000–2008. It is noted that the nature of changes of the indicators in the first decade of the XXI century demonstrates that both the Nenets living in villages and the nomads perceive demographic stereotypes of behaviour of the dominant society. On the whole, the Nenets in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District are safe from depopulation. According to data from the All-Russian censuses, there is a favorable demographic situation among them in the first decade of the 21st century. But current trends point out that some demographic risks exist, primarily those related to the number of children in the families. The nature of the quantitative indicators suggests that demographic behavior of the Nenets is determined by family values of the dominant majority.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, demography, All-Russian census, age-sex structure of population, urban and rural population, town, village, number of children.
Nanzatov B.Z., Sodnompilova M.M.
TUNKA BURYATS IN THE 19TH CENTURY: ETHNIC COMPOSITION AND SETTLEMENT
The article deals with a study of ethnic composition of the Tunka Buryats and features of their settlement on the territory of the former Tunkinskaya Steppe Duma, which was split into four parts called Torskaya, Koimorskaya, Kharibyatskaya indigenous authorities and Okinskoe separate clan district in 1890. Creation of the first Buryat territorial administrative units — Mirskay izba and Steppe bureau (Stepnaya kontora) and their further evolution to Steppe Dumas led to formation of ethno-territorial groups of the Buryat people, the identity of which remains relevant to the present time. One of these groups are the Tunka Buryats. The ethnic composition of the Tunka Buryats occupying Russian border area with Mongolia is of great interest as they are tribes living in the border region. Buffer status of the territory along the East Sayan Mountains led to the emergence and settlement of different Mongol, Turkic, Samoyedic tribes, such as Khurkhut, Dalakhai, Khongodor, Khoykho, Chaldar, Terte, Shosholok and others in this area during different periods of history. The tribe of Irkit also lived among the Bu-ryats. Its genesis is connected to the Samoyedic peoples who had lived in the Sayan region long before Turkic and Mongolic tribes appeared there. Some of them preserved traditional reindeer husbandry in the 19th century. This study continues a discussion on ethnicity and origin of small Buryat tribes and their relations with the Mongolic and Turkic tribes of Central Asia and South Siberia. Author's version of their origin is based on historical and linguistic analysis of ethnonyms of these tribes, which form an ethno-territorial group of the Tunka Buryats. Reconstruction of network of settlement of the Buryat ethnic groups on the territory under consideration in the 19th century allowed us to demonstrate the most complete picture of settlement of the Tunka Buryats and Irkits, and to show the maximum number of uluses and villages, which existed there at the end of the 19th century. The author's maps also show status of the territory, ratio and density of population of the Buryat tribes.
Key words: ethnic history, ethnonym, settlement, ethnic mapping, linguistic analysis, Buryats, Samoyedic people, Turkic people, Mongolian people.
ASPECTS OF ETHNICITY OF THE GERMANS IN THE CENTRAL URALS
The article is dedicated to a local group of the Russian Germans living in the Central Ural Mountains (Sverdlovsk region). This research analyzes features of ethnical history, today's consciousness and complex identity of this group. Generally, episodes of the Russian national and regional (Ural) history are significant for the Germans in the Central Ural Mountains: Catherine the Great's manifesto, deportation, the Labor army, rehabilitation. European and German plots are manifested in historical memory much more weakly; but they are present in the religious and ceremonial sphere (for example, Osterhase, the Easter rabbit). The Volga River is a bright symbol of the Russian-German identity, for the Ural Germans in particular. In the 1960s, the Soviet Germans began a movement for rehabilitation of their people, restoration of territorial autonomy and culture. Ivan Kronevald, a resident of the Urals, was one of the leaders of that movement. In the 1990s, the Ural Germans actively initiated ethnical projects: public associations, centers for meetings and culture centers appeared, which aimed to restore the lost ethnical and cultural basis as the main objective. However, the movement for restoration of autonomy of the Russian Germans resulted in emigration to Germany.
Key words: Russian Germans, Central Ural, ethnical history, identity, symbols of ethnicity, ethnical projects.
Ryazanova S.V., Logvinov R.N.,Drozdov S.T.
EVOLUTION OF THE ANTHROPIC MYTH IN UNITED STATES’ MYTHOLOGY: REASONS, PREREQUISITES, LOGIC
Evolution of the myth of a hero as the central anthropic image in the mythology of the United States occurred under the influence of mentality of the groups/subjects of mythogenesis and has a complex character. The emergence of spontaneous plots with a significant share of regional specifics, where the starting idea was the demiurgic myth of the frontier, was the first stage of the heroic myth. The basic mythological images are constructed on the archetypal basis, being filled with content due to the Protestant context and constantly ongoing processes of expanding the cultural ecumene of the country. The images of national heroes as symbols of the people and as deputies of the idea of an ancestor constituted the majority of the United States' anthropological myths until the 1920s. External factors of the country's development, such as active urbanization, secularization of culture, the First World War, the Great Depression, served as an impetus for the transformation of the heroic myth. The heroes of the frontier were replaced by superheroes, whose images combine superhuman and totemic features. In the national mythology, images of superheroes are associated with presentation of archetypal patterns and traditional plots, pushing the heroics of the frontier to the spheres of advertising, glamour and some kind of hagiography, which leads to a change in the heroes’ paraphernalia and the accompanying symbolic and sign range. A superhero as the central image of the contemporary national mythology of the United States emerges on the cusp of the processes of secularization, rise of the idea of a man, mass culture and technology, in close relation with the archetypal ground.
Key words: myth, national mythology, mythogenesis, culture of the USA, heroes of the frontier, Paul Bunyan, Davy Crockett, superheroes.
Afonin A.S., Ivanov S.N.,
ÅNVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN
THE TRANSITION PERIOD BETWEEN THE BRONZE AND THE IRON AGE IN THE ISHIM RIVER
BASIN, WESTERN SIBERIA
(according to the on-site
paleobotanical data from the settlement of Marai 1)
The paper focuses on
the new archaeobotanical data of the environment near the hillfort of Marai 1
and on evaluation of their role in the paleoeconomical changes in the
forest-steppe area in the transition period from the Bronze to the Iron Age.
Archaeological materials of the cultural layers characterize various
paleoeconomic models which existed in the same landscape niche with a
four-century interval. We compared the bottom and the roof level of semi-dugouts
by the composition of archaeobotanical macro-remains of two habitation phase:
the transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (IX — the beginning of
the VIII century BC), and the Early Iron Age (IV–III century BC). Plant macro
analysis revealed that the village was surrounded by grass and forbs meadows
during the first and the second occupation phases, the local living environment
did not change significantly. The economic activity was more intensive in the
early Iron Age, which caused an increase in the proportion of weeds near the
dwellings. Not many coastal and aquatic plants were discovered at the roof
level, which is indicative that the roof was covered the sod, and cane or reed
sheaves were not used. The analysis of saturation with fish bones of the
cultural layer into dwellings floor showed equal results for both habitation
periods. Basing on pollen and spore data of the cultural layers, we can say that
the settlement was surrounded by open forest-steppe landscapes during two
occupation phases. Meadow and steppe were the main vegetation background, with a
significant share of wet meadows in the flood plain. There were only small birch
forests in the immediate vicinity of the
settlement in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Age,
but the share of forests near the hillford of Marai 1 began to increase in the
Early Iron Age. In general, the reconstruction of local environmental conditions
near Marai 1 in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Ages
did not show any signs of an ecological crisis or significant changes in the
appearance of landscapes which could cause a return to an appropriating economy.
Therefore, reorientation to hunt elk and roe was not synchronized with a
widespread appearance of forest along the Ishim River valley. The economy
specificity of population of the Krasnoozersk culture, formed as a synthesis
among the local pastoralists and groups of taiga fishermen and hunters who came
from the North, was not so much determined by natural conditions as by the
influence of the newcomers. Later, in the Early Iron Age, there was indeed a
slight increase in the proportion of forests in the immediate vicinity of Marai
1 settlement, despite this, livestock breeding was a basis of the hillforts'
economy. Fish was unambiguously one of the important components in the diet of
the population during both habitation
phases, regardless of the basic
economic orientation. Thus, there is no reasonable basis yet for indicating that
a serious climatic cataclysm dramatically changed the habitat of the population
of the Ishim River basin at the boundary between the Bronze and the Early Iron
Key words: ånvironment,
macro-remains, palynology, the boundary of the Bronze and the Iron Ages,
paleoeconomy, forest-steppe, Western Siberia.
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL
STUDIES IN THE SETTLEMENTS BOL’SHAYA BEREZOVAYA-2, MALAYA BEREZOVAYA-4 AND
ALEKSANDRO-NEVSKOYE-II IN THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS
The paper presents the results
of studying archaeozoological collections from three settlements of the Late
Bronze Age of the Southern Trans-Urals. The archaeozoological material comes
from layers associated with the Alakul culture, the Srubno-Alakul period and the
finale of the Late Bronze Age. A special emphasis is made in the study on
paleopathological analysis of the bones of domestic animals and on discussion of
the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle. The paper also
suggests a cattle breeding model for a group of the settlements under
consideration. For this reconstruction, in addition to archaeozoological
collections and the osteophagia phenomenon, paleobotanical and ethnozoological
parallels are also used. The study of collections showed that the inhabitants of
all three settlements were sedentary pastoralists and that their livelihood
during all the time of functioning of the settlements was livestock farming.
Traditions and features of livestock farming were consistently unified in all
settlements and in all periods of their habitat. Cattle and small cattle
breeding was predominantly milk and meat oriented. According to the available
data, the character and the role of horse breeding are difficult to reconstruct
beforehand. Pig breeding was an insignificant direction of livestock breeding in
all three settlements. The most probable model of cattle breeding is preliminary
reconstructed as a homestead. One of the most important and interesting features
of livestock breeding of all three settlements, which was identified processing
the collections, is the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle.
Osteophagia was revealed at all stages of functioning of the settlements in the
Bronze Age. Previously, the main cause of osteophagia among domestic ungulates
could be an intensive dairy exploitation of animals. Attraction of
ethnozoological data made it possible to find out that osteophagia also
indicates that cattle were kept in the settlements. Some evidence shows that
detection of osteophagia can indirectly indicate the presence of animals in the
summer. Paleopathological analysis did not reveal unsatisfactory conditions of
livestock keeping in any of the settlements under consideration. Almost all
pathologies found out are the results of accidental injuries and inflammatory
processes. Some pathologies on the cattle bones from Malaya Berezovaya-4
settlement can indirectly indicate the use of bulls as working animals.
Key words: the Bronze Age, the
Trans-Urals, the Alakul culture, archaeozoology, livestock farming, osteophagia
in ungulates, paleopathology.
Afonin A.S., Ivanov S.N., Ryabogina N.E.
ÅNVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD BETWEEN THE BRONZE AND THE IRON AGE IN THE ISHIM RIVER BASIN, WESTERN SIBERIA
(according to the on-site paleobotanical data from the settlement of Marai 1)
The paper focuses on the new archaeobotanical data of the environment near the hillfort of Marai 1 and on evaluation of their role in the paleoeconomical changes in the forest-steppe area in the transition period from the Bronze to the Iron Age. Archaeological materials of the cultural layers characterize various paleoeconomic models which existed in the same landscape niche with a four-century interval. We compared the bottom and the roof level of semi-dugouts by the composition of archaeobotanical macro-remains of two habitation phase: the transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (IX — the beginning of the VIII century BC), and the Early Iron Age (IV–III century BC). Plant macro analysis revealed that the village was surrounded by grass and forbs meadows during the first and the second occupation phases, the local living environment did not change significantly. The economic activity was more intensive in the early Iron Age, which caused an increase in the proportion of weeds near the dwellings. Not many coastal and aquatic plants were discovered at the roof level, which is indicative that the roof was covered the sod, and cane or reed sheaves were not used. The analysis of saturation with fish bones of the cultural layer into dwellings floor showed equal results for both habitation periods. Basing on pollen and spore data of the cultural layers, we can say that the settlement was surrounded by open forest-steppe landscapes during two occupation phases. Meadow and steppe were the main vegetation background, with a significant share of wet meadows in the flood plain. There were only small birch forests in the immediate vicinity of the settlement in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Age, but the share of forests near the hillford of Marai 1 began to increase in the Early Iron Age. In general, the reconstruction of local environmental conditions near Marai 1 in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Ages did not show any signs of an ecological crisis or significant changes in the appearance of landscapes which could cause a return to an appropriating economy. Therefore, reorientation to hunt elk and roe was not synchronized with a widespread appearance of forest along the Ishim River valley. The economy specificity of population of the Krasnoozersk culture, formed as a synthesis among the local pastoralists and groups of taiga fishermen and hunters who came from the North, was not so much determined by natural conditions as by the influence of the newcomers. Later, in the Early Iron Age, there was indeed a slight increase in the proportion of forests in the immediate vicinity of Marai 1 settlement, despite this, livestock breeding was a basis of the hillforts' economy. Fish was unambiguously one of the important components in the diet of the population during both habitation phases, regardless of the basic economic orientation. Thus, there is no reasonable basis yet for indicating that a serious climatic cataclysm dramatically changed the habitat of the population of the Ishim River basin at the boundary between the Bronze and the Early Iron Age.
Key words: ånvironment, macro-remains, palynology, the boundary of the Bronze and the Iron Ages, paleoeconomy, forest-steppe, Western Siberia.
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL STUDIES IN THE SETTLEMENTS BOL’SHAYA BEREZOVAYA-2, MALAYA BEREZOVAYA-4 AND ALEKSANDRO-NEVSKOYE-II IN THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS
The paper presents the results of studying archaeozoological collections from three settlements of the Late Bronze Age of the Southern Trans-Urals. The archaeozoological material comes from layers associated with the Alakul culture, the Srubno-Alakul period and the finale of the Late Bronze Age. A special emphasis is made in the study on paleopathological analysis of the bones of domestic animals and on discussion of the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle. The paper also suggests a cattle breeding model for a group of the settlements under consideration. For this reconstruction, in addition to archaeozoological collections and the osteophagia phenomenon, paleobotanical and ethnozoological parallels are also used. The study of collections showed that the inhabitants of all three settlements were sedentary pastoralists and that their livelihood during all the time of functioning of the settlements was livestock farming. Traditions and features of livestock farming were consistently unified in all settlements and in all periods of their habitat. Cattle and small cattle breeding was predominantly milk and meat oriented. According to the available data, the character and the role of horse breeding are difficult to reconstruct beforehand. Pig breeding was an insignificant direction of livestock breeding in all three settlements. The most probable model of cattle breeding is preliminary reconstructed as a homestead. One of the most important and interesting features of livestock breeding of all three settlements, which was identified processing the collections, is the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle. Osteophagia was revealed at all stages of functioning of the settlements in the Bronze Age. Previously, the main cause of osteophagia among domestic ungulates could be an intensive dairy exploitation of animals. Attraction of ethnozoological data made it possible to find out that osteophagia also indicates that cattle were kept in the settlements. Some evidence shows that detection of osteophagia can indirectly indicate the presence of animals in the summer. Paleopathological analysis did not reveal unsatisfactory conditions of livestock keeping in any of the settlements under consideration. Almost all pathologies found out are the results of accidental injuries and inflammatory processes. Some pathologies on the cattle bones from Malaya Berezovaya-4 settlement can indirectly indicate the use of bulls as working animals.
Key words: the Bronze Age, the Trans-Urals, the Alakul culture, archaeozoology, livestock farming, osteophagia in ungulates, paleopathology.
ON THE COMB-PIT ORNAMENTAL TRADITION AND PERIODIZATION OF THE NEOLITHIC OF THE LOWER ISHIM BASIN
The article analyzes the time of formation of the comb-pit ornamental tradition, its area, and periodization of the Neolithic of the Lower Ishim basin connected with the process. Lack of roads («corridors») to the Ishim and Irtysh basins and to the Baraba from the North-Western, Western and Northern territories marked by monuments whose complexes would have ceramics with the comb-pit decoration, as well as absence of enough early centers with such tradition in the «mother countries», assumed by some researchers, most likely, mean that it was formed within the limits of the Ishim basin and the Baraba region. Local complexes with divergent-scratched, divergent-scrathched-comb ornamentation probably served as a basis for its formation. However, already at early stages of the Neolithic, they had an increased number of single sequences of pits, or pits of various forms at different zones of a vessel in the region. Stratigraphical occurrence of the complex under consideration above the Boborykino-Koshkino culture in the settlements of Borovlyanka 2 and Avtodrom 2/2 and the fact that it is overlapped by dwellings containing ceramics proximate to the Sosnovka-Ostrov culture at the settlement of Serebryanka 1 are indicative of the time of formation of the comb-pit tradition or, more specifically, of the divergent-comb-pit tradition. A research of a complex in the Ishim basin, at the settlement of Mergen 7, which is close to the Kozlovo culture and chronologically follows the Koshkino culture, allows us to arrange the periodization scheme of the Ishim basin so that the Kokuy materials (with divergent-scratched-comb ornamentation) are between the Kozlovo culture and the settlement of Serebryanka 1, which is located on the Western border of the area and is close to the Sosnovka-Ostrov culture. Materials with comb ornamentation were not found in the settlement, thus the scheme of development of the comb-pit ornamental tradition there could differ, excluding a break between the Kokuy and Ekaterininsk complexes. Materials of the settlement of Mergen 7 narrow the period of the beginning of formation of the tradition under consideration. Taking into account correlation of the calibrated dates of the monuments of Mergen 7, Serebryanka 1, Protoka and Sopka 2, we argue that, most likely, it is a period between V and IV thousands BC.
Key words: Western Siberia, Ishim basin, Baraba, the divergent-comb-pit, comb-pit ornamental tradition, periodization.
Enshin D.N., Skochina S.N.
ORNAMENTS ON BONE AND HORN ARTEFACTS FROM THE NEOLITHIC COMPLEX OF THE SETTLEMENT OF MERGEN 6
This article analyzes ornamented items of bone and horn from the Neolithic complex of the settlement of Mergen 6 (forest-steppe zone of the Ishim River basin). Working method of application of an image was described with the help of use wear analysis. Micro photos of traces of application of images on the surface of the artefacts were made. The study highlighted two groups of images — marks and ornaments. Notches dominate in the first group, and zigzags and straight lines dominate in the second group. Composite constructions are singled out on the whole artefacts. Image location analysis on the whole artefacts revealed features of their dislocation, manifested in delineation with marks and ornaments of zones of hand grip and working parts of the items. Ornamentation and, in particular, its composition allow us to firmly connect the core Neolithic pottery complex of the settlement (Boborykino and Koshkino materials) and the artefacts under consideration. In addition to co-occurrence of ceramic vessels and tools of bone and horn in the dwellings, as well as to analogous compositions on ceramics and bones, the relation is observed on the basis of the dominant position of the main ornamental elements (straight lines, zigzags) regarding the others. Moreover, a clear determination of cultural identity of the ornamented tools and analogies within Boborykino and Koshkino antiquities of the whole Trans-Urals allowed us to to reach a wider range of comparisons and to consider the ornaments and the artefacts as links between the Trans-Urals and such Southern territories, as the North Caspian Sea, steppe Volga region, etc. This scale allows us to use the artefacts under consideration as one more evidence of a hypothesis that the Southern migrations were a driving force of neolitisation of the region. In turn, variability of functional purpose of the ornamented items of the Neolithic period, in comparison with the previous chronological periods, allows us to consider them as an indicator of changes in the ideology and the economic and ecological adaptation of ancient societies at the frontier of two epochs.
Key words: Neolithic, forest-steppe zone of the Ishim River basin, settlement of Mergen 6, ornaments, use wear analysis, tools of bone and horn, the Boborykino culture, Koshkino stage.
USING SHELLS IN THE CULT AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF ANCIENT POPULATION
The article is dedicated to one of the aspects of symbolic activities of ancient population regarding the use of a rare variety of natural material. From ancient times, shells, as bright and unusual material, served for making jewelry: bead necklaces and pendants. In the Urals, such artefacts had been used from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic to the Modern Times. The shells rarely served as combs punches, scrapers and containers for paints. Petrified shells were very rare and unusual. That is why they were used in symbolic activities and could serve as amulets, cult symbols and communicative signs.
Key words: shell, petrous shells, jewelry, symbolic activity.
QUESTIONS OF SYNCHRONIZATION, CULTURAL AFFINITY OF SINTASHTA AND PETROVKA SITES AND THEIR POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
The paper is aimed to discuss problems of synchronization and cultural affinity of Sintashta and Petrovka sites. The author denies a possibility of complete synchronization of Sintashta and Petrovka sites. He believes that comparing Sintashta and Petrovka sites, we try to compare incomparable phenomen: materialized remnants of the history of a community of the Sintashta clans of miners, metal-makers, blacksmiths, foundrymen, on the one hand, and sites of a community of the Alakul pastoral cultures, on the other.
Key words: the Bronze Age, Southern Trans-Urals, Northern Kazakhstan, Sintashta sites, Petrovka sites, clans of miners, metal-makers, blacksmiths, foundrymen, Alakul cultural-historical community sites.
Kukushkin I.A., Zhusupov D.S., Dmitriev E.A.
AKSHOKY BURIAL GROUND: A NEW MONUMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF ANDRONOVO ANTIQUITIES OF SARYARKA
In recent years, archaeological studies have covered a group of Fedorovo monuments, which demonstrate a «pure» line of development (Besoba, Sherubai-1, Bada, etc.). A multigrave structure 1 excavated at the Akshoky burial is one of these complexes. It consists of two rectangular fences penetrating each other and elongated latitudinally. Seven graves arranged in a line with remains of cremation are buried in the internal site. Key features of a burial rite of the Akshoky fence are similar to Fedorov antiquities of Saryarka and adjacent regions, they also reflect a combination of some essential features of the regional and common cultural scale: multigrave complexes (Sanguir II, Aishrak), paired boxes (Aishrak, Belasar, Balakulboldi II), construction of double fencing, including different construction methods which are known according to the materials of the burial grounds of Aksu-Ayuly II, Zhylandy III, Besoba. Simultaneous burials of many people are probably associated with exceptional circumstances of death beyond natural mortality. Perhaps, one of those reasons was some kind of military tribal clash, which is not contrary to the variegated cultural situation in Central Kazakhstan, where the complex processes of assimilation and integration at different stages occurred between the Petrovka, Alakul and Fedorovo groups of population. It is problematic to determine a specific chronological position of the Akshoky fence, firstly, due to lack of detailed periodization of the Fedorovo culture; second, because of the almost continuous robbery of the investigated graves in ancient times. It seems to the authors that the most correct decision is to accept a wide date range within the first half of the II Millennium BC, as it is evidenced by wide application of methods of radiocarbon dating of Fedorovo antiquities.
Key words: Saryarka, the Bronze Age, Andronovo antiquity, the Fedorovo culture, burial grounds, cremation.
Bagashev A.N., Slepchenko S.M., Alekseeva E.A., Sleptsova A.V.
A CRANIOLOGICAL FINDING FROM A SHRINE AT BOLSHOY LOG FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT OF THE KULAY CULTURE IN OMSK
The paleoanthropological material discovered at a shrine in Bolshoy Log fortified settlement of the Kulay culture is of a big interest regarding the formation of the morphological type of the Kulay population. Despite the wide area of distribution (the Middle and Lower Ob River basin and adjacent territories of Western Siberia) and a long historical period of functioning (in the middle of the 1st millennium BC — the middle of the 1st millennium AD), there are only small data which would help to determine the morphological type of the Kulay population. These are materials from the burial grounds of Kamenny Mys, Aldygan and single skulls from Ust-Poluy and Kulayskaya Gora shrines. Investigation of a skull from Bolshoy Log shrine showed that morphological features of the individual (a male of mature age) completely fits into the variability, typical of the very Kulay population, despite of high individual variability. The morphological type of this male includes both Caucasoid and Mongoloid components. There are two trepanation holes on the skull, they were made after the skull had been separated from the body and after it had been cleaned off of soft tissues. The nature of holes location does not exclude a possibility of using it in ritual-magical actions. Facial reconstruction clearly demonstrates features of his appearance, which do not contradict a conclusion about the similarity of this male to a female from Ust-Poluy.
Key words: craniology, dental anthropology, facial reconstruction, trepanation, Kulay cultural-and-historical community, Bolshoy Log hillfort, Ust-Poluy, Kulayskaya Gora, West Siberia, the Early Iron Age.
KhudaverdyanA.Yu., Gasparyan B.Z., Pinhasi R., Kanayan A.S., Hovanesyan N.À.
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS OF THE LATE ENEOLITHIC FROM THE ARENI 1 CAVE
Newly excavated materials from Areni 1 cave allowed characterizing for the first time the anthropological composition of the Late Eneolithic inhabitants of Armenia. Based on anthropological and paleopathological data, physical features and disease pathology of the bones were analyzed. Results of the intergroup statistical analysis identified close morphological affinities between the Eneolithic skulls from Areni 1 with groups from Tepe Hissar II, Ginchi, Catal Huyuk, Alishar Huyuk and the bearers of the Kuro-Araxes from the Southern Caucasus. Their connection with bearers of the Maikop, Khvalynian, Pit-Grave and Catacomb cultures was also revealed. As for race and genetics, the Late Eneolithic inhabitants from Areni 1 cave, more probably, originate from the territory of the Middle East. Special treatment of the bones of the deceased is observed (polishing). Certain crania, mostly male, display traumatic lesions. Such markers of childhood stress as enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia were found among individuals from Areni 1 cave. Exposure to cold coinciding with chronic staphylococcal and streptococcal foci was likely the major cause of otitis media. Auditory exostoses may indicate exposure to cold air and/or cold water, too. Unintentional deformation of the head (parietal and occipital) is found on the skulls, which is associated with social-domestic conditions.
Key words: Armenia, Areni 1, the Late Eneolithic, craniology, odontology, disease pathology, ritual, unintentional deformation.
A NEW OLD HYPOTHESIS OF THE ORIGIN OF THE YAKUTS (ON THE OCCASION OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF A.A. SAVVIN, A SPECIALIST IN FOLKLORE, ETHNOGRAPHER, AND LOCAL HISTORIAN)
A.A. Savvin (1896–1951) was one of the first Yakut ethnographers and folklore specialists who left huge scientific heritage of which only a small article was published during his lifetime. The Manuscript collection of IHRISN of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science keeps his personal collection consisting of about 100 items with a total amount of more than 500 printed pages. The guiding idea of his works was the question of the origin of the Yakuts. A.A. Savvin didn't have time to arrange his views into a well-knit system during his lifetime, but nevertheless, his notes and reflections based on a wide use of folklore, ethnographic, linguistic, archeological and historical sources have stood the test of time. The aim of this article is to select, order and systematize his random notes and essays and to reconstruct thereby the author's vision of the problem of the origin of the Yakuts. Many ideas stated by A.A. Savvin in his manuscripts find scientific support nowadays, confirming thereby his deep understanding of the scientific problem under consideration, for example, periodization of the ethnogenesis of the Yakuts in three main stages, distinguishing of the layer of Yakut-Hun parallels, personification of ancient and medieval clans which made up the central core of the Sakha people and their culture, early (prior to Russian) occupation of Northeast outlying areas by nomadic herders, etc. Hence, this article considers the modern conceptual ideas of the problem of the ethnogenesis of the Yakuts, basing on cross-disciplinary analysis of the latest paleoethnographic data and archaeological artifacts of the last several years.
Key words: A.A. Savvin, hypothesis, ethnogenesis, the Yakuts, interaction, nations, culture.
BJARMIAN TROPES OF POETRY PIONEER — A MYTHOLOGEME IN FINNISH METAGEOGRAPHY
The article analyzes origins and interpretations of a mythologeme pioneer in Finnish culture. Its literary origins are rooted in J.L. Runeberg’s poems and O. Manninen’s «The Woodsman» (1902). The hero leaves human society and enters a silent forest. He becomes the sole master of his domain. Suddenly, he sees wood chips carried along by the river. The woodsman travels far, to the upper reaches of the river, to get rid of the unwelcome neighbor: «he discover, strikes dead». This poem has indexical and laconic tropes as ancient incantatory formulas do. In the literary Finnish language, information space is structured according to the definition kirjoitustaito, an ability to write, and lukutaito, an ability to read. The definitions are taken from the traditional worldview in which lukea means to cast a spell, and kirjoittaa means to create an ornament. This cultural dichotomy determines quasi-social division between those who produce and consume texts. Nietzschean idea of Manninen’s poem turns towards a traditional archetype, inseparability of the process of creation of a sign and its interpretation, «reading» and «writing». Literary code-switching of the image of a pioneer accompanied understanding of cultural and metageographical borders of Finland. Mythology of the woodsman is widely represented in the poetic prose of Samuli Paulaharju where history and ethnography are intertwined. The specificity of quasi-social division is reflected in the bjarmian tropes, discourses marking «red» and «white» Greater Finland.
Key words: mythologeme of the woodsman, traditional archetypes, metageography, Runeberg, Manninen, Greater Finland.
ON POSSIBILITIES OF STUDYING HISTORY AND HOUSEHOLD OF RUSSIAN SETTLEMENTS OF LONG-TERM RESIDENTS IN THE IRTYSH RIVER REGION NEAR OMSK IN THE XVIII–XX CENTURIES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VILLAGE OF ANANYINO
The article is aimed to analyze possibilities of combining written, cartographic and ethnographic sources for studying history and problems of formation and development of household complexes of long-term resident settlements in the Irtysh River region near Omsk in the XVIII–XX centuries. The main object of the study is the village of Ananyino, which does not exist nowadays. Its study helped to overcome the problem of fragmentation of collective memory in case a unified community disappears. The paper describes the living place of the members of the community and its borders. Relatively precise localization allows us to specify the nature of established links between the population of Ananyino and nearby settlements. A comparison of written and ethnographic materials makes it possible to identify a degree of influence of external factors on the development of key sectors of the household of the long-term residents in the area under consideration, as well as to specify the role of agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing in the structure of the household. At the same time, the article describes the process of searching for and analysis of the source base within the local interdisciplinary studies. The materials de-monstrate an important role of the state fiscal policy in the development of all spheres of the economic complex in the XVIII–XX centuries: fishing equipment presented in the sources, social and economic stratification of the population, which consisted mostly of service-men in the XVIII–XIX centuries, were formed under its influence. In addition, the sources indicate that in spite of the abundance of fairs and active exchange of goods carried out by the population of Tara, the residents of Ananyino didn't participate in it. Available materials also reveal the presence of specialization of individual farms, which began to take shape in the XVIII — first half of the XIX century and affected migrational processes in the course of further settlement of Ananyino residents after the village disappeared.
Key words: economy of the Russian population of Western Siberia, Irtysh River region near Omsk, Russian long-term residents, local studies.
TEMPORARY SUMMER DWELLINGS OF THE BASHKIRS OF THE INZER RIVER BASIN IN THE LATE 19th — EARLY 21st CENTURY
Temporary summer dwellings of the Bashkirs of the Inzer River basin in the late XIX — early XXI century are analyzed. Data from the State Archive of Orenburg region (Orenburg) and the Scientific Archive of the Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ufa) are used, as well as information gathered by the author during expedition trips in 2010–2011, 2016 to the villages of Gabdiukovo, Zuiakovo, Assi, Novokhasanovo, Usmangali, Inzer, Azikeevo, Aznalkino, Khusainovo, Sermenovo, Utkalevo, Uziannbash, Shigaevo of Beloretsky District, Republic of Bashkortostan. The Bashkir population, which for a long time had led a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life, had temporary and permanent settlements: the first ones included spring, summer and autumn sites, the second ones are represented by winter camps, on the basis of which auls (villages) appeared. On the cusp of the XIX–XX centuries, the Bashkirs of the Inzer River basin kept on following a semi-nomadic cattle breeding way of life, raising large numbers of horses, sheep, cows and a small number of goats. They made hay and did forestry (wood logging and transportation, they prepared firewood for factories, produced bast and tar, etc.). Mass departures to summer camps in mountainous areas stopped before the Civil War and the crop failure of 1921–1922, but some families continued to migrate in summer until the collectivization of the early 1930s. At the end of the XIX century, mainly wealthy families went to the summer pastures, and some Bashkirs, who tended cattle or were hired for work, went with them. The places of seasonal camps and dwellings in them remained traditional for a long time. Three types of temporary summer dwellings got widespread at the end of the XIX century: a hut (burama) and two kinds of cottages, which differ in form, material, and size. A hut was made of logs, cottages were made of bark, (linden bark), laths, branches. Up to date, cottages are preserved in the area under consideration, they are mounted during haymaking as an overnight stops and for storing food and clothes. Burama as a temporary dwelling during haymaking is scarcely used today.
Key words: the Bashkirs, Inzer River basin, Beloretsk district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, cattle breeding, summer dwellings, nomadic camps, burama, huts.
HOST ALTAI SOCIETY AND DEPORTED ARMENIANS IN THE CONTEXT OF PERMANENT REPRESSIONS AND DEPORTATIONS IN THE 1930–1940s: IMAGES AND CULTURAL INTERACTION
The aim of the article is to study the influence of ethnical deportations on the rural population of Altai Krai by using oral history as a method and source of ethnographic research on the example of the 1949 Armenian deportation campaign. It is asserted that the study of nations and cultures in the context of global historical processes of the XX–XXI centuries requires new approaches. The techniques of oral history which deal with historical memory are one of the ways of studying anthropological contents of historical processes. The main sources of the article are the materials of field research on the territory of Altai Krai. The research focuses on host, mainly Russian population in the context of permanent ethnical deportations of the 1940s. It is mentioned that the population of the Altai countryside became multiethnic in quite a short period of time which was related to resettlement of families and small groups of deported nations all over the territory of the region. It led to cooperative living and common experience in overcoming war period difficulties, basing on life support culture. The article compares attitudes of local population towards different waves of ethnical migrants (Germans, Armenians, Moldavians, Polish and the others), it analyses the images formed and interethnic interaction. The article identifies commitment of the deported population to consolidation with reclamation of the outskirts of the settlements and preservation of song, dance and holiday traditions. A conclusion is made about the influence of the deported population on the host society, the changes which took place in cultural, social and manufacturing spheres of the Altai countryside are described. It is pointed out that cultural exchange in difficult living conditions firstly took place in the material sphere and was connected with such basic components of life support culture as dwelling and food. As a result, ethnocultural skills of the deported population encouraged interethnic consent.
Key words: Oral history, Altai, deported nations, Russian rural population, interethnic interaction, ethnocultural influence.
Shisheliakina A.L., Bobrov I.V.
FOREIGN NATIVES: ON PRACTICES OF WEARING OF A MUSLIM HEADSCARF IN A NON-MUSLIM REGION OF RUSSIA
Using gender approach, the article describes mutually excluding standards for Muslim women who wear hijab in everyday life in one of the non-Muslim regions of Russia — Tyumen region. On the one hand, secular society imposes restrictions on wearing hijabs. On the other hand, Muslim women and Muslim community basing on religious norms insist that a woman must be «covered» when being in public. Besides, within the Muslim community it is discussed how a hijab should look, and the parties involved in this discussion stigmatize each other. In this regard, the issue of interest is to clarify what wearing a religious headscarf means for young Muslim women. What impact do hijab restrictions have on their daily lives?
Key words: Islam, a Muslim headscarf, hijab, woman, Muslim, gender, everyday practices, Tyumen region.
Bobrov I.V., Cherepanov M.S.
FRAGMENTATION OF RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY IN ISLAM (TYUMEN CASE AT THE TURN OF THE XXI CENTURY)
The social sciences have been demonstrating a steady growth of interest in Islam in recent decades. It is becoming more obvious that the Islamic faith has different, often conflicting, variations in practice. What influences the process of formation of such different versions of Islam? One way to answer this question is to study religious authority. This article is based on the empirical material gathered in Tyumen region since the beginning of the 1990s and analyzes multiplication of positions of religious authority, which is one of the manifestations of fragmentation of authority in Islam. In the late 1980s — early 1990s, basic positions of Islamic authority in the region were mullahs, abystai, astana keepers, and organizers of religious rites among the residents of a particular place. Their activities resulted in the appearance of different interpretations of Adat Islam, which included, among others, Sufi practices. In the early 1990s, new positions began to form alongside with the previously mentioned authoritative Islamic positions: the Ulema and imams. Their attempts to centralize religious authority in order to ensure uniformity of Islamic meanings and practices led to even bigger fragmentation of that authority and increased the number of dogmatic and ritual interpretations of Islam. The already existing interpretations of Adat Islam were supplemented by interpretations of different schools of Sufism, which were more and more taking shape, as well as versions of Salafism, which rejects all practices and meanings not justified by the Koran, the Sunna and fatwas of authoritative, mostly foreign, theologians. Moreover, up to date, the region has a localized Shiite interpretation of Islam too. In addition, Islamic political activists, another position, new for the regional religious field, has been formed since the late 1990s. Due to their efforts, Islam began to be interpreted as a range of religious and political concepts: from recognition of the possibility of living according to the secular laws to jihadism. Thus, the study of the materials of Tyumen region dated starting from the 1990s up to the present day identified a growth in positions of religious authority in Islam, resulting in multiplication of interpretations of Islamic teachings.
Key words: Islam, religious authority, interpretations of Islam, fragmentation of authority.
OSTEOPHAGIA IN DOMESTIC UNGULATES IN THE BRONZE AGE
SETTLEMENTS OF THE TRANS-URALS (ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL AND
The paper provides a detailed description of the bones,
which were subject to chewing and exposed to digestive enzymes of cattle and
small cattle. Eating bones is called osteophagia. The bones with such changes
were found in the archaeozoological collections of two fortified settlements of
the Bronze Age in the Trans-Urals. They are Kamennyi Ambar and Konoplyanka.
While processing the collection and inspecting modern cattle paddocks, all forms
and stages of chewing bones among cattle and small cattle were detected.
Key words: osteophagia,
Southern Trans-Urals, the Bronze Age, Archaeozoology, Ethnozoology, bone chewing
by ungulates, cattle (Bos Taurus), small cattle (Ovis et Capra),
ungulates digestive corrosion.
OSTEOPHAGIA IN DOMESTIC UNGULATES IN THE BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENTS OF THE TRANS-URALS (ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL AND ETHNOZOOLOGICAL MATERIALS)
The paper provides a detailed description of the bones, which were subject to chewing and exposed to digestive enzymes of cattle and small cattle. Eating bones is called osteophagia. The bones with such changes were found in the archaeozoological collections of two fortified settlements of the Bronze Age in the Trans-Urals. They are Kamennyi Ambar and Konoplyanka. While processing the collection and inspecting modern cattle paddocks, all forms and stages of chewing bones among cattle and small cattle were detected.
Key words: osteophagia, Southern Trans-Urals, the Bronze Age, Archaeozoology, Ethnozoology, bone chewing by ungulates, cattle (Bos Taurus), small cattle (Ovis et Capra), ungulates digestive corrosion.
Medvedeva P.S., Alaeva I.P.
TEXTILE IN THE BRONZE AGE OF THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS AND NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN
In this paper, we explore the technological characteristics of the Bronze Age cloths produced by the Sintashta, Petrovka and Alakul archaeological cultures. It employs a detailed structural analysis of textile prints on ceramic vessels which were found in cemeteries from the Southern Trans-Urals and Northern Kazakhstan, dated back to the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Plain weave dominates in the fabric and is divided into four types according to morphological features (density of working threads per 1 cm2, distance between working threads, thickness of the thread). It can be concluded that there are significant similarities in the textile characteristics of Sintashta, Petrovka and Alakul cloth. However, the samples at the Petrovka-Alakul sites, compared with earlier Sintashta-Petrovka sites, demonstrate a clear tendency to growth of the average density of working threads per 1 cm2. This is due to a greater proportion of rare type of plain weave in the Sintashta-Petrovka textile. This trend can be associated with a variety of weaving devices, manufacturing tradition or the presence of imported fabrics.
Key words: the Bronze Age, weaving, textile prints, the Sintashta culture, the Petrovka culture, the Alakul culture.
The KATKOVO-1 BURIAL MOUND (on the upper date of the Verkhneobskaya culture of the Novosibirsk Ob basin)
The article presents the materials of the burial mound of Katkovo-1 (excavations by Durakov I.A.), located in Kochenevsky district of Novosibirsk region, for the first time. A brief history of the changing views of researchers on the dating of the Verkhneobskaya culture gives us the basis for identification of the following issues: a definition of the upper date of the existence of the culture and a cultural and chronological definition of the monuments where a combination of the Verkhneobskaya culture material and later material complexes was found out, which greatly complicates its dating. A similar situation is observed at the settlement of Yurt-Akbalyk-3. Originally, the complex was considered as Yurt-Akbalyk stage of the Verkhneobskaya culture (VIII–IX centuries AD.). The cemetery is characterized by a combination of the material of the Verhneobskaya culture with a later material complex, which dates back to the X–XI centuries AD. The purpose of the work is to clarify the dating of the burial mound of Katkovo-1. The vessels found at the monument by their morphological characterstics and ornaments can be attributed to the Verkhneobskaya culture, however, there are some changes in the ornamentation observed, due to the influence of Northern tribes, while morphological characteristics are largely unchanged. One decorative element isn`t typical of the Novosibirsk Ob basin, it was brought by the Northern tribes of the Lower Ob river. Weapons, in particular, some flat iron arrowheads and spearheads are dated back within the VI–X centuries AD by the researchers, elements of harness date back to the IX–XII centuries AD. Bronze jewelry belongs to the VIII–X centuries AD. The ceramic material found, as well as items of armaments and harness, in comparison with their analogies found in Southern Siberia, the Ob river basin near Tomsk and Novosibirsk, and other adjacent territories, confirmed their dating back to the the Yurt-Akbalyk stage of the Verhneobskaya culture, but afforded ground for extension of the datings’s top limit of the burial ground up to the X century AD. This situation allowed us to question the IX century AD as the top date of the Verkhneobskaya culture. Presence of the materials used in the X–XI centuries AD on the monuments gave us an opportunity to expand the upper limit of the existence of the Verkhneobskaya culture up to the X century AD.
Key words: the Verkhneobskaya culture, chronology, funerary complex, dating material, Yurt-Akbalyk stage.
SACRIFICIAL COMPLEXES WITH CLOTHES FROM CEMETERIES OF THE VETLUGA-VYATKA INTERFLUVE AREA OF THE IX–XI CENTURIES
Sacrificial complexes in the intersepulchral space (SC) as explorative signs of the Mari Medieval burial grounds were designated by the author in the 90-s. Four variants of the SC are singled out, among which the variants III and IV are the most characteristic and mass scale for the Mari culture monuments. The article describes and introduces into scientific discourse 26 complexes from Rusenikhinskiy and Vyzhumskiy burial grounds, excavated by the author of this article in 2010–2015. Emergence of additional materials has allowed disclosing semantics of these objects in a new way. Internal contents of the complexes are represented by dishes, instrument of labour or welfare items, clothes and jewelry. With the help of an improved technique of excavation of these objects, opening and fixing by layers from 1 to 3 cm, level bedding of jewelry and elements of clothes in vertical direction from the head the legs is found out. Elements of headdresses and footwear, caftans, dresses or rectangular pieces of fabric were successfully distinguished among the fragments from certain objects. Judging by the external signs: abundance of fabrics, fragments of clothes (doth underclothes and top garments), structure and localization of jewelry in certain vertical zonal distribution corresponding to the place of a certain ornament or suit element — it is possible to assume that a doll made of clothes of a dead person was placed in these complexes. Connection of the soul of a dead person with clothes of the Maris is confirmed by ethnographic and folklore data. The ceremony of making dolls from clothes of the dead is known at Ugrian (Khanty, Mansi) and Turkic people. In spite of the fact that this ceremony has different names and various material forms of expression at diffe-rent peoples, but its essence is the same: the doll is a temporary receptacle of soul the of the dead. It is obvious that the complexes at the intersepulchral space or stock lines of sepulchral holes with a set of clothes in the Mari Medieval burial grounds were commemorative, they served as a receptacle of the souls of the ancestors and contributed to the transition of souls to the other world after a certain time period. This ceremony could appear under the influence of the Ugrian or Turkic tradition. The word for a doll — «kurchak» — favours the last version, because it corresponds to the Kyrgyz word for a doll («kkurchak») and coincides with the name of images of female ancestral spirits at the Shors (qurtujaq), the Kumandins (urtyjaq), and the Barabinsk Tatars («kurtsak»).
Key words: funeral and memorial rites, the Mari, the Mordovians, the Middle Ages, the Turks, sacrificial complex, clothes, seat of the soul.
THE YAKUTIAN BURIALS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGES IN OIMYAKON DISTRICT (THE 17th–18th CENTURIES) (Indigirka, North-Eastern Yakutia)
For the first time, this paper reports on and describes the data on three Yakutian burials of the Late Middle Ages (the 17th–18th centuries): Ebyuge I-II and Sobolokh (Neleger), discovered during research work of the International Sakha-French archaeological expedition in 2014 in Oimyakon district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (basin of the upper reaches of the Indigirka river). Before the beginning of the expedition, the Medieval (preliterate) history of the entire North-East of Yakutia was mainly based on the data on folklore, toponymy, and certain archival documents, according to which the settlement of those territories by the Yakuts, probably, dates back to the period of internecine wars of the 16th–17th centuries. However, certain archaeological monuments of that period were not known. The analysis of the discovered objects and items shows their chronological and typological affinity with the data on the monuments of the 17th–18th centuries, belonging not only to Central Yakutia, but also to its other districts — Vilyuysky and Verkhoyansky. The only noticeable difference of the Oimyakon monuments from the others is its lack of funerary dishes, a usual attribute of almost all known Yakutian burials. This fact could be a result of the predominance of horse breeding (its products) over cattle breeding during that period in Oimyakon.
Key words: Oimyakon, Indigirka, North-Eastern Yakutia, the Sakha-French archaeological expedition, Ebyuge, Sobolokh (Neleger), burials, the Yakuts.
THE WOMAN’S BURIAL OF ATLASOVSKOE-2 OF THE XVII CENTURY IN CENTRAL YAKUTIA: RESULTS OF A COMPLEX RESEARCH
This article presents a complex study of the female burial of the XVII century in Central Yakutia. The burial rite (traces of ritual roasting of the coffin, orientation to the North) and composition of the accompanying inventory (a knife of the non-Yakut origin, a sphero-conical top part of a headdress with a support for a plume, twin overlaid decorative details of the headdress’s crown, a composite pectoral panel picture of sewn-on patches, an earring in the form of a question mark with a biconical bead) determine the peculiarity of the burial, and their nearest parallels can be traced to the Medieval cultures of the Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe nomads, as well as to the population of the Siberian forest and tundra zones of the XVI–XIX centuries. Craniological characteristics of the buried woman draw her closer to the populations of Central Asian and Baikal anthropological types of the North Asian formation.
Key words: Central Yakutia, the Late Middle Ages, burial sites, the burial of Atlasovskoye-2, the Yakuts, craniometry, anthropological type, X-ray-spectral analysis, exchange of goods.
CRANIOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS AND ETHNOGENETIC SITUATION IN SOUTHERN EASTERN EUROPE IN THE LATE BRONZE AGE AND IRON AGE
The article is dedicated to the study of the anthropological composition and origin of various groups of the ancient population of Armenia. Along with the paleoanthropological materials previously published by other researchers, the author studied new collections, gathered by various archaeological expeditions of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences. We investigated a total number of 90 skulls of adult individuals of both sexes (57♂, 33♀). The new materials characterize the anthropological composition of the population of Lori, Shirak, Aragotsotni, Syunik regions of Armenia for the first time. The results of statistical analysis identified close affinities between the Transcaucasia samples and the samples from Southern Eastern Europe (Maikop, Lolinsk, Catacomb, Srubna cultures of the Fore Caucasus).
Key words: Craniology, Armenia, the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, genesis.
Uchaneva Eu., Kazarnitsky A., Gromov A., Lazaretova N.
THE EARLY IRON AGE POPULATIONS OF THE MINUSINSK HOLLOW: REVISITING INTER- AND INTRAGROUP VARIATIONS
By means of multivariate statistics, we analyzed male craniological series of the Early Iron Age from Western and Southern Siberia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. The intra-group analysis of the series from the Minusinsk Hollow reveals specificity of individuals from the tombs of the Tesinsk culture, in comparison with other groups. At the same time, the population which left Tesinsk burials is obviously related to the Tagar culture. The analysis of the Tagar series reveals a strong differentiation of individuals from the burials between the Podgornovo and the Saragash periods. The results of the intra-group analyses are confirmed by a broad-scale inter-group analysis of the Eurasian Iron Age series. The Tagar series show clear craniometrical specificity which includes rather small cranial and face breadth, not very broad orbits, small naso-malar and zigomaxillary angles, long cranium and protruding nasal bones.
Key words: Early Iron Age, craniological data, the Minusinsk Hollow, the Tagar culture.
AT THE GARIFUNA OF ST. VINCENT
The article introduces modern ethnic processes among the indigenous inhabitants of the island of Saint Vincent — the Garifuna Indian people («Black Caribs»). It is based on a 2015 ethnographic study when 10 % of the Garifuna were interviewed with the help of a special questionnaire on their ethnic territory. The Garifuna make up only 3 % of the country's population, their number which had grown during the entire twentieth century, has begun to decline rapidly in recent years. Negroes and «mix» («mixed») people are the vast majority of the population. The last ones include not only mulattos (born of one white parent and one black parent) but all the mixed population, including children of mixed marriages among the Garifuna and the Blacks. Less than a third of the Garifuna remained on their main ethnic territory, in Sandy Bay district, the others migrated to other parts of the country, and many of them moved abroad. The proportion of the Garifuna in the district is reducing, the number of Negroes and, especially, «mix» people is growing rapidly. There have been active migrations in recent years. The reason is a limited number of jobs in this agricultural district. Migrants go mainly to the South of the island, where tourist industry is actively developing. There are almost no ethnic differences left in the material and spiritual culture and in the language between the Garifuna and the majority of the surrounding Saint Vincentians (blacks and mulattos). The native language went out of use in the first half of the twentieth century. Almost all Garifuna are Christian (Catholics, Anglicans, etc.), as well as the rest of the population. The number of mixed marriages with Negroes and «mixed» people in Sandy Bay district is close to 50 %, and most of the children do not belong to the Garifuna, they join the community of the «mix» people. During the twentieth century, the situation was different: almost all Garifuna were concentrated in the neighborhood of Sandy Bay, where they were the vast majority of the population, there were significantly less mixed marriages, and children in mixed families were often consi-dered to be Garifuna. As a result, the number of the Garifuna on the island was rapidly growing, as well as their proportion in the total population. Things have begun to change only recently, in the last 20–30 years, which threatens the very existence of this ethnic group in the decades to come. At the moment, the uniqueness of the Garifuna is manifested only in their ethnic identity and some minor anthropological features, although there are little differences in appearance of the Garifuna and the Blacks (as a result of an intermixture several centuries long with the surrounding majority).
Key words: Saint Vincent, the Caribs, the Garifuna, ethnic processes, language processes, migrations, demography, mixed marriages, mestization.
THE EVENKS OF THE LOWER IRTYSH VALLEY: A SMALL COMMUNITY ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE ETHNIC AREA
The paper presents the first compilationof information on the history and culture of the Evenks of the Lower Irtysh valley. Comparison of different information sources allowed to argue on reasonable grounds that several Evenk family groups named Likhachev and consist of 20–30 individuals migrated from Turukhansky Krai to the Demyanka-river and Turtas-river valleys in the last decades of the 19th century. The migration was caused by the need of finding unoccupied hunting grounds. The migrants were initially characterized by well-preserved traditional culture, they led a nomadic existence and relied primarily on transport reindeer herding and hunting. The easy penetration of this community into the territory, which was already populated by other Siberian ethnic groups, was due to their occupation of vacant areas of watershed swamps. Being small-numbered the Evenk migrants were compelled to look for marriage partners among neighboring ethnic groups from the very beginning of their relocation. By the end of the 20th century, they lost their language and almost all of their traditional ethnic characteristics. However, their ethnic identity persisted, due to a specific set of strong cultural boundaries, the composition of which have been evolved over time.
Key words: Western Siberia, ethnic identity, cultural boundaries, migration, nomads, taiga reindeer husbandry.
Nabok I.L., Serpivo S.E.
TRANSFORMATION OF THE FEMALE SPACE IN THE TRADITIONAL NENETS CULTURE UP TO THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY
The paper addresses conditions and factors of transformation of the female space in the traditional culture of the Nenets of Yamal up to the beginning of the XXI century. It is noted that the impact of socio-economic and cultural transformations of the modern society contributes to the deformation of the traditional life supporting system and the penetration of non-traditional elements into the life of the indigenous population. The work is based on the data of the author’s sociological research conducted in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (Tazovsky, Yamalsky, Purovsky, Shuryshkarsky, Priuralsky and Nadymsky areas). Education is considered as one of the main factors of this transformation, in particular, an increase in educational level of women, leading to greater economic independence and a change in the position of the Nenets women in the family. Changes in ritual and ceremonial culture are studied as factors of transformation of the female space in the traditional Nenets culture, in particular, changes in the ceremonies of the life cycle (wedding and maternity ceremony), as well as interethnic marriages associated with intensification of industrial development of the Nenets traditional territories.
Key words: traditional culture, female space of a culture, gender approach, transformation, education, the Nenets, ethnic identity, status, interethnic marriages.
Bakieva G.T., Timofeeva A.M.
THE NATIONAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD IN SIBERIAN TATAR PROVERBS
The paper makes an attempt to highlight the most important concepts for the Siberian Tatars and to characterize a set of ethical rules and regulations specific to their culture on the basis of the analysis of their proverbs because they define the foundation of the national picture of the world, the philosophy of life. More than four hundred proverbs of the Siberian Tatars collected and published by one of the authors of the article were the source of the study. Those proverbs and sayings were collected during long-term expedition trips, in places of compact residence of the Siberian Tatars, mainly in villages in the South of Tyumen region. The proverbs were recorded as they sounded in the living speech of the Tatar speakers, thus they preserved phonetic, lexical and grammatical peculiarities of the people's spoken language. It was found out that special attention in the Siberian Tatar proverbs is paid to family, work, knowledge, friendship, fate, homeland, faith. There are a lot of proverbs which regulate relationship between a husband and a wife, parents and children, and determine rules of behavior among them. A Siberian Tatar woman was a keeper of the family foundations, she was responsible for peace and joy in the family, a husband was the undisputed family head, and the children were its main wealth. Proverbs on the topic «work — laziness» have a special place in the paremial fund of the Siberian Tatars. For them, an ability to work hard is an important, inalienable human quality; it is work that brings income. The people's wisdom teaches us not to be afraid of any work, we can judge a person looking at the results of the work he or she did. The topic «knowledge — ignorance» is of high importance in the proverbs of the Siberian Tatars. All the examples address the importance and benefits of knowledge for humans. The topic «poverty — wealth» is also central to the paremial fund. Many Tatar families had a hard life in the harsh climate of Siberia, it was difficult to earn means of living. As a result, we can find far more proverbs and sayings about poverty. As for human relations, the Siberian Tatars valued restraint, perseverance, hospitality, kindness, modesty. Excessive talkativeness, meanness, indifference, curiosity, greed, hypocrisy, envy were subject to condemnation and rejection.
Key words: Siberian Tatars, national picture of the world, folklore, proverbs, culture, philosophy, ethics, people's experience.
MUSEUMIFICATION AS A METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN ETHNO-CULTURAL SPACE AMONG THE CHUVASHES IN THE TOBOL RIVER BASIN IN TYUMEN REGION
The article is dedicated to a cultural and anthropological description of the process of museumification among a Chuvash ethnolocal group in the Tobol river basin in Tyumen region. The paper aims to show how museumification becomes a technology of construction of modern ethno-cultural space in the group under consideration. At the end of the XX century, an urgent demand for ethnic self-determination and preservation of cultural traditions appeared among the Chuvash people in the region. In this regard, processes of ethnic consolidation activated. Museums and museum rooms in various villages of the Southern part of the region gradually start to become centers of such consolidation. They contain artifacts of the culture of daily living activities of the Chuvashes. In course of time, museumification activities of such centers rise to a new level. They begin to have a significant influence on the formation of the ethnic and cultural space of the Chuvash people in the Tobol river basin in Tyumen region through the preservation of traditions, and innovations in cultural transmission. Similarly, private museumification begins to affect the ethno-cultural space. This is a new phenomenon for the group under consideration, and it has been not previously studied.
Key words: the Chuvash people, the Tobol river basin in Tyumen region, museumification, ethno-cultural tradition, ethnic processes.
Sataeva L.V., Sataev R.M.
THE ROLE OF TREES IN THE LIFE OF ANCIENT POPULATION OF GONUR-DEPE (THE BRONZE AGE, TURKMENISTAN)
The article is aimed to clarify the role of woody plants in the life of the ancient population of Gonur-Depe (Turkmenistan), the proto-urban center of Ancient Margiana, which was located in the South-Eastern Karakum (Turkmenistan) and belonged to the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAK). Remains of monumental architecture (a Kremlin with a central palace and a temple complex, surrounded by robust defensive walls with towers) and an adjacent unfortified «suburb» were found in the settlement. According to the radiocarbon datings, the settlement functioned in the time period of 2500 to 1500 years BC. Òhe results of our research show that the population of Gonur Depe widely used wood and wood products. Microscopic analysis of wood showed that saxaul (Saxaul sp.) was used as main fuel. Shrubby types of thistle (Salsola sp.), tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), camel-thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi) were not so widely used. The coal collected in the territory of the Palace-temple complex belongs to tamarisk, saxaul, Calligonum, poplar (Populus sp.), maple (Acer turcomanicum), Spireantus Shrenk's (Spiraeanthus schrenkianus). Poplar and willow (Salix sp.) were used for construction purposes. Pro-ducts of different function (wagon wheels, tools, jewelry) were made of elm (Ulmus sp.), maple (Acer sp.), willow (Salix sp.), ash (Fraxinus sp.), leather smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), exochorda (Exochorda sp.), chaste tree (Vitex sp.). A part of the wood and/or wood products were received from the outside, which again confirms the existence of well-established trade contacts of the inhabitants of Gonur with neighboring regions which were situated at different distances from it.
Key words: archaeobotanical research, use of woody plants, Ancient Margiana, Gonur-Depe.
Nomokonova T.Yu. , Losey R. J., Tupakhina O.S., Tupakhin D.S.
SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS of population of the Lower Ob river basin during the Eneolithic (based on faunal remains of the settlement of GornIy Samotnel-1)
This article is dedicated to the analysis of faunal remains found at the Eneolithic settlement of Gorniy Samotnel-1. This habitation site has a modeled age spanning from 3060 to 2920 cal. BC, firmly within the Middle Holocene. This site is located on the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region on the shore of the Ob’ River. The paper considers the identification of faunal remains from the site, their relative abundances, bone modification (such as natural erosion, carnivore gnawing, butchering traces, and tool making), as well as proportions of skeletal elements and reconstruction of age at death of some individuals. The resulting data demonstrate relatively broad use of natural resources by the inhabitants of Gorniy Samotnel-1 during the Eneolithic, despite a relatively small size of the analyzed assemblage. The results of species identification and other faunal analyses are discussed in association with the rest of the archaeological context. In addition, the article includes information on the reconstruction of paleodiet based on the stable isotope analyses of the residues of pottery vessels at the site. Finally we introduce the zoomorphic images at the site, including possible depictions of elk and waterfowl, which were found in a direct association with the site’s faunal remains.
Key words: zooarchaeology, Eneolithic, faunal remains, settlement of Gorniy Samotnel-1, subsistence patterns, taphonomy, reindeer, fishing.
SOSNOOSTROVSKAYA CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION OF CERAMICS AND THE ISSUES OF CHRONOLOGY
The article continues elaborating upon the topic of the Neolithic household of the Trans-Urals (Zauralye) and Western Siberia population. It aims at clarifying the chronological framework of the Sosnovoostrovskaya culture which occupies an area of the forest-steppe borderlands — South taiga zone of the Tobol river basin. For the first time, a complete summary and analysis of all currently available dates obtained by coal, ceramics and soil samples of palynological columns are presented in the article. The review is preceded by fixation of identification characteristics of dishes as the main cultural diagnostic criterion. The latter is particularly important in light of clearly denoted problems of the chronological framework appearance and local features of Neolithic ceramics ornamented with the use of a comb-stepping technique. Increasingly used radiocarbon dating of ceramics attaches particular topicality to choosing marker characteristics of pottery as the main factor for hasty conclusions about the process of neolithization in the region.
Indicator characteristics of Sosnovoostrovskaya pottery are defined as a combination of a number of morphological and decorative features. Besides, the extensive use of walking comb among them are form of vessels (wall-sided and semi ovoid with a round or a bit pointed bottom); the shape of the rim (without an influx, made with a bevel on the inside, and sometimes a little bent out); décor features (continuous ornamentation of the outer surface, often the edge of the vessel and inner side of the rim). Predominance of horizontal zoning with the use of horizontal, slanting, rarely vertical motives in a pattern. The step, unlike that one on the dishes of Kozlovsky-Poludensky circle, is characterized by a variety of modifications. The wide use of rows, less often zones of zigzag, prickings and geometric patterns is specific). A belt of pearls along the edge of the vessel from the outer or inner side is a universal marker of the culture.
Chronology of Sosnovoostrovskaya antiquities is updated. It is found that most of the dates gravitate to the first half of the V millennium BC and partly even to the turn of the VI–V millennium BC, which makes the existence of culture more ancient for at least half a millennium. This time interval corresponds to the period of the mid-Atlantic, which is characterized by excessive humidity in these areas. High hypsometric level of Sosnovoostrovskaya settlements arrangement is consistent with this fact.
Key words: the Neolithic, the Trans-Urals, the Sosnovoostrovskaya culture, comb-stepping technique, radiocarbon dates, the indicator signs of Sosnovoborsky pottery.
Tigeeva E.V., Novikov I.K., Shilov S.N.
METAL COMPLEX OF THE BRONZE AGE FROM AN ALAKUL BURIAL GROUND (TYPOLOGY AND MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES)
The article deals with metal artifacts from an Alakul burial ground, which is considered to be one of the largest and brightest monuments of the Alakul culture in the Trans-Urals. There is a description of morphological and typological characteristics of the metal complex which determined the main types of objects, a circle of cultural analogies, and also artifacts which aren't found among materials of other monuments. The main raw materials for production of artifacts were tin bronze (71,6 %). Concentration of tin in jewelry markers of the Alakul culture (cross-shaped pendants) could reach 25–30 %. The obtained data reflect the extent of expansion of use of tin alloy with simultaneous reduction of number of products made of pure copper by the Alakul populations, in comparison with the previous Petrovka culture. This process was promoted by the established relations with sources of metal raw materials and, in particular, of tin alloy arriving in the form of small rectangular bars with concentration of tin of 2–5 %, possibly from centers of production of metal in Central Kazakhstan and the Altai.
The metallographic analysis revealed 8 technological schemes applied to produce an inventory complex and jewelry with a prevalence of high-temperature modes. The fact that masters of the Alakul burial ground chose from such big variety of technological schemes calls attention, because they adopted traditional methods of Petrovka metal working. However, the increase in share of forge technologies of molding in combination with forging hot metal processing at temperatures of full red heat, increase in application of preliminary homogenization annealing, which is necessary when working with high tin bronze, were, undoubtedly, a progressive phenomenon. The received data characterize the studied metal complex as traditional for the entire Alakul culture of the Tobol river basin, on the one hand, and as original and unique, on the other hand.
Key words: the Alakul culture, metal industry, morphological and typological characteristic, metallographic analysis.
Zakh V.A., Zimina O.Y., Ilyushina V.V., Danchenko E.M., Yen’shin D.N.
CERAMIC COMPLEX OF THE END OF THE BRONZE AGE AND THE TRANSITION PERIOD TO THE IRON AGE FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF BORKI 1 (BASED ON THE RESULTS OF 2012–2013 WORKS)
The article characterizes the ceramic complex of the Late Bronze Age from the settlement of Borki 1, located in Vikulovsky district of Tyumen region. The settlement is multilayer: it includes complexes of the Late Bronze Age, of the transitional time from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, and of the Middle Ages. The article deals with complexes of the border of the Bronze and Iron Ages. This period at the settlement includes a Suzgun culture dwelling, which has been partly studied, with separate fragments and broken vessels of the Suzgun culture at the bottom of the ditch. Ceramic fragments of the Krasnoozerka culture are found in the upper part and in the space between the dwellings. According to the analysis of morphology, ornamentation and technology of manufacturing of vessels, it was established that Suzgun ceramics dominate in the complex, Krasnoozerka vessels are not numerous, features of labour skills of potters of the both cultures are similar in all studied stages of pottery production. The authors present two points of view on the historical and cultural situation on the border of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, which is presented by materials of the settlement of Borki 1. One of them is the fact that the cape on which the settlement of Borki 1 is located, was developed twice at the End of the Bronze Age. First time, in the late period of the Late Bronze Age by representatives of the Suzgun culture, which could come into contact with populations of other cultures, which explains the co-occurrence of Suzgun pottery and ceramics with cross ornamentation in the same accumulation, and the presence of coal clay in a fragment of the Suzgun culture vessel with a partial imprint, reminiscent of a cross. Later, at the turn of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages, the site was shortly (given the small number of ceramics) visited by the Krasnoozerka culture representatives. One of the authors supposes that the entire complex of the final period of the Bronze Age of the settlement of Borki 1 can be attributed to the Krasnoozerka culture.
Key words: the Low Ishim river basin, Borki 1, the Suzgun culture, the Krasnoozerka culture, cera-mics, technical and technological analysis.
THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE TO THE IRON AGE ON THE TERRITORY OF THE ISHIM RIVER BASIN: RESULTS AND PROBLEMS OF STUDY
The work is aimed at summarizing studies of the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age on the territory of the Ishim river basin. We address this subject for several reasons. Firstly, this period is characterized by increased migration activity of the population, which is reflected in the multicomponent archaeological material and ambiguity in interpretation. Secondly, in archaeological terms, the Ishim river basin has long remained poorly understood, but recent works have significantly changed this situation. There is a need to summarize all available information on the topic under consideration. Therefore, the data on the study of monuments were collected in chronological order; existing points of view on their origin, chronology, and cultural attribution are systematized. The history of the study on the topic is divided into two stages. The first one covers the 60s — the early 80-s of the XX century. In this period, there were occasional studies of the monuments we are interested in, the first publications of their materials and diagrams of historical and cultural development. The lower chronological limit of the second stage can be considered the beginning of 80-s of the last century. Since that time, the field work has been activated, research has acquired a systematic and focused character, there have been debates on the cultural background of the monuments, their history and origin. These trends are ongoing. The paper points out the key challenges and suggests areas for further research.
Key words: the transition period from the Bronze to the Iron Age, the Ishim tiver basin, cross cera-mics, the Krasnoozerka culture, history of the study.
Vodyasov E.V., Gusev An.V.
THE EARLIEST EVIDENCE OF IRON METALLURGY IN THE LOWER OB RIVER REGION (source: Ust-Polui excavations in 2010–2012)
For the first time, the article reveals the ancient iron metallurgy sources discovered in 2010–2012 in the sacrifice site of Ust-Polui (Salekhard). Ust-Polui archaeometallurgical objects date back to the 3rd century BC — 1st century AD and they are the earliest evidence of ferrous metallurgy in the Ñircumpolar zone. Discovery of the new Early Iron Age ferrous metallurgy site demonstrates the specific way of human adaptation to the conditions of Extreme North. Ust-Polui materials push the origins of metallurgic technologies in the North of Western Siberia virtually several centuries back in time and significantly expand the geography of ferrous metallurgy at the cusp between the eras. All bloomery slag and ruins discovered in 2010–2012 were associated with an ancient moat, at the edge of which the bloomery process must have been organized. Basing on the thickness of bloomery walls (1,5–3 cm) and slag morphology, it is suggested that Ust-Polui metallurgists used small smelting furnaces (1 m high at the most) without special canals for draining liquid slag. Archaeological and geochemical analysis proves that all slag described in this article was produced as a result of developing the same iron ore deposit. The new evidence of Early Iron Age ferrous metallurgy at the Arctic Circle opens up new horizons for research. We have not seen any other similar evidence of ferrous metallurgy that far North at the cusp of the epochs. It was only in the Middle Ages that smelting furnaces began to appear in the Circumpolar zone of Scandinavia, the largest metallurgic region of Northern Europe, and furnaces of the Early Iron Age were found much further South from the Arctic Circle. No Early Iron Age smelting furnaces were discovered at the Arctic Circle latitude of Alaska, Northern Canada or North-Eastern Siberia. Therefore, Ust-Polui is probably the most Northern point on the Earth where ferrous metallurgy was developed by ancient people.
Key words: Ust-Polui, Circumpolar zone, iron production, the Early Iron Age.
ANDREEVSKOIE LAKE SYSTEM (hydrology and use of natural resources according to archaeological and cartographic materials of the XVIII‒XX centuries)
The article is dedicated to fluctuations in the water regime in the Andreevskoie Lake system and, particularly, to Bolshoi Andreevskii Island, which serves as a kind of indicator of the fluctuations. According to cartographic materials, the island was connected with the mainland in some periods, and other times it was an island. The water level in the lake system could change in the range of 2–2,5 m. The change of the water regime led to landscape changes. Aridity and humidification of the climate determined the primacy of economic trends in the life supporting systems of the societies with appropriating and producing economy. So, periods of flooding contributed to the rise of appropriation forms, i.e. hunting and fishing, and aridity in the middle of the II millennium B.C. brought cattle breeding and, probably, agriculture to the Andreevskoie Lake system. Besides, the change of water regimes influenced the forms of economy, first of all fishing. Periods of floods included small rivers and channels between the lakes and the Duvan river into economic activities, on these small rivers they built special blocking constructions for catching fish. In aridity periods, even the Duvan river was probably blocked. Nets and traps were probably used during all periods.
Key words: Andreevskoie Lake system, Bolshoi Andreevskii Island, hydrological regime, aridity, humidification, appropriating forms of economy, producing forms of economy.
Kufterin V.V., Nechvaloda A.I.
BIOANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE SRUBNO-ALAKUL MOUND AT SELIVANOVKA II CEMETERY (SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS)
The article presents some results of an anthropological study of a skeletal sample (19 individuals) from the excavation of the mound 1 Selivanovka II cemetery (Southern Trans-Urals), performed in 2000. Cultural identity of this burial place is defined as mixed Srubno-Alakul with Alakul dominance. There are no tombs of mature and senile individuals. In double tombs adult (and perhaps sub-adult) individuals of different sexes are buried. Sub-adult subgroup demonstrates a lag in the rate of longitudinal growth from the modern standards. The individual metrics of adult individuals are similar. In body proportions, the adults are close to the populations of the «steppe» morphological type, on the one hand, and to the Chalcolithic — Bronze Age groups of Central Asia, on the other. The latter is manifested in elongation of tibias in some skeletons from Selivanovka. Excessive frequency of some epigenetic markers may indicate close relationship of the buried individuals.
Key words: bioanthropology, Srubno-Alakul population, Selivanovka II cemetery, Bronze Age, Sou-thern Trans-Urals.
Bravina R.I., Dyakonov V.M., Nikolaev E.N., Petrov D.M., Syrovatskiy V.V., Bagashev A.N., Poshekhonova O.E., Slepchenko S.M., Razhev D.I., Alexeeva E.A., Zubova A.V., Kuzmin Ya.V.
COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE EARLY YAKUT SERGELYAKH BURIAL OF THE XV — BEGINNING OF THE XVI CENTURIES
The paper presents a comprehensive study of graves which relate to rare burial sites of the early stage of ethnic history of the Yakuts. The burial belongs to an equestrian warrior. It is confirmed by the findings of the horse harness and fragments of weapons, including a part of a Central Asian composite bow which is unique to the Yakuts, arrowheads and a blade of palma (Siberian pole weapon). The vertebral pathologies and morphological features of femurs also point at riding as a usual way of transportation. Multiple injuries of bones indicate to an aggressive lifestyle. The death of the man was caused by a penetrating injury of the head with a bladed weapon. Craniological characteristics of the man correspond to the South Siberian populations characterized by a combination of Caucasoid and Mongoloid features. In this case, the latter prevails. The ritual funerary complexes correspond to the Ust-Talkin culture, which alongside with cranial features of the man enable us to associate Sergelyakh burial with Turkic part of the Sakha people, which is epically correlated with the legendary Elley Bootur.
Key words: Sergelyakh burial, Ust-Talkin culture, the Yakuts, craniometry, skull, physical type, paleopathology, population.
Poshekhonova O.E., Zubova A.V., Sleptsova A.V.
CRANIOLOGY AND ODONTOLOGY OF THE EARLY MEDIEVAL POPULATION ALONGSIDE THE TOBOL RIVER, BASED ON USTYUG-1 BURIAL GROUND
The article presents the results of craniological and odontological research based on a group of Ustyug-1 burial ground. The goal of the research is to determine genesis of the Bakal population from the Tobol river region of the Great Migration time. Morphology of the group was compared with the available data on the populations of the Early Iron Age, Early and High Middle Ages of this and adjacent regions. Their biological connection was determined. It was established that a dominant component in the Bakal population is genetically associated with Western Siberian population of the Early Iron Age. It is found out that by the IV–VI centuries AD the ancient multicomponent substrate of the Bakal group almost did not contain Caucasian morphological type. It was present only as a small admixture. The main component is the West Siberian short-faced Mongoloid complex. By the IX–XIII centuries, that component completely dominated in the paleopopulation structure. But a mixed population with Central Asian admixture came from the East in the Turkic period. A small proportion of this South Siberian morphological type is observed in the later Bakal groups. Superstrata component of Kushnarenkovo, which was identified basing on the archaeological materials, is not observed in the anthropological structure of the Bakal population. Odontology data gives a similar conclusion. A complex of odontology traits suggests heterogeneity of the group. Besides, Sargatka component was transformed under the influence of migration from the Eastern part of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia and Central Asia. Sargatka component in the Bakal group looks much more indistinct, compared with the population of the Baraba forest-steppe. Markers of the Southern gracile type almost disappear, being replaced by Western Siberian complex.
Key words: West Siberia, the Early Middle Ages, paleoanthropology, craniology, odontology, Bakal archaeological culture.
LOCAL COMMUNITIES OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF YAKUTIA: SOCIAL STATUS OF THE EVENS
The article is written on the basis of comprehensive studies carried out at the place of compact residence of the Evens, one of the Northern aboriginal minorities of Russia. Characteristics of contemporary socio-economic, demographic and ethno-cultural situation of the local indigenous population were examined during field observations in Lamynkhinsky nasleg of Kobiayskiy region of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Statistical social indicators of the settlements in recent years were also studied, a survey and interviews were carried out among the local residents. The geographic factors cause challenges: our collected data indicate the presence of latent unemployment. As a result the migration persists at high level. High percentage of cancer-related mortality is to be underlined among negative social facts. Population of the nasleg needs the material base of social institutions to be improved, at first, and housing construction to be accelerated. Our field study shows that the natural isolation and limited linkages with communities related to other cultures play a positive role in maintaining the Even language and culture. Also, positive demographic trends are observed in Lamynkhinsky nasleg. The birth rate exceeds the death rate, and the youth is prevalent in the age structure. Local traditional economy has a potential for the development. These factors have a positive impact on the modern subsistence of the Evens. It should be noted that these realities of Lamynkhinsky nasleg, according to the author opinion, are typical for the majority of isolated settlements in the Russian North.
Key words: Yakutia, aboriginal peoples of the North, the Evens, ethnic demography, local community, ethnic culture, socio-economic development.
EDUCATION AMONG THE SIBERIAN TATARS IN 1918–1930: GOALS, PROBLEMS, RESULTS (based on Tobolsk County)
The article deals with insufficiently studied issues related to education reforms among the Siberian Tatars. Peculiarities of the development of education in Tobolsk District (County) in 1918–1930 are brought to light for the first time. That period was characterized as a transition from a traditional religious school to a secular labor one. In that period, schools for the Tatar population of Tobolsk District were national, which corresponded to the proclaimed principles of the Soviet state. The authorities carried out an active policy towards education reform among the Siberian Tatars of Tobolsk County, taking into account their national characteristics and, to some extent, maintaining continuity of education. The schools which already existed were simply included into the state network, and the teachers of the new schools were those who received the traditional Muslim education. A special feature of the control over the system of education for the Tobolsk District Tatars during the period under consideration was the fact that the organization of educational field was being conducted by the Muslim subdivision, a specially created body affiliated with the District Department of Public Education, and the solution of financial and current matters was transferred to the local authorities. Due to objective reasons, the Soviet state was experien-cing great financial difficulties, and shifted logistical and financial support of the schools to the local population. The authorities failed to fully solve the main problem: to achieve mass literacy as soon as possible by introducing universal, compulsory, and free education. But still there were positive results, which certainly had been achieved thanks to the great efforts and enthusiasm of the local authorities and certain people of the regional education. Almost all maktabs, which were present in Tobolsk County, were incorporated into the network of public schools, turning from religious schools to the 1st degree schools. The number of schools, students and teachers was growing, there was co-education for boys and girls. Such events as congresses, educational courses and conferences contributed not only to improvement of professional level of the teachers, but also served as a tool for propaganda of socialist ideas among the indigenous population.
Key words: education, Siberian Tatars, the Soviet government, labor school, management, teachers' congresses, educational courses, Tobolsk District (County).
Istomin K.V., Liskevich N.A., Sharapov V.E.
SAMBURG GROUP OF KOMI: ORIGIN, HISTORY AND ETHNO-CULTURAL PROCESSES
In this paper, the authors attempt to reconstruct the history of the Eastern most compact group of the Izhma Komi currently known — the one living in the village of Samburg, Purovski District, Yamal-Nenets Autonomus Okrug, Russia. The authors also describe ethno-cultural processes (changes in material and spiritual culture) which have been going in the group as well as the distinct ways its members maintain, re-create and transform their ethnic identity. The research is based on the ethnographic observations and interviews performed by the authors in 2004, 2009 and 2016 as well as on published and unpublished (archival) documents. The arrival of the Komi population to the lower Pur and the establishment of the village of Samburg were related to the formation of the state reindeer herding enterprise (sovkhoz) «Purovski» in 1937. This sovkhoz was formed on the basis of the earlier «Kutopyuganski» sovkhoz, which was situated in Nadym District of YNAO. The personnel of this earlier sovkhoz, which now became the personnel of «Purovsky» enterprise, consisted of reindeer herding families originated from different villages with large Komi population situated in the former Tobolsk Gubernia. Many of these families were victims of the infamous dekulakization campaign (the campaign of political repressions, including deportations, against the wealthy peasants) of 1929–1931. Mainly due to ecological reasons, the Komi re-settlers in Samburg have not re-created the complex of settled culture and economy, which is traditional for the Izhma Komi, and have almost lost those aspects of spiritual culture that were related to this complex. At the same time, they retained and continue to retain the traditional complex of nomadic reindeer herding culture of the Izhma Komi and some elements of this complex have been borrowed by the local Nenets reindeer herders. Since the late 1930s, the Komi re-settlers maintain close contacts, including numerous inter-ethnic marriages, with the local tundra and forest Nenets. These contacts were made easier due to the Komi-Nenets bilingualism, which became widespread in the region. Currently, the majority of the local Komi live in mixed Komi-Nenets families. In these families, children are usually registered as Nenets in official documents. However, many of these Nenets unofficially identify themselves as Komi and express strong preference for Komi culture and language. Therefore, the process of assimilation of the Samburg Komi by the local Nenets is going on, but it has an interesting peculiarity: the assimilated Komi use and express their Nenets identity in official circumstances but retain their original ethnicity in the unofficial ones.
Key words: the Izhma Komi, reindeer herding, situational ethnicity, ethnic identity, sovkhoz «Purovski», Samburg.
Liskevich N.A., Masharipova A.H.
THE ROLE OF «THE VILLAGE DAY» IN PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL MEMORY OF THE KOMI RE-SETTLERS IN WESTERN SIBERIA
The features of the holiday “The Village Day” in the settlements, founded by the Komi on the territory of Western Siberia in the 1840s, are identified. The focus is made on the celebrations dedicated to the 170th anniversary of the village Saranpaul’ of Berezovsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra (15 September, 2012), and of the village of Ivanovka of Yalutorovsk District of Tyumen Oblast (7 July, 2014). The basic elements of the holiday, its functions in relation to the territory and population are highlighted in the article. «The Village Day» in the Komi settlements is characterized by a series of meaningful symbolic actions. The population reconstructs plots of the historical legends about the first settlers and difficulties of development of the new territory, which is related to the ancestor worship and emphasizes labour rights to the developed territory. They de-monstrate family heirlooms and/or reconstructed genealogies which embody the idea of a clan. They use their mother tongue for congratulations, and elements of traditional clothes or other cultural attributes which have a high semiotic status in this situation and emphasize group identity.
Key words: the Komi, the Zyrians, first settlers, holiday structure, historical memory.
«PARK ON BONES»: MYTHOLOGIZATION OF MODERN URBAN SPACE IN SIBERIAN CITIES
The article analyzes mythological beliefs about the parks, which are laid out at old cemeteries or very close to them in the Siberian cities of Tyumen and Tara. The complex of such beliefs is presented in the local narratives and urban practices that are transmitted and actualized among the people, who identify themselves with these cities. This research is based on the interviews with local people and regional historians and on the data of local media. The research points out a number of the most common motifs for constructing the image of «the park on bones» in the actual mythological landscape of the Siberian cities. First of all, there is a folk motif of «it is impossible to build something on the place of a burial». Its popularity is mainly based on the influence of images and plots of popular culture on the urban texts and practices. There are some other typical motifs, such as «this place attracts marginal people», «this place attracts some ghosts», and «the place can punish you for misbehaviour». The last motif is often accompanied by some reflections on the causes of punishment and on what kind of beha-vior is wrong in this special place. For example, Tara people believe that the fate of the city has changed from a positive (a successful merchant town) to a negative (a little depressing town) one, because of impoliteness to the old cemetery. Additionally, the version of «misbehaviour» depends on cultural identity of the person. The phenomenon of creating a park on the site of the old cemeteries requires symbolic understanding by the urban community and inscription of these positive and negative spaces into the urban mythological landscape with the help of the motifs that already potentially appear in the narratives.
Key words: mythological landscape, local narrative, urban text, Tyumen, Tara, cultural identity.
Terekhin E.A., Smekalova T.N.
ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL AND TEXTURAL FEATURES OF FORMS OF ANCIENT FARMING AND LAND SURVEY, TYPICAL OF THE TERRITORY OF WESTERN CRIMEA BASED ON REMOTE SENSING DATA
On the basis of multi-temporal remote sensing data received with an interval of 50 years, a study of ancient forms of farming in the territory of Western Crimea was carried out. The results of quantitative assessment of structural and textural features of ancient farming forms, typical of Western Crimea, are presented. A method of estimating textural features of ancient farming forms, which are located at the site of today's agricultural land is suggested. The method is based on calculating the parameters of texture within the contours of modern farmland, split into cells of a size which let us visually analyze the spatial features of the ancient forms of agriculture. A possibility of spatial transformation of images in order to identify and quantify ancient agricultural forms, which are located in the place of today's agricultural lands, is shown. It was found that the efficiency of the same spatial transformation of satellite images depends on a number of adjustable parameters, which are determined by the geometric features of the analyzed forms of archaeological objects.
Key words: Ancient arable farming, Geoarchaeology, remote sensing, GIS mapping, GIS technology, Western Crimea.
LIVESTOCK HANDLING CONDITIONS AT THE BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS (ACCORDING TO THE ANALYSIS OF PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE BONE SYSTEM)
The article presents the results of a research of pathological changes in bones of livestock from five settlements of the Middle and Late Bronze Age of the Southern Trans-Urals: Kamennyi Ambar (Ol'gino), Konoplyanka, Malaya Berezovaya-4, Bol’shaya Berezovaya-2 and Alexandro-Nevskoe-II. It was found that most of all identified pathologies relate to the cattle bone remains. Far fewer cases of pathologies were observed on the bones of small cattle and horses. In more than a half of cases, pathologies on the cattle bones are manifestations of diffe-rent forms of limb bones osteoarthritis. This group of deviations has a chronic and age character. The remaining part of pathologies relates to the dental system. Pathologies of the skeletal system of small cattle and horses generally have an inflammatory character. The number and nature of the identified abnormalities in the bones of the livestock indicate to satisfactory health state and conditions of handling at the settlements under consideration. Different forms of osteoarthritis in the cattle limb bones in the settlement of Kamennyi Ambar (Ol'gino) suggest that some animals of those species were used as draught animals.
Key words: Southern Trans-Urals, the Bronze Age, Archaeozoology, Paleopathology, osteoarthritis, health state, cattle (Bos taurus), sheep and goats (Capra hircus et Ovis aries), horse (Equus caballus), draught cattle.
Kovaleva V.T., Zyryanova S.Y.
THE PROBLEM OF INTERPRETATION OF THE BOBORYKINO CULTURE IN THE MIDDLE TRANS-URALS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE LATEST DISCOVERIES
The article deals with debating questions regarding research of the Boborykino archaeological culture. It gives a brief overview of historiography and characteristics of a unique Neolithic phenomenon of North Eurasia. The basis of sources for research of the Boborykino culture consists of more than 50 settlements in the Middle Trans-Urals. The paper emphasizes originalities of the Boborykino culture in pottery technology and typology. Boborykino pottery differs from other Neolithic Ural complexes. Similar pottery and objects for worship, as well as some peculiarities in ceramic production technology, have been found in Neolithic complexes of North Mesopotamia. Therefore, we may conclude that the formation of the Boborykino culture is the result of migration. The main features of the Boborykino culture remained almost untouched for more than one thousand years. It is extremely difficult to trace the internal dynamics of the Boborykino culture and its contacts with indigenous population. All this leads to the conclusion that the Boborykino culture is conservative by nature.
Over the last years new data were excavated in North Kazakhstan and Baraba forest-steppe region (Autodrome 2/2, Borly). New settlements are located outside of the main Boborykino cultural area. However, their material culture has significant typological similarity with the sites of the main Boborykino culture area. That is why we can assume that their populations have common origin from the Near East and we can determine the direction of migration paths. Migrants occupied vacant lands between indigenous settlements. Peaceful colonization of vast territories led to the discrete nature of cultural genesis.
The idea of the genesis of culture is connected to the understanding of culture. Ornamental compositions of ceramics and objects for worship become a source of interpretation of the Boborykino culture. The ornaments are treated as texts. Transcript of the ornaments is based on the analysis of geographical conditions, form of economy, social relations. The semantics of ornaments is revealed by the context. In this case, it is more important than the text. The main topics of the ornament reflect the ideas of water, rain, earth, grain and serpents, and give ground to associate them with the cult of fertility.
New results of carbon analysis of Boborykino antiquities confirmed the proposed earlier dating of the culture within the end of the V — the end of the IV millennium BC.
Key words: Middle Trans-Urals, Boborykino culture, late Neolithic, migration, colonization, homogeneity.
Iudina E.A., Tonkushina M.O., Kulesh N.A., Ostroushko A.A.
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL OCHRE: METHOD AND POSSIBILITIES OF X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY (based on materials of Neolithic and Aeneolithic sites of the Middle Trans-Urals and Western Siberia)
The article is dedicated to methodological aspects of the elemental analysis (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) of a natural mineral pigment — ochre. We chose oxide ochre obtained from the Neolithic and Aeneolithic sites of the taiga zone of Western Siberia and the Middle Urals (the end of VI — III millennium BC) as a source base. The questions of selection and preparation of archaeological samples, and of interpretive capabilities of the chosen approach are discussed in the article.
Key words: oxide ochre, natural mineral pigments, Neolithic Age, Aeneolithic Age, Western Siberia, Middle Trans-Urals, elemental analysis, XRF spectroscopy.
Serikov Yu.Â., Vizgalov G.P., Konovalenko M.V.
STONE ARTEFACTS FROM STADUHINO JAIL ON NIZHNYAYA KOLYMA (THE SAKHA REPUBLIC (YAKUTIA))
In the article we analyse a complex of stone tools from a settlement of the Russians of XVII–XVIII centuries. Stone scrapers are the most interesting tools from that complex. Trosological analysis of scrapers shows that a special technology of splitting of gravel-stones and manufacturing of scrapers for initial processing of fells existed in the settlement. The scrapers were used for removing inner side of fell.
Key words: stone scrapers, fishing plummets, grinding stones, secondary use of ancient artefacts.
PROBLEM OF CHRONOLOGY AND ORIGIN OF THE ALAKUL CULTURE IN LIGHT OF NEW EXCAVATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN URALS
The article deals with chronology and origin of the Alakul culture of the Bronze Age in the Trans-Urals and with searching for its early sites. One of the problems of the Bronze Age in the Trans-Urals is that there are no sites of the Sintashta and Petrovka periods in forest-steppe areas. Basing on analysis of stratigraphic situations and typological characteristics, relations of the Alakul culture with other cultural complexes of the region and adjacent territories, such as Petrovka, Tashkovo, Koptyaki, Elunino, Seyma-Turbino, were identified. A conclusion was made about synchronization of the early Alakul sites with the Sintashta culture. The same possibility is testified by Poltavka inclusions in Alakul ceramics. It is also confirmed by the results of radiocarbon dating. And this dating completely corresponds to the early dates obtained from analyses of materials of the Chistolebyazhsky and Hripunovsky cemeteries. Today the number of such early dates increased and is already 43 % of all the Alakul dates, so it can't be considered as an accidental result. Respectively, formation of the Alakul culture began in the forest-steppe soon after the Sintashta people had appeared in the steppe Trans-Urals, due to isolation of populations, bearers of the Sintashta and Poltavka traditions. Similar processes in Kazakhstan led to the origin of the Petrovka culture.
Key words: Alakul culture, Bronze Age, Trans-Urals, dating and origins.
CHRONOLOGY AND ORIGIN OF «THE ALAKUL CULTURE» IN THE TRANS-URALS. REFLECTIONS ON THE STANISLAV A. GRIGORIEV CONCEPT
The paper is devoted to criticism of the concept of Alakul culture origin and history proposed by Stanislav Grigoriev. The author casts doubt on Stanislav Grigoriev opinion about the dating Alakul sites in the Trans-Urals within two separate time periods and about a direct genetic link of Alakul population and inhabitants of Sintashta sites.
Key words: the forest-steppe Trans-Urals, the Late Bronze age, the Alakul culture, the Sintashta sites, the Petrovka sites.
REVISITING RADIOCARBON ARGUMENTATION OF EARLY DATING OF ALAKUL’ ANTIQUITIES
The main aim of the article is the publication of the full catalog of Alakul’ radiocarbon dates. Analysis of the sequences has shown a very contradictory picture. On the one hand, the statistical tests for the same complexes (combine radiocarbon dates) indicated that more than half of them should not be used. The sum of the probabilities did not show a normal distribution. On the other hand, the reference series of Lisakovsky cemeteries (and other AMS dates) clearly corresponded to the scheme of periodization of the Late Bronze Age in Eastern Europe and Western Siberia. In this regard, the Alakul’ culture is to be attributed to the first half of the II millennium BC with a probable reduction of this interval in future.
Key words: Late Bronze Age, Trans-Urals, relative and absolute chronology, radiocarbon dating.
RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY OF KOZHUMBERDY CULTURAL GROUP ON THE WESTERN PERIPHERY OF THE ALAKUL AREA
The article discusses the problem of chronology of the Kozhumberdy cultural group from the Ural-Mugodzhary region, which is the local variant of the Alakul culture. It introduces into scientific use a new series of radiocarbon dates from settlements and burial grounds of the Late Bronze Age, located in the southern spurs of the Ural Mountains. The analysis of the raw data allowed us to determine the chronological interval of existence of monuments of the Kozhumberdy cultural groups within the second half of the XVIII century BC — XII century BC with possible division of this period into two successive phases, the boundary between them is approximately 1400 BC. Radiocarbon dating allows us to make a conclusion about the relative synchrony of the Alakul and the Fedorovo cultures. Only monuments of the Late Alakul (Petrovka) stage have chronological priority, while the appearance of Fedorovo component refers to an advanced stage of the Alakul culture. The late phase of the existence of monuments of the Kozhumberdy cultural groups is linked in time with the horizon of Valikovaya pottery cultures of the end of the Bronze Age which makes their genetic continuity possible.
Key words: Late Bronze Age, Alakul culture, Kozhumberdy cultural group, Ural-Mugodzhary region, radiocarbon dating.
THE EARLY SITES OF THE ALAKUL CULTURE IN THE URAL-KAZAKHSTAN REGION
The paper was written as part of the discussions about the S.A. Grigoriev view on particular origins of the Alakul culture in the forest-steppe Trans-Urals. S.A. Grigoriev identified categories early Alakul sites, which are not related to Petrovka culture and synchronized them with Sintashta period. The author of this paper raises the problem of similarity and diversity of early stage of the Alakul culture in different regions of the Ural-Kazakhstan region. In the main part of the article it shows a ceramic typology of early Alakul sites. The comparison shows that the early Alakul vessels associated with Petrovka type of ceramics, which is presented on all local variants of the Ural-Kazakhstan region. Sintashta signs fixed only at the earliest types in conjunction with the features of the Petrovka culture. At the same time the specificity of ceramic complexes allows to distinguish two different variants of the Alakul culture in different territories. The first variant — «classic» or Eastern which is situated in forest-steppe of the Trans-Urals, Tobol river region, North and Central Kazakhstan. The second variant is «non-classical» or Western occupies the steppe areas of the Southern Urals and West Kazakhstan (Aktobe-Orsk region).
Key words: the Late Bronze Age, ceramic complexes, the Alakul culture, the Petrovka type, the early Alakul type.
Khokhlov A.A., Solodovnikov K.N., Rykun M.P., Kravchenko G.G., Kitov E.P.
CRANIOLOGICAL DATA ON THE PROBLEM OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATIONS OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE YAMNAYA AND AFANASYEVO CULTURES
This study focuses on the problem of the relationship between two distinctive Early Bronze Age cultures — Yamnaya of Eastern Europe and Afanasyevo of Southern Siberia; the issue is still very topical and appealing to a wide range of specialists in the field of history. Here we summarize the existing hypotheses on the origin of the Afanasyevo population, compare cranial material of geographically and chronologically different groups of these cultures with the series of Eneolithic — Middle Bronze Age skulls from Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia and South Siberia. Multivariate statistics techniques, such as canonical analysis and clustering of Mahalanobis distances, were used. The heterogeneity of the local Yamnaya and Afanasyevo groups, as well as predominance of wide-face European-type anthropological components in both populations, were shown. Comparative Neo-Eneolithic craniological materials of Altai, adjacent areas of Southern Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan demonstrate morphological complexes with moderate face profiling. The population with such appearance cannot be considered as a basis for the European-type Afanasyevo population. Among available Neo-Eneolithic craniological series from Central and Western Asia, Caucasus and South-Eastern Europe, various types of dolichocranial meso- or hypomorphic European-type individuals clearly prevail. They are morphologically different from the Afanasyevo craniological samples of Altai and the Minusinsk Hollow. As such, we deny the existing point of view on the origins of the proto-Afanasyevo population in Central and Western Asia regions. From the overall results of morphological analysis, we suggest that the ancestors of the proto-Afanasyevo population need to be sought specifically among the steppe and forest-steppe Eneolithic — Early Bronze Age populations of Eastern Europe. According to our data, Yamnaya groups from Volga-Ural regions, which, moreover, appear to be chronologically the oldest ones within the populations of the Yamnaya cultural-historical area, demonstrate the greatest craniological similarity with the Afanasyevo groups from the Altai Mountains. Therefore, we support archaeological research and anthropological arguments which suggest that the appearance of the proto-Afanasyevo people in the Altai region is related to the migration of some Eneolithic — Early Bronze Age Eastern European population, most likely from the Volga-Ural areas.
Key words: Yamnaya culture, Afanasyevo culture, morphological features, anthropological components, genetic unity.
Zubova A.V., Marchenko Zh.V., Grishin A.E.
STRUCTURE OF ALIMENTATION OF THE BEARERS OF THE ODINO CULTURE FROM THE BARABA FORREST-STEPPE AREA (ODONOLOGIC DATA)
The article is dedicated to reconstruction of paleodiet in three groups of the Odino archaeological culture from the burial sites of Sopka-2/4A, Tartas-1 and Preobrazhenka-6. The main goals of the article are to analyse carbohydrates and protein consumption, to determine the level of biological stress and to compare the Odinovo diet with the same features of the Neolithic — Late Bronze Age populations from the South region of Western Siberia. Chronological changes in the composition of the diet were analyzed too. Frequencies of dental pathologies allow us to suggest a complex composition of the diet in the Sopka-2/4A group where a low level of carbohydrates and prevalence of animal protein were presented. The level of the food stresses was low. There are no serious differences between men and women. Basing on the sample from Tartas-1, we can suggest a higher, than in Sopka-2/4A, level of carbohydrates consumption and also a low level of stress. There is a higher level of animal proteins in the late burials. Very high frequency of caries was found in the samples from Preobrazhenka-6, which indicates a high level of carbohydrates here. Also there is a high level of food stresses, which is respectively low in women than in men. Women from this site are characterized by lower frequency of ante-mortem tooth loss and caries than men. The results of the comparative analysis showed that the strategy of food consumption had been common for the population of the Baraba forrest and steppe area during at least three thousand years.
Key words: Bronze Age, Odino culture, dental anthropology, paleopathology, paleodiet, caries, hypoplasia, dental calculus.
Bobrova A.I., Alekseeva E.A.
BURIAL SITES AS A SOURCE OF FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE INDIGENOUS POPULATION FROM THE RIVER KET BASIN (XV–XVII AD)
The article presents results of the study of archaeological and paleoanthropological materials from burial mounds in the basin of the river Ket (XV–XVII AD). The region was a special contact area in the Late Middle Ages. The phenomenon is in the fact that people of different ethnic groups lived there: Kets, Selkups, Evenks and Russians. The researchers made a clear conclusion about ethnic identification of the peoples from burial grounds (XV–XVII AD). They were Samodeic-Selkup. The research focused on anthropological materials from burial grounds of the low (Yoltyrevsky burial mound II, Yoltyrevsky burial mound III), and middle (Karbinsky burial mound II) Keta river basin (Kolpashevsky and Verkhneketsky Districts of Tomsk region). Those artifacts were made by members of the Southern group of Selkups (Narym), representatives of the ethnic groups of siussekum (siussykum). The appearance of representatives of that population is recreated with the help of anthropological reconstruction in graphic technique.
Key words: Western Siberia, the river Ket, burial mounds, the Late Middle Ages, Narym Selkup, Chumulkup, Siusekum, anthropological reconstruction, facial approximation.
Poshekhonova O.E., Adaev V.N.
BURIAL FOOD AND FUNERAL FEAST REMAINS FROM A NORTHERN SELKUP GRAVE OF 19TH CENTURY: THE EXPERIENCE OF ETHNOARCHAEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
The article deals with an attempt to interpret archaeological and paleoecological sources obtained during the excavation of a Selkup grave in an ancient burial ground situated in the upper river Taz area (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District, Russia), by comparing them with ethnographic data. The goal of the paper is to examine historical dynamics of these components in the funeral ritual of the Northern Selkups during the 19th century as traditional preparation of burial food and the funeral feast process. The choice of this particular archaeological site relates to the unique and unusually well-preserved remains of organic materials in the grave that gave a most detailed and complete picture of the composition of the burial food and the funeral feast. In order to interpret the archaeological data we have used information from published ethnographical sources and archival documents as well as materials from the ethnographic field research of funeral traditions of the Selkups of the Upper Taz river, held in 2013 simultaneously with archaeological work. The study made it possible to determine not only probable burial food and funeral feast food of the Northern Selkup burial but also the form and the content of the ritual practice, and to present them in the cultural and historical contexts. As a matter of fact, it was concluded that the closest analogies to the ritual of the studied object are found in earlier archaeological data associated with the Southern Selkups and Eastern Khanty (16–17th centuries) and in ethnographic sources on the Khanty from remote areas which are not directly adjacent to the Taz River basin. The clearly appeared trace of the Southern Selkups and Khanty in the funeral ritual, in our opinion, marks cultural components which played a key role in formation of the Selkup local community of the Upper Taz river. Bones and food scraps of the abundant funeral feast buried on top of the grave are a notable feature of the studied Selkup burial sites which indicate the ancient origin of considerable variability of the Northern Selkup’s funeral ritual.
Key words: Western Siberia, ethnoarchaeology, Northern Selkups, funeral ritual, ritual food.
Bogordayeva A.A., Fedorov R.Yu.
ON THE QUESTION OF TYPOLOGY OF MANSI HOME SANCTUARIES
The article is dedicated to systematization and generalization of ethnographic data about Mansi home sanctuaries. The author considers ethnographic descriptions published in the XVIII — XX centuries and uses her own field data. The author held expeditions to the territory of inhabitance of Northern Mansi in the settlements situated on the banks of the rivers Severnaya Sos’va and Lyapin in 2006–2010 years. Two types of home sanctuaries in traditional Mansi dwelling were marked out during the research. The first type is a holy ceiling, located directly in the living space. The second type is an attic, separated from the living space of the house by a ceiling. The research shows their interrelation and development as well as present functional features. The article also deals with the question of origin of Samsay-oyka, a house guardian spirit of Northern Mansi. The attic is considers as one of the places where it lives. A hypothesis of late formation of the image of Samsay-oyka is formulated.
Key words: Mansi, traditional dwelling, types of sanctuaries, house, home sanctuary, attic, ceiling, roof, sacred shelf, sacred corner, house guardian spirits, house guardian spirit Samsaj-ojka.
LOCAL FOOD TRADITION OF VISHERA KOMI
The article is dedicated to an ethnographic description of national food of the Vishera Komi differentiating in originality of the language and ethnographic relation within a big ethnographic group of Komi (Zyrians) living in the Verkhniaia Vychegda river basin. The local tradition of culture of alimentation reflecting features of subethnic character is closely connected with an ecological niche and economic and household traditions which have predetermined contents and structure of food raw material, ways of its preservation, and technology of preparation of the dishes. The developed strategy of alimentation is one of the results and, at the same time, a mechanism of adaptation to the environmental conditions, while religious identity of the ethnos forms a system of food preferences and taboos. Grain, meat and dairy products with a share of commercial production are typical for the Vishera Komi. Carbohydrate components of the food ration are represented by grain crops which were used for preparation of various bakery products, grain soups and porridges. Grain soups and porridges formed a food basis which was reflected in the collective name of food «soup porridge». The range of meat, dairy and fish dishes as protein food components was not very rich, and their inclusion into the menu wasn't so frequent which was connected with a practice of Christian fasts observance. However the collective name of food meaning «full life» was defined by the phrase «to live by milk and meat». The range of vegetable menu was not rich but it brought some variety into the food ration. In general, it was the main layer of products connected with the major economic activities. Wild plants rich in vitamins brought some variety to the food repertoire and represented a substrate layer connected with rudiments of the previous economic order. The third, superstrate layer was represented by grocery raw materials acquired through a commercial network. Technological ways of cooking are predetermined by the use of Russian furnace which is not created for frying. Absence of fried food and minimum use of spices makes the food useful for health. Daily practice of consumption of hot food and compliance of a nutrition regime acted as indicators of a healthy lifestyle.
Key words: Vishera Komi, food raw material, traditional dishes, table etiquette.
THE OBDORSK MISSION ITINERARIES (60–70s OF THE 19th CENTURY): ANALYSIS OF PUBLISHED SOURCES
Mission itineraries disclose problems of cultural interaction and reflect the authors’ unique individual experience of communication with local people and reflections about it. The article reviews the book «The Obdorsk mission itineraries (60–70s of the 19th century)» as a historical source in order to evaluate its information capacities in historical research and its characteristics as a historical and cultural phenomenon. The source analysis allowed us to reveal background of the edition, its structure and principles of document selection, of writing of scientific commentaries to the itineraries, and of compliance to the rules of archeographic preparation of the publication. The comparative analysis of the original work and the publication has proved their authenticity. This publication is considered to be valuable as the Obdorsk mission itineraries have become available to readers, and, what is more important, it contains scientific commentaries on the missionaries’ personal data and explains many concepts and terms employed in the text. The geographical index serves for the purpose of quick reference for readers, and, what is more significant, it can be considered as an independent research focus of geography of northwestern Siberia in the 19th century. The name index serves for the purpose of bringing to light some local and foreign names and also allows us to consider these names in the context of cultural interaction of the Orthodox clergy with the indigenous people of Northwestern Siberia. The study of the Obdorsk mission itineraries urges us to single out the key concept of overcoming: overcoming the unkind Siberian nature, inertness and indifference of the native people, their savagery and superstitions, and what is more, self-overcoming — getting rid of fears, weaknesses and doubts. The missionary itineraries are a unique source of curriculum vitae of the Obdorsk mission priests living in the 19th century, but sadly this potential is still beyond historical researches. The missiona-ries’ written heritage requires further scientific study as a historical source in the modern Russian historiography. Publication of those sources contains rich potential which may be demanded in the comparative historical researches of written heritage of missionaries of the spiritual missions in Western Siberia and other territories of the Russian Empire aimed at revealing its similarities and differences.
Key words: Missionary itineraries, Orthodox missionaries, indigenous people, the Obdorsk mission, source analysis, the problem of cultural dialogue.
Marchenko Zh.V., Panov V.S., Grishin A.E., Zubova A.V.
RECONSTRUCTION AND DYNAMICS OF FOOD STRUCTURE OF THE ODINO PEOPLE IN THE BARABA FOREST-STEPPE AREA DURING THE 3RD MILLENNIUM BC: ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ISOTOPIC DATA
The paper aims at reconstructing the paleodiet of the Early Bronze Age population in the Baraba forest-steppe area of Western Siberia (the Odino culture). The study is based on materials of three large necropoleis of Sopka 2/4A, Tartas 1 and Preobrazhenka 6. Two chronological groups of the Odino culture burials have been defined by radiocarbon dating which gives us an opportunity to research the structure and changes in the paleodiet during the 3rd millennium BC. Reconstructions of the paleodiet are based on paleozoological determinations (including bone artifacts) and analyses of carbon (δ13Ñ) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in human and faunal bones (including some modern faunal samples). Results of isotopic measurements indicate that fish had formed a basic food component in the subsistence of the Odino population throughout the 3rd millennium BC. High values of δ15N in mushrooms (Boletaceae) do not exclude their important role along with fish in the human diet. A secondary food source for the Odino people was meat of herbivores and possibly also omnivores. The main game animal for the Odino population was an elk. Higher δ13Ñ values in human bones in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC indicate changes in food sources. Preliminary, we associate this signal with an increased consumption of animal products of more southern origins (steppe?) by Odino people, which might be a result of the emergence of domesticated animals in economy.
Key words: Baraba forest-steppe area, Bronze Age, 3rd millennium BC, Odino culture, reconstruction of human paleodiet, isotopic analyses.
REVIEW OF THE BOOK BY L.V. IVANOVA «RUSSIAN ARTISTIC HANDICRAFTS OF THE TRANS-URALS OF THE XIX — BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURIES IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DYNAMICS OF THE REGION»
The review gives an overview of a book by Tyumen researcher L.V. Ivanova dedicated to the study of formation and development of traditional artistic handicrafts and craftworks of the Russian population of the Trans-Urals. The author brings to light peculiarities of local folk art, outlines an integral concept of different directions in handicrafts and craftworks in the historical dynamics, shows the overall picture of the development of Russian historical and cultural landscape of the region. The work by L.V. Ivanova makes a significant contribution to the study of the history of artistic handicrafts of the Trans-Urals.
Key words: handicraft and artistic craftwork of the Trans-Urals, handicraft technologies, cultural landscape of the Trans-Urals.
Baltabaeva K.N., Rakhimov E.K.
REVIEW OF THE BOOK «KAZAKHS of KASKAT AUL: TRADITIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN THE CULTURE OF THE KAZAKH POPULATION IN WESTERN SIBERIA», BY N.A. TOMILOV AND Sh.K. AKHMETOVÀ
We analyze the book of famous ethnographers from Omsk, Tomilov and Akhmetova, which is dedicated to traditions and innovations in the Kazakh culture in Western Siberia. The reviewers highlighted scientific significance of publication of the field materials of the first Kazakh historical and ethnographic expedition of Omsk State University in 1976. The scientific significance of the book is that the authors summarized many years of research of Kazakh ethnographic groups in Russia. Also, there is a list of perspective directions for further research.
Key words: Western Siberia, Kazakhs, traditional culture, history of ethnographic science, field expeditions, Omsk Ethnographic Scientific Center.
BONE INDUSTRY FROM THE KAPOVA CAVE AND FRANCO-CANTABRIAN CAVE SITES WITH UPPER PALEOLITHIC WALL PAINTINGS
The article gives a review of the Upper Paleolithic objects made of solid organic materials, which were found in the Kapova Cave (Southern Urals, Russia) in different years of research. Formation of the cultural layers discovered in some parts of the cave dates back to the period between 13,900±190 BP and 16,710±800 BP. The essential point is almost complete absence of fossil remains of large and medium-sized classes of animals in the studied areas of Paleolithic man’s activity in the cave. The bone industry is represented by several categories, such as an arrow, a knife, an awl, needles, a trowel-like tool, ornamented bones, and personal ornaments. These objects were mostly made of bone, including the bones of large rodents and fish. There are also articles made of ivory and mollusk shells. It should be noted as well that there are no traces of wastes of producing bone inventory (in contrast to the stone industry). The only exception is untreated fossil shells from Volga used as material for making personal ornaments. The data comparison shows similarity in the tool kit from the collections of the sites with wall paintings in Western Europe and the Southern Urals. The human activity in such caves was much more diverse than it is commonly supposed to be. The archaeological study of different points of distribution of cultural layers in the caves, as well as the findings on the floor of chambers and galleries, leave unanswered the question of synchronicity of material accumulation. Different types of bone tools which were found in different parts of the same cave suggest different specific and certain activities and events held in separate areas in order to develop underground cavities; whereas all the types of activities are likely to have single and essentially permanent general sense. In the Kapova Cave, as well as in other sites with wall paintings, the entire archeological ensemble, including the bone industry, gives evidence of the complex and diverse practices carried out in underground conditions. For the moment, the content and nature of these practices transcend our understanding.
Key words: Upper Paleolithic, bone industry, Kapova Cave, Altamira, Lascaux.
THE LAW OF CYCLIC EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD, REALITY AND BEINGNESS ACCORDING TO THE SIGN-IMAGES ON THE MALTA PLATE, MADE OF MAMMOTH IVORY IN THE PALEOLITHIC AGE
The article examines some sign-images such as a pin-point spiral of the Malta Plate using a system analysis approach. This Plate is the unique archeological artifact and was made of mammoth ivory in the times of the Paleolithic age, in an ancient human location found in Southern Siberia, the village of Malta. These sign-images which are associated with Tripartite knowledge from the Veda and the Avesta, show a well-throughout classification system of upstream and downstream spirals, describing different systems of counting, numeration and calculation. A strict logical correlation between the universal stages of acts of the nature and the spiral turns on the Malta Plate was revealed. It is concluded that this unique archeological artifact reflects the universal global law of cyclic or periodic evolution of objects, processes and events in the world, reality and beingness.
Key words: the Paleolithic Age, southern Siberia, Malta plate, mammoth ivory, spiral, cycle, period, sign-image, number, counting, numeration, calculation.
Evdokimov V.V., Logvin A.V., Tkachev A.A.
SEMIOZERNOE II SETTLEMENT
The Semiozernoe II settlement
is located at the centre of the northern Turgay Valley which lies between Turan
Plain and West Siberian Plain, Kazakhstan. Since 1973 it has been frequently
mentioned by researchers of Sintashta culture and Petrovka culture. Since
published material of the site was fragmented and limited, it is difficult to
have a precise notion of its material culture. As a result, the settlement is
defined as Sintashta in one part and as Petrovka in another part of the same
scientific study [Vinogradov, 2011, p. 27, 97]. Meanwhile, the Semiozernoe II
settlement is the only studied site of these cultures without artifacts of other
epoch in Kazakhstan thus far. Therefore the main aim of this study is to
describe information gathered during settlement excavation as completely as
possible. But due to the aim and limitations of volume interpretative statements
turned out to be very brief. Later the authors will publish a more detailed
work, and possibly readers may consider this paper as food for reflection. At
the settlement there were excavated 1545 m2 of occupation layer and
remains of six constructions. Apparently the settlement was established by
metallurgists. Only the construction 1 can be recognized as dwelling. Many
everyday non-metalworking artifacts were discovered there. The construction 3
was used mainly for copper smelting. There is a big metallurgical furnace there,
but no small furnaces. The constructions 2, 4, 5 were used for subsequent
metalwork operations based on small furnaces, many hearths, chisel mould and
other findings. When comparing pottery from the Semiozernoe II settlement and
the Arkaim settlement, it is ascertained that main pottery types of these sites
are the same [Malutina, Zdanovich, 2004]. This represents the settlements as
part of one culture tradition at the same time. Small size of the Semiozernoe
II, small density of occupation layer, functional specialization of
Key words: Semiozernoe II, metallurgy, Sintashta, Petrovka, Bronze Age.
OCCASIONAL FINDINGS OF BRONZE ITEMS OF THE EARLY SCYTHIAN TIME IN EAST KAZAKHSTAN
Aim. Over the past decade some significant findings supplemented model Scythian-Saka items of the complex of artifacts from the funerary monuments of early Scythian culture of the VII–VI centuries BC. In the present paper, we examine occasional findings of bronze objects of military belt fittings and parts of horse harness of the early stage of Saka culture found in East Kazakhstan. The primary task of this article is to determine cultural and chronological attribution of the occasional findings found near Barshatas, East Kazakhstan. Results. The chronological and cultural attributes of the materials are determined on the basis of a comparative typological analysis and developed characteristics of the early Saka culture. Some findings are dated back to the beginning of the VII–VI c. BC. Basing on the foregoing and considering the design of elements of almost identical Tasmolyn and Mayamer cultures, it is impossible to talk about the precise boundaries of the early Saka time cultures. Tal-king about the monument, its belonging to any culture is difficult to define. Similar harness kits and military belts of the early Saka time were found in the large part of the Scythian-Saka-Siberian area. At later stages of development they became a prototype. However, judging by the random findings, which have artistic and mythological decorations in the form of a spiral ornament and relief images on the details, we can conclude that they originate from relatively «rich» burials among the funerary complexes of the early Saka time known in East Kazakhstan until now. Conclusion. East Kazakhstan region is a kind of center of various cultures of the Scythian-Saka-Siberian world. They were very closely linked there. Therefore, it opens up new horizons in the study of the key attributes of the Scythian-Saka archeology in relation to a problem of the optimal arrangement of the funerary monuments of the time, and to the search for intercultural relations with other time-synchronous ethnic groups.
Key words: East Kazakhstan, archaeological culture, Scythian-Saka-Siberian cultural area, Scythian-Saka epoch, Early Nomads, horse harness.
Matveeva N.P., Dolgikh A.S.
RECONSTRUCTION OF WOMAN COSTUME OF THE YEARLY MIDDLE AGES (on the materials of the burial ground Revda-5 in the Tobol valley)
The article presents the results of an archaeological research in Tyumen region in the Tobol valley at the burial ground Revda-5 of the III–IV centuries AD. The cemetery was found on the right bank of the Tobol river, the subtaiga zone of the Trans-Urals. We found a well-preserved burial of an adult woman in this burial ground. Reconstruction of the ancient costume as a reflection of the traditional culture has been already used in the study of history. Traditional clothes reflected the life-support features, and had social-diagnostic and sacred significance. Satisfactory preservation of the skeletons and things is pretty rare in the burial mounds of the Trans-Urals because they had been robbed in the course of several centuries. We decided to reconstruct the details of clothing and jewelry of the people of the Great Migration epoch. System analysis of all elements of the funerary practices and their relationship is the methodic basis of this study. This method was used along with anthropological data of postdepositional transformations of buried bodies, and was based on the data of an experiment by A. Borodovsky and I. Glushkov on the displacement of ornaments and other items of clothing in the decomposition of burial. We conducted an experiment with contemporary leather strap and overlays imitating the belt from the burial, which showed the correctness of our conclusions. On the basis of remnants of textiles and location of adornments on the skeleton, the authors concluded that suit of a 30–40 year old woman consisted of a brown silk shirt, trousers and a brown linen caftan. The suit was complemented by a leather belt with bronze plates. On her neck there was a necklace made of glass beads. Leather flask or a small bag was hung to the belt. We believe that the body was wrapped in a cloak or a blanket. This costume was widespread in the Early Iron Age among the nomads. The quality of the fabrics and ornaments confirm the high social status and material prosperity of the woman.
Key words: the Early Middle Ages, the Trans-Urals, burial ground, reconstruction, female costume, Western Siberia.
A COLLECTION OF BELT ACCESSORIES DATED BACK TO THE I–II THOUSAND A.D. FOUND AT A NECROPOLIS OF YUDINSKY TRIBE CULTURE
The article introduces into scientific use an impressive collection of metal belt plates, buckles, connector rings, obtained during an archaeological research carried out at the Vak-Kur burial ground (Tyumen region, the right Bank of the Tobol river). The presence of a cord ornament in the ceramic collection lets us attribute the artifact to medieval Yudinsky tribe culture, which the researchers associate with ethnogenesis of Mansi. Construction of the Necropolis is dated back to the X–XIII centuries AD. The collection presents 333 articles: 286 belt plates, 19 belt end plates, 24 buckles and 4 connecting rings. The articles are examined as a single complex with no taking into account their functionality. The material is systematized, the analogies are identified, the main directions and the nature of relations between the Yudinsky tribe and people from different regions of Eurasia at the boundary of the I–II millennia AD are determined. The majority of analogies of the accessories found at Vak-Kur burial (except for the buckles) is discovered on the territory of Prikamye, as well as among the antiquities of Volga Bulgaria. The great number of the buckles represents the products typical of the artifacts found in the Upper Ob region and in Southern Siberia (such items are often found in Srostkinskiy cemeteries, Kimakskiy burials of the Upper Irtysh region of the IX — early XI centuries). A characteristic feature is that the artifacts (belts, bridles, sword belts) combine plates of the Uralic origin and the buckles of the steppe nomads: this fact suggests them to be mounted right in the place but not been brought to Yudinsky people. A conclusion is made in the article that the major part of the accessories was imported, and the other part was manufactured according to the imported samples: this fact is clearly evidenced from the found buckles. Another conclusion is made that emergence of a large number of accessories of Uralic origin among the materials found at the Vak-Kur burial grounds is connected not only to trade and exchange relations, but also is related to certain resettlements of tribes from the Urals to other regions. The nature of their relations with the steppe nomads of the Upper Irtysh region (and possibly of the Upper Ob region) due to which the Yudinsky population got not only buckles of the Srostkinskiy type, but also other accessories, was likely to be of trade-exchange character, as the traces of Turkic population are not found either in archaeologically recorded elements of the burial ritual or in the ceramic complex of the necropolis.
Key words: Western Siberia, Lower Tobol Area, the Middle Ages, Yudinsky culture, burial ground Vak-Kur, typology, belt accessories, linings, buckles, fastening ring.
Tataurov S.P., Tataurov Ph.S.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS FROM ISKER: A NEW VIEW ON THE SIGNIFICANT SITE
Isker is the capital of the Siberian khanate at the initial stage (1582–1584) of the Russian conquest of Western Siberia. After Tobolsk was founded in 1587, Isker was abandoned. In the XVIII–XX centuries numerous amateur excavations were carried out on its territory, which, along with a natural factor (the River Irtysh washed out the part of a rock terrace where the ancient settlement is located) led to a severe destruction of the site. Professional archaeological researches were carried out only at the end of the XX century; however, they didn't give any significant result. All earlier collected collections were partially lost by the beginning of the XXI century. Th importance and status of the city in the Siberian khanate are still not defined. In this regard there was a need for an in-depth study of the available materials in order to understand specific characteristics of this complex and its place among other archaeological monuments of that time. This article represents in detail the results of an analysis of two collections of archaeological artifacts, which were collected in Isker by N.I. Butakov in 1896 and by A.F. Palashenkov in 1938 and which are stored in Omsk State Regional Historical Museum. The following groups of subjects were analyzed in detail: ceramics as the main marker of belonging of the Isker population to the Turkic Tatar society of Siberia of the XVI century; fighting and throwing knives; metal and bone arrowheads and bow plates; fragments of fishing tackles; locks and handles of storage chests; accessories; imported items. In general, it should be noted that composition of this complex of items does not differ from similar Tatar monuments of the period. Basing on the archaeological material, it is possible to conclude that the residents of the ancient settlement had a rather high social status, which is testified by the types of items (porcelain ware, bronze mirrors, rings, etc.) and high technology of their production. However it doesn't give the grounds to believe that the city was the constant capital of the Siberian khanate. Perhaps, it was only one of temporary headquarters of the khan. This research shows ambiguity in interpretation of the role of Isker in the Siberian khanate, and, therefore, it is important in terms of studying medieval Turkic-Tatar state.
Key words: Siberian khanate, Isker, archeology, history of study, arms and everyday items, status items.
Bravina R.I., Dyakonov V.M., Kolbina E.Yu., Petrov D.M.
THE RITUALLY DISTURBED BURIALS OF YAKUTS (XVII–XVIII ñenturies)
Basing on the analysis of the archaeological data on medieval burials of Yakuts we raise the problems of interpretation of graves with traces of an ancient ritual penetration and violation of burial structures and of anatomical integrity of the skeletons of the buried, using ethnographic and folklore data. We give a generalized description of the main types of disturbed graves of the late Middle Ages of Yakutia: secondary burial, embalming, rendering a dangerous dead harmless, desecration, robbery, etc. We provide historical and comparative data from the ancient and medieval cultures of Central Asia, Southern Siberia and the Far East. We examine philosophical ideas about the afterlife, ritual actions of Yakuts against «dangerous» dead and sacred people.
Key words: Yakutia, Yakuts, Middle Ages, burials, disturbed graves, post-inhumation rites, ancient penetration into the grave, interpretation, ethnographic parallels, folklore data.
Komarov S.G., Kitov E.P.
NEW CRANIOLOGICAL DATA ON THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE TURKIC POPULATION OF THE STEPPE-LAND IN THE MIDDLE IRTYSH TERRITORY IN THE X–XII CENTURIES
The article investigates a cranial series originating from five burials from the right bank of the Irtysh River. The series characterizes the physical appearance of the Turkic (Kimak-Kipchak) population of the steppe part of the Middle Irtysh territory in the X–XII centuries. Craniological complexes in the group studied are predominantly mixed, having both Caucasoid and Mongoloid traits and their racial affinity can be defined as a subdued variant of a combination of South Siberian racial traits. A comparative analysis demonstrated that the Kimak-Kipchak population of the left bank of the Irtysh River with the apparent predominance of Caucasoid features is significantly different from the right bank group. Thus, the anthropology of the Turkic population was heterogeneous and included elements that varied in the degree in which Mongoloid and Caucasoid racial traits were expressed.
Key words: Craniology, Kazakhstan, Irtysh territory, Turkic peoples, pre-Mongolian time, Kimak-Kipchak population, steppe.
ABOUT CASES OF TREPANATION AMONG SARMATIAN TRIBES OF EURASIA
In the article
the author tries to generalize all cases of trepanation among Sarmatian
Key words: trepanation, Sarmatians, paleoanthropology, scalping, Azerbaijan.
Liskevich N.A., Masharipova A.H.
PROTECTIVE RITUALS IN THE CATTLE BREEDING PTACTICED BY KOMI PEOPLE OF LOWER PRITOBOL'E AND OMSK PRIIRTISH'E
The rituals for the protection of the cattle practiced by Komi people in Lower Pritobol'e and Omsk Priirtish'e are observed. The sources of the research are field data materials, obtained in the ethnographic expeditions of IPDN SB RAS in Tyumen and Omsk regions in the 2000s. Ways of magic defense of cattle (cows) are pointed out. The ceremonies were committed to the life changing moments — a purchase of cattle, moving cattle to a new home, the first pasture, fawning, getting ready for the first milking, some calendar holidays (Christmas, Epiphany, the feast of St. Blaise, Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday). The ways to influence the general well-being of cattle, to coax Domovoi (staichnyi: the one who lives in a shed), to protect and treat the evil eye and magic curse are shown. Typically, they were individual actions of owners, dedicated to a particular day or event. The main attributes of the actions for the magical protection of animals are animal-care objects, elements of a harness, belt or apron of the owners, elements of domestic stoves, grain, bread, salt, water, willow, mother-of-thyme, plants from worshiped places, pike teeth. In some cases, the rituals are accompanied by spells (prayers). The influence of Christian traditions predominates in the modern protective rituals.
Key words: Komi cattle breeding, protective and cleansing magic, Susedco, a magic curse and an evil eye of cattle.
Ivanova L.V., Gordienko A.V.
MULTICULTURAL SOURCES AND ANALOGIES OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM OF WOODEN ARCHITECTURE OF ZAURAL′E
The article is dedicated to the study of multicultural sources and analogies of the visual system of Russian wooden architecture of Zaural′e. The history of formation of traditions of wooden construction is overviewed. Peculiarities of volume, relief and hand carving are pointed out. Types of window casing mouldings, their structural basis and main decorative elements are analyzed. The visual motifs of geometrical, vegetal, anthropomorphic and ornithomorphic types of ornament of window casing mouldings are introduced. Historical and cultural ties of Zaural`e, which were reflected in the eclecticism of wooden architecture are described. S-shaped curves and heart-shaped figures, vortex rosaces, and vegetative ornament were actively used by carvers in the visual system of wooden architecture of Zaural′e in the late XIX — early XX centuries. The most widely distributed ornament in the regional architecture was the one of vegetable cruciform of plaited stems. Images of ancient Byzantine-Romanesque origin (paired birds, heraldic motifs, crowns) can be found in the house carving of Zaural′e. These elements can be related to the genesis of the Slavic culture, which is an integral part of the Orthodox Byzantine tradition. Manifestations of Baroque and Ñlassicism stylistic traits in wooden construction of the region are studied. Multicultural analogies are pointed out in the ornamental motifs of the visual system of wooden architecture. Traditions of folk regional architecture related to the decorative plasticity of the facades are generalized. An ornament is characterized as a historical source for the study of the formation of the cultural landscape. The eclecticism of the visual system of the Russian wooden regional architecture is connected to ethno-cultural interactions, the waves of colonization of Zaural′e. The article contains extensive illustrative material, which represents analogies in the decoration of the wooden housing construction and the archeological artifacts from ornitho-, anthropomorphic and floral ornaments.
Key words: historical and cultural ties of Zaural′e, wooden architecture, visual system, multicultural ornamental analogies, cultural landscape.
A MERMAID IN FOLK BELIEFS OF EAST SLAVIC PEOPLES IN WESTERN SIBERIA (PROSPECTS OF MAPPING THE LOCAL ASPECTS OF THE IMAGE)
Beliefs about mermaids, mythological characters, spirits in the female form, vary considerably across different regions of Russia. A mermaid is one of the most variative, polysemantic images of Slavic mythology. The beliefs about habitats of mermaids, their origin, appearance, features, abilities, specific occupations, attitudes to people are ambiguous. Some local features of the beliefs in mermaids among Russian, Ukrainian and Bielorussian population in Western Siberia have been identified on the basis of the field ethnographic materials. These differences are primarily related to the regions of origin of the ancestors of the Siberians, to places where their great-grandparents (Siberian long-term residents, or immigrants from different regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus) were born. The continuity of traditional culture among the villagers contributed to the preservation of folk beliefs, characteristic of a particular region. Traditional beliefs of old-timers (descendants of the Russian immigrants of the end of XVII — beginning of XVIII centuries) in mermaids were lost or heavily modified. On the other hand, Siberian «new settlers» (descendants of the immigrants of the end of XIX — beginning of XX centuries) remember a lot of stories about mermaids and meeting them. The brightest and diverse stories of oral non fairy-tale prose have been recorded according to the information provided by Siberian Ukrainians. The mermaids in Siberian beliefs lost their ability to affect the harvest (in contrast to the beliefs of the population of western and southern regions of European Russia). In Western Siberia the mermaids are believed to inhabit the ponds, but during a mermaid week they can be found in the forest, field, in the garden or in the Russian sauna. The appearance of the mermaids differs significantly: they can be attractive or terrifying. Natural and geographical factors, and landscape features also influenced indirectly the occurrence of stories about mermaids and variants of development of their images. The use of mapping method for data processing of field ethnographic materials lets us most fully reproduce the picture of localization of mythological concepts, displaying specificities of various regional features of the mermaid image: its appearance, characteristics, functions, folk stories.
Key words: Slavic mythology, folk beliefs, mermaids, seasonal rituals, regional specificity, Western Siberia, ethnographic field materials.
THE SPECIFICS OF CUTTING AND DECORATIONS OF THE GUARDIANS SPIRIT CAPS OF THE NORTHERN MANSI
The article deals with a study
and classification of guardian spirit caps found in Mansi sacred places. The
study aims to conduct a comparative and typological analysis of the caps and to
reveal special features of their cutting and decorations. The research is based
on data of the author’s own fieldwork records (collected during several
expedition trips to the communities of Northern Mansi living along the Northern
Sosva and Lyapin rivers) and on published ethnographic sources. In the course of
the expeditions, the author made descriptions of 34 caps, 21 of them were parts
of guardian spirit vestments, 10 were gifts to the guardian spirits and 3 were
tailor-made. It is pointed out that the caps are one of the principal and
necessary attributes of the male guardian spirits of Northern Mansi. According
to Northern Mansi mythology, caps are part of the image and an indispensable
attribute of clothes of many Mansi supreme deities, including Mir-Susne-Hum,
Kuly-Otir, Samsaj-oyka, etc. The caps are included in the costume kits of the
figures of the guardian spirits that are kept in sacred places; they are also a
part of the vestments of those people who perform a role of the guardian spirits
Key words: Mansi, caps, clothes, costume, guardian spirits, sacred places, cutting, fabric, fur, woolen cloth, typological analysis, Northern Sosva river, Lyapin river, images of deities, ethnographic research, Mir-Susne-Hum, Kuly-Otir, Samsaj-oyka.
NATIVE ELITE OF BEREZOVSKY DISTRICT THROUGH THE PAINTINGS AND PHOTOS
The paintings and photos, perceived not as a static image, but as a visual text, create a specific informative field that allows us to visualize the character and his or her epoch. Since 19th century a «portrait» (a painting, a photo), as well as a manner of working (painting, taking photos) had been becoming a sign of high status for the native elite. An ethnopolitical aspect of visual representations of Ostyako-Vogulsky and Samoyed «lords» and foremen of Berezovsky district is manifested through a certain rulemaking of subjects (personal and group graded images, bear skin oath, an Obdorskaya Fair, etc.), the choice of clothes (dressing up), the presence of power symbols and attributes (patents and other tzar gifts).
Key words: visual text (paintings, photography), native (Ostyak, Samoyed) elite, «lords», foreman, symbols and attributes of power, Berezovsky district
Sverchkov L.M., Boroffka N.
Period of Yaz-II: stages and chronology
The archaeological site of Yaz depe was excavated over 50 years ago by V.M. Masson, and has been a reference point for the Iron Age — Yaz-I, Yaz-II and Yaz-III — in Central Asia since then. At that time it was dated to the middle of the 2nd to the beginning of the 1st Millennium BC In the early 1970s monuments of this period were discovered near the modern settlement of Bandykhan, southern Uzbekistan. Work there was renewed by a joint Uzbek-German team, starting in 2005, which gave new results for understanding the pottery evolution of the Yaz-I to III periods and allowed a subdivision of the Yaz-II period into phases A and B. Radiocarbon analyses of samples from stratigraphic context also give these periods absolute ages 10th–8th Century BC for Yaz-IIA and 7th–6th Century for Yaz-IIB. These new materials and dates are published here. In the concluding remarks the general historical context is presented, with a discussion of the Frada revolt which was crushed by the Achaemenid Empire, as is known from ancient texts. We also remark the Kavi kingdom and its connections to Zoroastrian chronology and tradition, which falls into this period. In our opinion the Yaz-II distribution coincides with the Iranian World — the «Arjan-Vaichakh», whose northern border is given by the Hissar mountain range with their well-known enemies — the legendary Turan.
Key words: Central Asia, Uzbekistan, Early Iron Age, Yaz-I, Yaz-II, Yaz-III, pottery typology, chrono-logy, Achaemenid history, Frada revolt, Kavi kingdom, Avesta.
Chairkina N.M., Dubovtceva E.N.
Ceramics satyginskii type of the settlement Nizhnee ozero III
The article describes the Neolithic pottery complex of the Satygino type. It was found in multilayer settlement Nizhnee ozero III located at the base of the East macroslope of Ural Mountain, in south part of the North Transurals. Three groups of pottery were recorded in remains of constructions ¹ 1–3 dated to the Neolithic. Two of them have a great similarity with findings of the Koshkino and the Sumpan`ya types. The paper deals with the third group of ceramic. Most of these potteries are the closed-shape vessels, some of them profiled and rims do not have influxes. The bottoms are plain but there are also rounded. Sculptural ornamentation as relief bands, located in the upper part of the body, expresses the main feature of this ceramic group. They are straight or wavy, formed with applying technique or stretching of the vessel walls, decorated with incisions. All other patterns made in the technique of drawing and pricking, rarer of pricking-dragging. The analysis of the typological, morphological and technological characteristics, the planigraphy and stratigraphy of finds location, radiocarbon dates and comparisons with the Neolithic complexes of the Transurals, West Siberia and neighbor territories allowed to make hypotheses about cultural identity and period of existence of this specific complex. This pottery considered in the context of the Neolithic cultures of East Europe, conditionally called the pricking-ornamented cultures. It has analogy with the Koshkino, Boborykino and Satygino types of ceramic in the Transurals and West Siberia. In our opinion this pottery has the greatest similarity to the pottery of the Satygino type from the settlements of Sumpan`ya IV, VI of Ust`Vagil`skiy hill. In our view, the proposal to include the Satygino type in the area of the Boborykino culture is not justified. At present stratigraphic observations, the results of radiocarbon dating and the differences in technology and ornamentation of the ware shows the presence of at least two groups of relief bands ceramics on the territory of the Transurals and West Siberia, with local and/or chronological differences. The Satygino type pottery existed in parallel with the Sumpan`ya culture and at some point with the Koshkino culture on the territory of the North Transurals and the Konda lowland probably about 6750–5000 years BC (cal.). The Boborykino type of ceramic (including relief bands) had a larger area of extension and existed later, about 4700–3800 years BC (cal.), apparently together with the Bas`yanovo type of ceramic.
Key words: Neolithic, ceramics type, tipological, morphological and technological characteristics, Satygino type, Boborykino culture.
Archaeological data on obsidian exchange in Northern Mesopotamia in IV–III mill. BC.
The article deals with a range of questions concerning obsidian exchange in settlements of Northern Mesopotamia. The chronological framework includes IV and III mill. BC (from Late Ubaid to Akkadian Periods). The first part presents the state of research of obsidian exchange in the Near East. Several topics are discussed: obsidian sourcing, models of raw material distribution and connection to specialized flint blades’ production and distribution. In the second part a more detailed data on obsidian distribution in settlements of Northern Mesopotamia in IV–III mil. BC is presented. Information on obsidian sources location is supplemented with parameters such as obsidian to flint ratio and its technological context. Tool and adornments production is revised. As a result different ways and forms of obsidian distribution are set in chronological perspective. The hypothesis on specialized obsidian and flint blade production and distribution is revised. Several sites with exceptional place in obsidian exchange were distinguished which were also connected with metal distribution.
Key words: obsidian, Ñhalcolithic, Åarly Bronze Age, Near East, Northern Mesopotamia.
Kiriushin Iu.F., Grushin S.P., Leontieva D.S.
Andronovo settlement Shlyapovo in the Upper Ob
The Andronovo settlement complexes of the Upper Ob are studied extremely weak. In this regard, the results publications of the settlements research are important for further study of the Bronze Age history. This work is devoted to analysis of material obtained during excavations in 1952 under the leadership of Gryaznov M.P. at Andronovo settlement Slyapovo in the Upper Ob. Excavation materials are stored in the collections of the State Hermitage Museum, they are represented by a bone implements, bronze, stone, clay products. In this paper particular attention is aimed to the most massive category of finds — ceramic complex. Representative selection (451 samples) allowed to divide the complex in two groups: Andronovo (predominant) and Late Bronze. For Andronovo group was provided the analysis of the ornament and form of the vessel. The methodical base were works of Genning V.F., Rudkovsky I.V., Tkachev A.A. and Tkacheva N.A. It has been revealed 16 ornamental motives. Basically it was vertical herringbone, horizontal grooves and horizontal «herringbones», ranks of the pit depressions. Rarely encountered the lines, short diagonal lines, vertical zigzag and ornaments in geometric style (triangles, «ducks», meanders). The vessels decor was performed in various techniques of the ornament applying, but the most common was a smooth punching stamp, large and small comb. There were two main forms of the vessels from the settlement — cans and pots. Also were revealed the laws in the form of the vessels and ornaments correlation. On the base of the provided analysis were marked the features of the settlement dishes. Accounted ornamental schemes allowed to compare the Slyapovo site with another settlements of the Andronovo culture of the Upper Ob. Topographic data with the founded artifacts allowed to attribute the site to the temporary settlement type. Common features of the settlement Shlyapovo gave the possibility to date the complex within a broad framework of existence of the Andronovo culture in XV–XIII B.C.
Key words: the Upper Ob, the Andronovo culture, settlement, the Bronze Age, ceramics, border, ornamentation technique.
Ilyushin A.M., Onischenko S.S.
About results of research of the dwelling of nomads of the developed Middle Ages of Kuznetsk depression
Information on results of field researches of Kuznetsk complex arkheologo-ethnographic expedition of the dwelling 3 in an excavation No 5 on a complex of archaeological monuments of Toropovo-7 in the Kasminsky archaeological residential district in the territory of Kuznetsk Depression to Leninsk-Kuznetsk the region of the Kemerovo region is introduced into wide scientific circulation. Materials of this excavation are subjected to archaeological and zooarchaeological research. New information is urged to fill up a moneybox of archaeological sources on history and culture of the period of the developed Middle Ages of Kuznetsk Depression. The purpose of the present publication to describe results of excavation unique on a design and set of artifacts the dwelling and to analyse the archaeological and zooarchaeological materials revealed in it for definition of dating of object and a meat food allowance of his inhabitants. At research of the published materials descriptive, comparative and statistical methods of the analysis of material sources were used. The dug-out dwelling is characterized as the semi-dugout consisting of a land design and an earth ditch which could be used in the winter and function all the year round. By analogies to artifacts the studied dwelling was dated the period of the developed Middle Ages (the XI–XIV centuries AD) also it is referred to the shandinsky archaeological culture left by Turkic-speaking nomads of East Dasht-i-Kipchak in the territory of Kuznetsk Depression. On dwelling accessory to nomads results of the zooarchaeological analysis of osteological materials from economic holes 1 and 2 in the dwelling 3 among which testify the remains of horses (more than 80 %) prevail. On the basis of the received results of research the conclusion that the dwelling 3 in an excavation No 5 on a complex of archaeological monuments of Toropovo-7 structurally represents semi-earth premises about 34 m² is drawn, adapted for accommodation at the winter period of one family which was used in the XI–XIV centuries by carriers of Turkic nomadic cultural traditions at the heart of which daily food allowance there was a horse-flesh.
Key words: Kuznetsk Depression, monument, dwelling, artifacts, ceramics, figuration, zooarchaeological analysis of materials.
Society structure of early medieval Turks in Altai-Sayan region (on materials of funeral complexes)
The article concerns various aspects of social interpretation of funeral complexes of early medieval Turks (the 2nd half of I thousand AD). Results of the analysis of the sites which are dug out in Altai, Tuva and Minusinsk Depression are presented. Features of gender and age differentiation of early medieval Turkic society are characterized. Possibilities of modeling of nomadic society vertical structure are separately considered. The groups of burials showing heterogeneity of Turkic tribes of the Altai-Sayan region in the 2nd half of I thousand AD are allocated.
Key words: social structure, early medieval Turkic tribes, Altai-Sayan region, funeral complexes, gender and age differentiation, reconstruction.
Vasilyev S.V., Borutskaya S.B.
Paleoanthropology of the Upper Palaeolithic population of Laos (on materials of site Tam Hang)
Tam Hang was
opened in 1934 by Jacques Fromaget who worked at the Geological survey of
Key words: Laos, Paleolithic, angular morphometry of the skull, craniology, osteology, paleopathology.
Palaeopathology of sub-adults from Gonur-Depe (Turkmenistan)
The palaeopathological study of sub-adult sample comprising 215 individuals from Gonur-depe Bronze Age site (Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex, Turkmenistan) has shown predominance of dental diseases and indicators of anemia compared to other types of bone lesions. Low frequency of traces of infections, as well as absence of a single case of scurvy, rickets or trauma suggest the optimal living conditions of the population. The typical prevalence of different types of osseous pathology in the sample was probably driven by high population density and farming activities as the main factors of morbidity.
Key words: palaeopathology, sub-adults, Bronze Age, Gonur-depe, Turkmenistan.
Bioarchaeological approaches to study on traces of artificial of influence on the skull (on the example of populations Bronze Age and Early Iron Age from the Armenia)
The paper is an attempt to study the deformed skulls, representatives of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age from the territory of Armenia. The results of this study allow to assume, tump-line deformation may result from activities, such as carrying loads with a band across the parietal bones. Structural changes appearing in human bones during physical activity people were investigated in populations. The proposed method makes it possible to classify the occipital suprastructures. The occurrence of superstructures in the occipital bone has been attributed to physical activity and habitual motion such as lifting and transporting heavy loads. Used singly, loads were slung from the ends and the poles were balanced on the head or across both shoulders or on the one shoulder in the fore and aft position. Structural rearrangements skull bones and unintentional artificial deformation can be consi-dered as a unique phenomenon, allowing to reconstruct some aspects of economic life of ancient people.
Key words: Armenia, Bronze Age and Iron Age, occipital superstructure, tumpline deformation.
Burnakov V.A., Tsydenova D.T.
Aba tös — the bear fetish in traditional beliefs and ritual practices of the Khakass (end of XIX — mid XX century)
The article deals with studying the phenomenon of bear fetish called Aba tös by the Khakass people. The cult of tös is a phenomenon that has arisen and existed in a traditional environment, where the shape of the relationship between visible (rational) and invisible (irrational) peace is characterized by the absence of hard insurmountable borders. Moreover, the religious-mythological consciousness of the people has an idea (as a common thread) of direct intersection of these worlds and their constant interaction with each other. Periodic violation of these relations, as believers considered, may turn into an imbalance of nature and human life. For the latter, this is turning into a variety of disasters and misfortunes. The ritual practice of the traditional society, in this case, was focused on the restoration of the balance and as a consequence, on the resolution of conflicts arising between the worlds as well as on the protection of vital interests of the people. A huge role in this process was assigned to ministers of religion, including the shamans, as well as directly — tös'es.
There was analyzed the myth-ritual complex associated with the cult of tös’es, based on a broad range of sources, including some archive materials brought for the first time into scientific circulation and museum collections. According Khakass belief, the image of the bear was surrounded by an aura of sanctity and therefore enjoyed special respect. In the traditional consciousness the bear was regarded as a formidable ruler of taiga area and all its inhabitants. At the same time, the believers might deemits image asaguardian spirit. This fact contri-buted to its general symbolization and fetishization. In the cult practice of Khakases, the bear, honored as a deity, has several symbolic images. Sacred features of Aba tös' were extensive. The people believed in its apotropaic, healing and protective powers, regarded it as a totem and ancestral spirit. There was created a special ritual for Aba tös' consisted of periodic sacrifices with prayers and other ceremonies. Herewith, the ritual ceremony was strictly regulated and included some special requirements for participants, certain sequence of actions and the special food composition.
Key words: Khakass, traditional world, ritual, sacrifice, the cult of the bear, the symbol, fetish, Aba tös.
Semantics of an ornament of an embroidery of the North Russian headdress from funds of the State museum reserve «Tsaritsyno»
The article introduces an item from funds of the State museum «Tsaritsyno» — a female headdress kokoshnik with the rare ornamental composition embroidered with silver threads. The details of the kokoshnik are attributed by analogy with the published earlier similar part of a headdress from Novgorod, dated with a turn of XIX century. General description of a form, decor of the item and embroidery technique are presented. The embroidered composition represents in general a vertical model of the Universe. Russian version of this image includes the central axis consists of three main motives — the blossoming world tree, of the solar goddess Makosha with the lowered hands and ancient Russian solar motive of two-headed eagle. The top world on a headdress occupies a half of the image which is filled with solar heavenly motives (located heraldic). The motive of an elk-horse is especially interesting and archaic among them. It is suggested that the headdress belonged to the young woman till the birth of her first child, perhaps, was also used in course of wedding because all images are connected to ideas of fertility, abundance, good wishes.
Key words: vertical model of the Universe, symbol, sign, motive of an embroidery, embroidery technique, embroidery style, world tree, elk-horse, birds of a peahen, two-headed eagle, bird of sirens.
The Nenets navigation techniques: using the help of reindeer and dogs
This paper is a continuation of the planned study of the spatial orientation of the Nenets, initiated by emp-loyees of the Institute for the Development of the North Russian SB RAS (Tyumen) in 2014. Aspects of using animals for orientation and navigation have been undeservedly neglected by ethnographers, and this applies not only to the ethnography of the Nenets, but of northern peoples in general. The system approach used in this study involves consideration of the object of the research (system of orientation) in a broader context: in addition to the skills and techniques of reconnaissance, there has also been analyzed, inseparable from them, travel ’survival techniques’ — experience of settlement in difficult conditions, proven algorithm of actions which eventually allows a person to be on the right side of a problem. The objectives of the article are: 1) to prove that turning to the help of animals is indeed one of the most important components of the spatial orientation system of the Nenets; 2) to present the particular facts that the methods and techniques of the use of this aid is not so obvious and simple as it initially may seem. The materials presented in the paper show the widespread use of domestic animals for orientation and navigation by the Nenets. In case of need to find the way, they skillfully use the immediate assistance of animals as well as their deep knowledge of the biology of reindeer and dogs, that allows them to draw important conclusions about the location of various objects in an area. Herewith the Nenets not only carefully observe the behaviour of their animals, but also use special techniques, activating useful behaviour of reindeer and dogs for finding the way. Among the specific features of the Tundra Nenets (in comparison with the Forest Nenets) we can mention: a) more frequent resort to the abilities of reindeer than of dogs in the orientation; b) the practical difficulties with simultaneous use of both animals during a trip. In summary, it can be argued that the scope of traditional knowledge and traditions certainly deserves special attention in advanced studies of other ethnic groups, especially those who are hunter-gatherers and pastoralists.
Key words: wayfinding, Nenets, reindeer husbandry, dog breeding, Sibirian ethnography.
The avatars of Yermak: monuments and historical memory
the Hindu mythology an avatar
is a deliberate descent of a deity to
Earth, or a descent of the Supreme
Key words: Yermak Memorials, historical memory, group-making, regionalization.
Radiocarbon dating — modern state, problem, prospects of development and use in archaeology
Basic principles of radiocarbon dating are presented in the article. History of the method development and modern state are shown. Difficulties appeared under the radiocarbon dating and approaches, permitting to present the received results correctly are discussed. The procedure of radiocarbon data calibration is described, references on calibration programs, which can be used, are given. Effect of isotope fractionation and its influence on radiocarbon age of examined sample is described in details. It is shown how the corrections on isotope fractioning are bringing in. Problem of marine and freshwater reservoirs under the archeological objects are described. Examples of the influence of reservoir effect on radiocarbon age received on collagen man bones. Detailed recommendations for sampling for radiocarbon dating are given. Approximate mass of different type of samples as for dating with the help of LSC techniques (Liquid scintillation counting) and for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) dating is presented. All stages of radiocarbon dating are described in details, starting from field sampling up to receiving the radioncarbon data. Review of radiocarbon condition in the World practice and in Russia is given. Possibilities of modern Russian radiocarbon dating Laboratories are shown. At present, the first steps are made for using mass spectrometer acceleration in radiocarbon dating in Geochronological Cenozoic Center, RAS Siberian Branch and in the Institute of Geography, RAS. Specific features of dating and interpretations of received data for the main archeological materials, used under the dating of archeological objects is described, such as carbon, wood, man and animal bones, textile, ceramics, soils and sediments, metallic artifacts, carbon inclusions.
Key words: radiocarbon dating, archaeology, dating fraction, reservoir effect, accelerator mass spectrometry.
Freshwater reservoir effects in the Eurasian Steppe zone and their influence on the radiocarbon ages of bone sample
Reservoir effects often hinder the accuracy of the radiocarbon dates from human and animal bone samples. The freshwater reservoir effect (FRE) refers to the difference between the radiocarbon age of the purely terrestrial sample (the 14C content of which is comparable to the atmospheric 14C level) and contemporary freshwater sample or any sample, in which part of 14C comes from the reservoir with a lower level of 14C compared to atmosphere. The latter samples include not only aquatic fauna, but also terrestrial animals, whose diet includes aquatic sources. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the widespread and variability of FREs on the territory of Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as to draw the attention of specialists working in the area to the necessity of taking into account this important and still not fully understood factor while dating the bones. To identify modern FREs, nine samples of modern fish of various species from six regions of Siberia and Kazakhstan have been radiocarbon dated. The results were compared with data from previous studies of FRE in the three regions. The following observations can be made: 1) the FRE is clearly present in all analysed regions, except of the Kharga Lake. The Carassius sample from the Kharga Lake showed only minor influence of FRE, however, to confirm the absence of the effect in this reservoir, further analysis of modern aquatic fauna is required; 2) the extent of the FRE in the area varies significantly between different reservoirs; 3) the FRE results within the same reservoir appear to be distinct for different species of fish. The four samples of fish from the middle Yenisei River (and its tributary Karasuk River, Minusinsk basin) revealed ca. 600 14C year difference in the FRE values between the samples. The difference between the two pike specimens from the Karasuk River is more than 100 14C years; 4) at the moment, the most significant FRE offsets (nearly 2,00014C years) have been recorded in the upper Lena River (Irkutsk region).
Key words: freshwater reservoir effects, radiocarbon dating, Eurasian Steppe, modern fish.