Summary and keywords for the last 2 years
Serikov Yu.Â., Konovalenko M.V., Balueva Y.V.
STONE INVENTORY DISCOVERED AT A MESOLITHIC SITE IN THE NORTH-WEST OF SIBERIA
In this article, we investigate a stone inventory from a newly-discovered Mesolithic site. This site is located by the Salym River on the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The collection of artefacts contains about 22 thousand findings, which characterize the entire cycle of stone processing from the splitting of cobbles to the production of flakes and implements. The splitting technology was aimed at making flakes from lithic cores, with 90 % of these cores being up to 3 cm in diameter. Secondary processing products (4.7 %) consist in scrapers, awls, chisels, cutters and reworked flakes. The flakes have a microlithic character, with 97.5 % of them being up to 1 cm in width. The analysis of different parts of the flakes shows that Mesolithic people preferred to use stone fragments (30.4 %) and flakes having a clipped dorsal surface (14.2 %). When creating tools, retouching was frequently used (in 72.6 % of cases). The ratio between the number of artefacts made from primary and secondary flakes equals 47.6 %. In terms of mineralogical composition, the site features over 40 types, with sandstone, shale, siliceous shale, chalcedony, flint and jasper most frequently used (in 87.4 % of cases). A distinctive feature of the site consists in its geometric microliths, archaic concave retouched burins, bifacial and pebbles depicting various zoomorphic shapes. In terms of technical and typological characteristics, the data obtained from the Bolshoi Salym 4 settlement is fully consistent with the excavation data from other Western Siberian sites. Since hundreds of Mesolithic sites, consisting of encampments, settlements, work sites, sanctuaries and graves, have been discovered in the Urals, it can be supposed that the inhabitation of the Western Siberia by Mesolithic population proceeded from the territory of the Urals towards Siberia. The inventory of stone artefacts at the Bolshoi Salym 4 Mesolithic site is the largest so far discovered in Western Siberia, thus having great importance for an understanding of how Mesolithic people came to settle the West Siberian Plain.
Key words: West Siberian plain, Mesolithic, raw materials crisis, mikrolitizatsiya, geometric microlite, curly pebble.
ORIGIN OF POTTERY IN WESTERN SIBERIA (TO THE DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM)
The problem of the origin of pottery to a large extent determines the choice of directions in the study of Åarly-Neolithic complexes, including the formation and development of Neolithic cultures, their periodization and chronology. We have repeatedly addressed these issues in our previous publications; however, newly-collected information on Åarly-Neolithic settlements in Baraba, along with the publication of radiocarbon dating results obtained during the study of ceramics from Volga-Ural Neolithic complexes, have prompted us to raise this topic anew. In this paper, we consider the following three aspects: the preservation of pottery traditions in various territories, the development of the West Siberian Neolithic and the chronological sequence of the Boborykino and Koshkino complexes (the last two aspects complement each other). In recent years, a large number of ages obtained by dating using organic remains in ceramic artefacts have been introduced; however, these are not always consistent with the values obtained using charcoal and bone dating, e.g. for the Yurtobor 3 complex in a Lower Tobol river settlement (coal: 7701 ± 120 BP (UPI 559); ceramics: 6064 ± 100 BP; carbon: 7110 ± 70 BP), for the Mergen 6 settlement (settl. 15, ceramics: 5870 ± 110 BP (Ki-17085)). The data differs by 500–1500 years on average, with the ages obtained using ceramic dating being younger. The abundance of data on ceramics seemed to confirm the standpoint about the two-linear development of the West Siberian Neolithic and a later chronological position of the Boborykino complexes with regard to the Koshkino and Kozlov complexes. However, a series of radiocarbon dating analyses using charcoal for the Boborykino-Koshkino materials from the Mergen 6 settlement (for which, 14 out of 17 artefacts fit in the 6361–6068 BC interval), as well as for the Boborykino Tashkovo 1 and Yurtobor 3 settlements (6660–6420 BC and 6390–6230 BC), allow the development of the Neolithic complexes to be treated as a gradual and consistent process, without a chronological gap between the Boborykino and Koshkino antiquities. Flat-bottomed and round-bottomed dishes found in the areas of the Ishim and Irtysh rivers and Baraba forest-steppe are similar in shape and ornamentation to those from the northern territories. These artefacts are likely to have been the products of the development of an already existing, introduced ceramic tradition. According to radiocarbon da-ting, this tradition seems to have appeared in the West Siberian territories around the 7th century BC.
Key words: Western Siberia, the Early Neolithic, pottery, autochthonous development, two lines of development, migration, ceramics, Boborykino, Koshkino complexes.
Kostomarov V.M., Novikov I.K.
THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE ZOLOTOE 1 SETTLEMENT — A NEWLY DISCOVERED LATE-BRONZE SITE IN THE TOBOL-ISHIM INTERFLUVE
This paper is aimed at presenting the preliminary results of a study carried out in the Zolotoe 1 settlement in 2018. This territory was inhabited twice in the late Bronze Age, first by the representatives of the Alakul culture and then by those of the Alekseevka-Sargary culture. The focus of this research was on the topographic features of the site. An additional objective consisted in the description and interpretation of newly discovered archaeological materials and buildings. The Zolotoe 1 settlement is located on the shores of Lake Zolotinskoe near the Zolotoe village, the Polovinsky district of the Kurgan region. This place attracted our research interest because of its specific location. In contrast to the currently known sites featuring similar artefacts, which are located along the high banks of the Tobol and Ishim rivers and, less frequently, in the floodplain, this settlement is situated along the shores of the lake system in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve. A depressed land area in the north-eastern part of the settlement located at a distance from the village was selected for the study. Prior to excavation, an electromagnetic scanning of the site surface was performed with the purpose of refining the parameters of the search area. It is established that the remains found in the site are likely to be associated with the Alakul period. These include the remains of a building (ostensibly, a shed, judging by the absence of a pit and the presence of a series of pillar holes) and those of a fireplace, (supposedly) wells, fragments of ceramics and tools. The latter are shown to be located towards the western and eastern parts of the discovered shed. The artefacts are similar to those discovered in other sites of the Alakul culture. The Alekseevsk-Sargarinsky building horizon is also represented by the remains of a ground construction, fireplace lenses, bronze items and the fragments of vessels. The characteristic ornamentation on the latter has enabled the attribution of this complex. Therefore, our study of the Zolotoe 1 settlement has provided additional information about the specifics of the settlement of the Alakul and Alekseevka-Sargary groups. It is established that the area of their economic activity included not only river lines, as has been previously thought, but also remote lake systems. The features of the discovered buildings may indicate the seasonal nature of the settlements. This assumption can be confirmed or refuted by a more detailed study of the collected material and further research in other parts of the site. The continuation of exploratory studies along the coastline of numerous lakes in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve seems to be a promising research task.
Key words: settlement, adaptation, Tobol-Ishim interfluve, settlement Zolotoe 1, landscape, Alakul culture, Alekseevka-Sargary culture.
Ryabogina N.E., Ivanov S.N., Nasonova E.D.
RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPE: THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE LATE BRONZE SETTLEMENTS IN THE TOBOL REGION
This article addresses one of the most important issues in landscape archaeology, i.e. the landscape prefe-rences of ancient populations depending on the patterns of nature management that these peopled used. Since forest-steppe regions are characterized by a mosaic plant cover, the appearance of residential landscapes — the natural environment around ancient settlements — can be restored using paleo-economic population models. This work is aimed at analysing the characteristics of residential landscapes in the late Bronze Age on the example of three settlements in the Tobol region (south of Western Siberia), which were inhabited by the representatives of the Fedorovî, Pakhomovî and Cherkaskul cultures. To this end, the blocks of palynological data obtained from different archaeological contexts were compared with each other, well as with the background natural conditions reconstructed for the south of Western Siberia. The paper presents the detailed analysis of both pollen data and non-pollen palynomorphs collected from the soil sediments of the cultural layers, as well as the results of the natural environment reconstruction. The cultural layer of the Fedorovî settlement (Bochantsevo 1, up to the 16th century BC) is shown to contain predominantly meadow pollen, typical weeds of human habitats and the spores of coprophilous fungi. The residential landscape of this village consisted in an open place with meadow grass vegetation, without signs of steppe, with small birch forests nearby. A similar situation was reconstructed for the settlement of Cherkaskul culture (Khripunovskoe 1, 16–13th century BC); here, the household economy was based on the breeding of cattle, with people preferring to settle open forest-steppe areas. On the basis of pollen data analysis, a completely different residential landscape was reconstructed for the Pakhomov culture settlement (Zavodoukovsk 11, 13–11th century BC). This settlement was founded and functioned in the birch forest. Its inhabitants practiced not only cattle breeding, but also hunting and fishing. Numerous studies conducted on mixed Cherkaskul-Pakhomovo settlements across the territory of the Tobol region have allowed archaeologists to suggest the co-existence of these population groups in the same territory. Our findings show that these populations might have used different land zones within the same territory, since they chose different types of residential landscape. Differences in the economic types of these groups are likely to have influenced their landscape preferences: the Pakhomov settlements were confined to the valley birch forests, while the Cherkaskul settlements were initially localized in open spaces surrounded by lands suitable for grazing.
Key words: Bronze Age, Western Siberia, pollen analysis, NPP, living landscape, reconstruction.
INVENTORY COMPLEX OF THE ZHURAVLEVÎ CULTURE IN THE LOWER ISHIM RIVER AREAS (BASED ON THE 2012–14 RESEARCH AT THE BORKI 1 SITE)
This article presents the results of a study carried out to investigate the tools of the Zhuravlevî culture discovered in the Borki 1 settlement in 2012–14. This site is located on the territory of the Lower Ishim river. The economic activity of the Zhuravlevo population has not been studied enough, which determines the relevance of the work. The economic activity of the Zhuravlev population was investigated exclusively on the example of the Bogochanovî culture of the Early Iron Age. On the basis of stratigraphic and planigraphic observations, artefacts reliably correlated with the Zhuravlevo building horizon of the site were selected for analysis. The primary classification of the artefacts was conducted using the typological method. Subsequently, in order to determine the functional area of the artefacts, we applied use-wear analysis. Stone and bone tools were investigated by the technological method. The tool wear was determined using an MS-2 ZOOM microscope with a ×10–40 magnification. The functional classification of the tools made of various materials has provided additional information on the economic activity of the Zhuravlevo culture groups, confirming its diversified nature and determining the inventory of specific industries. The importance of bronze casting has been established, with almost complete absence of tools for refining castings. These findings, along with the results of the metallographic analysis of metals in the transitional period, indicate the predominant use of casting technologies without further refining operations. A significant amount of spinning tools, such as spindles and their typological analogues, has been indicated. This supports the idea, frequently advanced by researchers, that weaving is likely to have developed at the beginning of the Early Iron Age. In addition, it is by the Zhuravlevî materials that the replacement of bone tools with ceramic ones during the processing of hides is recorded. According to indirect data, the technology of processing stone and bone can be reconstructed. The number of stone tools, which were manufactured by lithic reduction or abrasive techniques, is insignificant. For bone carving, cutting and chopping metal tools were used, as well as various tools made of bone. Various treatment technologies, such as cutting, drilling, abrasive machining, are recorded. These techniques are traditional and characteristic of Bronze Age cultures (Transitional Period); however, the range of bone tools is limited and associated exclusively with the hunting industry. Therefore, the Zhuravlevo culture inventory features, on the one hand, the continuity of a number of Bronze Age technologies, and, on the other, the appearance of Early Iron Age features. In addition, it is obvious that the Ishim river lands were part of the nomadic traditions of the Early Iron Age, which is confirmed by a number of items that can be dated to 7th–6th centuries BC.
Key words: Lower Ishim river areas, ancient settlement Borki 1, Zhuravlevo antiquities, tools, typo-logy, technology, traceological analysis.
Ilyushina V.V., Rafikova T.N.
EARLY IRON AGE COMPLEX OF THE LASTOCHKINO GNEZDO 1 SETTLEMENT IN THE LOWER ISHIM RIVER BASIN
In this article, we present the results of a study carried out at the Early Iron Age site in the multi-layered settlement Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 in the Lower Ishim river basin. Following a series of fieldwork studies, it is revealed that this Early Iron Age settlement featured defence constructions in the form of a ditch and a rampart. The discovered hearth and the remains of vessels around it allowed us to suggest the presence of a ground structure built without a pit. The ceramic collection of the settlement is not numerous, comprising about 150 vessels. Four main morphological groups of artefacts have been distinguished. 44 vessels were subjected to technical and technological analysis. The study was carried out applying the historical and cultural methodological approach developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The study of the technological features of the vessels has confirmed the homogeneity of pottery traditions among the population of the settlement. Potters mainly used silt clay as the initial plastic raw material. Moulding masses were prepared using fireclay and organic additives. When designing vessels, potters used flaps as building elements. Surface treatment methods included smoothing, most frequently with wooden scrapers, knives or spatulas. Only a quarter of the vessels have traces of compaction. The ceramics was fired in hearths or fireplaces. Ornamentation is scarce: the main decorative technique used was imprinting with inclined lines. In some cases, impressed holes were the only decoration. Our findings show that the vessels, despite differences in morphology, were made by potters belonging to a single cultural group and were in use approximately at the same time. The comparison of the data on the specifics of the vessels from the Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 site with those from the Zhuravlevî complex found in the ancient settlement Borki 1, and with the collections from the Bogochanovî culture sites in the Irtysh river area has shown only a certain degree of their similarity. At the current level of research, it is possible to determine the cultural and chronological position of the materials under study as belonging to the Late Zhuravlevî culture.
Key words: Low Ishim river basin, settlement Lastochkino Gnezdo 1, the early phase of the Iron Age, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation.
THE CERAMIC COMPLEX OF THE MAYMÀ ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE
The Maymà archaeological culture was designated more than 25 years ago; however, no attempts have been undertaken since then to scrutinize this important cultural and chronological entity. Despite the accumulation of a large amount of ceramic complex material, which is known to be the most representative source, the vast majority of this material is yet to be analysed. In this work, the author investigates published data on ceramic complexes found at the Maymà archaeological culture site using standard qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. The conclusions obtained by qualitative analysis according to 5 parameters (shape of vessel, shape of bottom, shape of neck, any ornamental element, ornamental composition) were additionally tested by cluster analysis. Three groups of complexes, corresponding to the 3 developmental stages of the Maymà archaeological culture, were identified as Sailap, Gornoelban and Novozykovî on the basis of a correlation of the qualitative and quantitative data. Available dating information allowed the author to develop a relative chronology of the stages. It is shown that the earliest was Sailap, then Gornoelban, and finally Novozykovî. Absolute dating for the 3 stages is proposed as follows: Sailap — 1st century B.C. — 4th century A.D.; Gornoelban — 4th–6th centuries A.D.; Novozykovî — 6th–8th centuries A.D. A comparison of the characteristics of the ceramic complexes at the diffe-rent stages revealed several distinct evolutionary patterns. A comparison of the ceramic complex from the prece-ding period found in this region (Bystryankà archaeological culture) with the Maymà culture revealed no common features. This allowed a conclusion to be drawn that the population migrated to the territory of the middle section of the Biya river (where the complexes of the earliest Sailap stage are located) and subsequently spread over the entire region of the Maymà archaeological culture. A hypothesis is advanced concerning the later transformation of the Maymà archaeological culture as a result of its merger with the Odintsovo culture as evidenced in the artifacts of the Basandaikà archaeological culture.
Key words: ceramics, morphology, ornament, archaeological culture, stage, evolution, analysis.
Tigeeva E.V., Belonogova L.N.
MIRRORS OF THE SARGATka CULTURE IN THE TOBOL-ISHIM INTERFLUVE BASIN
In this article, we provide a morphological and typological description of mirrors of the Sargatka culture discovered in the area of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve. Similar artefacts were found in places across a significant part of Eurasia, with quantitative investigations demonstrating their preponderance in the Lower Volga basin and the Aral Sea area. 12 mirrors were analysed using the atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and spectral analysis methods. Data on metal processing techniques for 11 items were obtained by visual inspection and me-tallographic analysis. The results of atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence and metallography showed that both local, traditional and unique, rare technologies had been used in their production. Most mirrors are made of high-tin bronze alloys containing 20–30 % of tin, which imparts a golden colour and lustre to the artefacts. Working with high-tin alloys is known to require special skills, since their forging can be performed only within a narrow temperature range. Reheating and water quenching are the final operations, aimed at strengthening the product during its operation. Stable uniform techniques and temperature regimes seem to have been applied when producing the Sargatka mirrors. The use of water quenching is considered to be an innovation in this locality, which distinguishes the metalworking of the Early Iron Age from the preceding Bronze Age. This allowed us to propose that the processing techniques and the finished products could have been imported from two mirror production centres located in the areas of the Volga river basin and the Aral Sea. The similarity of the artefacts under study indicates that they could have been manufactured at a single production centre. The destination of this centre is hard to determine due to the identity of the artefacts both in terms of their composition and common production pattern, which implies the quenching of hot-forged mirrors in cold water. Taking into account the traditional contacts of the Sargatka tribes, who settled the Tobol-Ishim basin, with the population of the Volga region, as well as the geographical proximity of these territories, we tend to suppose that this centre was located on the territory of the Volga river basin. Thus, a Chinese mirror from the Chepkul 9 burial ground is likely to have been professionally manufactured using a blank wax model for casting. Han mirrors were one of the most important and popular Chinese articles exported to other cultures, including the Sargatka culture. The area of the Sargatka culture embraced the northern branch of the Great Silk Road.
Key words: Early Iron Age, Tobol-Ishim basin, metallography, ancient metal production, mirrors, Sargatka culture.
ARTEFACTS FROM THE TURBINELLA PYRUM SHELL FOUND AT 3rd–4th CENTURY SITES IN THE MIDDLE KAMA REGION
Starting from the 1950s, researchers have been collecting original artefacts — discs made of obviously non-local shells — in the Middle Kama region. In the 1990s, the source region for such molluscs was determined to be the coastline of India. Since then, over 170 such artefacts have been found in burial grounds. These objects were used in the 3rd–4th centuries mostly as cover plates attached to leather belts produced by local masters. Their use as globular pommels attached to imported swords was less common. The discs were made in India, which is well known for having had several shell-processing centres, from the shells of the Turbinella pyrum molluscs. Goods made of these shells had been imported from India throughout Eurasia since the 4th–3rd mill. BC (Mesopotamia). They were found in the 1st mill. BC mounds in the Himalayas and East Pamir foothills, near the northern foothills of the Kyrgyz mountain range and in the steppe archaeological sites dated the 1st half of the 1st mill. AD. The densest distribution of such artefacts has been recorded across 20 sites in the Middle Kama region, with the most significant cluster being the Tarasovo burial ground located in Udmurtia (71 pieces). This site, known to be the largest Finno-Ugric site in Eurasia (1880 graves), is related to the Tarasovo (Cheganda) culture of the Pyanoborye historical community and covers the interesting period of the end of the Early Iron Age and the Great Migration Period. In the Tarasovo burial ground, the discs were found in 47 graves of 50 people (42 female and 8 male). In 43 and 7 cases, the artefacts consisted of belt cover plates and part of gift sets, respectively. 30 belts had one cover plate only; 5 belts had 2 cover plates; 8 belts had 3 cover plates. Two cover plates were decorated with round imprints making rosettes. A similar ornament was recorded on artefacts found in India and in the Krasny Yar burial ground (Orenburg region). Along with cover plates, the Middle Kama region features pendants and beads made of shells. The beads were most probably imported during the 2nd century AD, while the pendants, whose datings coincide, are likely to have been produced by local craftsmen from imported discs. Discs were imported mainly in the 3rd–4th centuries (except for the last quarter), with the import ostensibly ending during the Huns’ invasion. In different periods, discs were spreading from India to Eurasia through the Silk Road. Thus, they came to the Middle Kama region from Central Asia and from the Aral Sea region by means of the Ural river, the Belaya river and its tributaries. There, local craftsmen applied them according to their aesthetic sense. Pommel discs for swords arrived to all regions together with blades. The period of their distribution covers the 1st–3rd centuries AD.
Key words: Eurasia, India, the Middle Kama region, shells of mollusks Turbinella pyrum, the Great Silk Road, production centers.
Gerasimova M.M., Frizen S.Yu., Vasiliev S.V.
CRANIOLOGICAL MATERIALS FROM MEDIEVAL GRAVE FIELDS IN KRASNODAR KRAI
In this paper, we present a study of craniological materials collected in the Psebeps 3, Kabardinka and Tserkovnaya shchel’ medieval grave fields (Krasnodar Krai, Russia). The Psebeps 3 grave field (10 male and 5 female skulls), belonging to the Adyghe people (Circassians), dates to the 14th–15th centuries. The Kabardinka grave field (11 male and 4 female skulls), also correlating with the Adyghes, dates to the 14th–15th centuries. The Tserkovnaya shchel’ grave field (3 male and 3 female skulls), dating to the 17th–18th centuries, was a burial site of the Adyghe tribes. All the skulls are characterized by the Caucasoid craniological complex and a significant typological diversity within this complex. On the basis of intragroup analysis, a graph was drawn that places the skulls from the Psebeps 3 and Kabardinka grave fields on its right and left sides, respectively. This discrepancy is likely to result from a difference in these series, although they both represent culturally related population groups. Following the results of the intergroup analysis of the male series, the graph depicts two clusters. The first cluster features the Pyatigorsk, Natukhai, Kazazovo 1, Moshchevaya Balka, Gamovskoe Ushchelie, Psebeps 3 and Tserkovnaya shchel’ groups. The second cluster includes the Black Sea, Shapsugs, Kazazovo 2 and Kabardinka groups. The Circassian group is located on the graph separately from the aforementioned groups. The graph representing the results of the intergroup analysis of the female series shows the Psebeps 3, Kazazovo 2, Tserkovnaya shchel’ and Natukhai groups to be located on the left, the Pyatigorsk, Shapsugs, Kabardian, Black Sea and Moshchevaya Balka groups to be in the centre, while the Circassian group is located separately. In the distribution of the series, the separate position of the Circassian group stands out; this is likely to be a result of Mongoloid admixture in the territory of the Adyghe settlements recorded in the territory of Circassia. The cluster bringing together the series from the Black Sea, Kazazovo 2, Kabardinka and Shapsug groups can also be quite logically explained by the fact that all these populations belong to the Adyghes. In the third cluster, the new materials are in good agreement with the facts demonstrating the transformation of the anthropological variation typical of the skulls from Moshchevaya Balka and Kazazovo 1 towards that typical of the skulls from the Pyatigorsk group. It is interesting that the Psebeps 3 series originating from the territory of traditional Natukhai settlements demonstrate a convergence with the third cluster containing the Natukhai series.
Key words: craniology, burial ground, Middle Ages, Krasnodar Krai, Adyghe.
Solodovnikov K.N., Kravchenko G.G., Rykun M.P.
MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ENEOLITHIC — EARLY BRONZE POPULATION AS A RESULT OF ADAPTATION TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE ALTAI HIGHLANDS
This paper is aimed at scrutinizing the dependence between the morphological features of the Eneolithic — Early Bronze population and the geographical and bioclimatic conditions in the Altai valleys and intermountain basins. Across the territory of the Altai highlands, we have identified several local-territorial groups of archaeological sites dating to the period under study. Most of them belong to the Afanasyevî culture, with the rest being represented by the Kurota, Aragol and Ulita cultural types that have been recently designated from the Afanasyevî culture. For each group, in accordance with their geographical localization, we have calculated geographical and bioclimatic parameters. The comparison of these parameters with the characteristics of the corresponding craniological series has allowed us to reveal the main trends of intergroup variability within the Eneolithic — Early Bronze Altai population. A considerable and statistically significant correlation is found between the morphological parameters, such as the height of the cranium, general sizes of a cranial cavity and the width of the face, and geographic and bioclimatic parameters characterizing the severity of the climate and the mountain height above sea level. In terms of other race-demarcating characteristics, no significant difference has been revealed between the territorial groups of the Altai Eneolithic — Early Bronze population characterized by the proto-European type. The identified variations correspond to the previously established differences between the total series of skulls of the Afanasyevî culture from the Altai highlands and the Minusinsk Hollow, as well as to two craniological types defined as the main anthropological components of the Afanasyevî culture population in Southern Siberia. The first of these types, prevailing among the Altai Afanasyevo culture population, is markedly hypermorphic and characterized by a higher and, in general, a larger skull. The second type, determining the craniological specifics of the unicultural population in the Minusinsk Hollow, is moderately hypermorphic and characterized by a smaller and, importantly, less high skull. Our findings suggest that these differences are associated in many respects with a general increase in the body size in populations having lived in the most bioclimatically unfavourable areas of the Altai highlands. This is evidenced by an increase in the longitudinal and girth dimensions of the long skeletal bones of the Altai Eneolithic — Early Bronze population having inhabited the mid-mountain and high-mountain Altai areas compared with the control samples from the low-mountain Altai regions and the Afanasyevo culture from the Minusinsk Hollow. Therefore, according to the calculated parameters, the population from the bioclimatically unfavourable Altai regions was characterized by a rather large weight and height among all the studied ancient Neolithic — Bronze Eurasian groups. Thus, our study confirms that the main mechanism of biological adaptation to the severe mountain environment of the Altai highlands among the Eneolithic — Early Bronze population was the enhancement of energy processes by means of increasing standard metabolism. As a result, the initially tall and large proto-European population was becoming even larger.
Key words: Afanasyevo culture, the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age, the Altai Mountains, paleoanthro-pology, craniometry, osteometry, bioclimate.
ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL DEFORMATION AMONG THE ABORIGINAL POPULATION OF PRE-COLUMBIAN CUBA
Artificial cranial deformation has been practiced by indigenous peoples at various times in different parts of the world. In pre-Columbian Cuba, it is believed to have been practiced by the pottery-making agricultural groups called Taino. These people, who spoke the Arawak language, started to inhabit the island around 800 AD. According to the dominant theory, the practice was imported to the region from the Orinoco river valley by the Saladoid pottery makers. However, some authors ascribe this role to the Huecoid groups. Since any written record of the practice is virtually absent, a study of known paleoanthropological materials can be of crucial importance. In this paper, we set out to compare two samples of pre-Columbian crania belonging to the pre-ceramic population, who did not apply the practice of deforming their newborns’ heads (Ciboney), with those belonging to the pottery making agriculturalists (Taino), who did use such a practice. The crania under study, originating from Cuba and the Dominican Republic, mainly feature the frontal occipital oblique type of deformation. The intra-group variation in the deformed group is found to be much higher. This suggests that, despite the presumably standard deforming procedure, individual variations were inevitable. Taking the variations into account, somewhat unusual shapes, which cannot be unequivocally labelled as frontal occipital oblique, should be treated as a result of this diversity. The specific features that differentiate the deformed samples from the non-deformed ones are found to be the length of the parietal bones, the curvature of the frontal bone and the width of the crania. However, we cannot conclude that the deformations are wholly responsible for these differences. Another result of the study consists in the differences found between the crania from Cuba and the Dominican Republic, which point to a possible variation in deformation techniques. However, this firm conclusion cannot be drawn until additional materials from other Antillean islands become available.
Key words: paleoanthropology, artificial cranial deformation, Antilles, Cuban anthropology, Taino, Ciboney.
Fedorov R.Yu., Abolina L.A.
MATERIAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIAN MIGRANTS in the BRATSK DISTRICT: IDENTITY MARKERS
At the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from Belarus, Ukraine and the Pskov province founded a number of settlements in the territory of the Central Angara region. Migrants brought with them the specific features of their traditional culture and economic activity, which were different from those typical for the local Russian population. The empirical basis for the research was formed by the materials of an ethnographic expedition conducted in 2017 in the territory of the Bratsk district (Irkutsk region, Russia). The research was aimed at identifying various markers of the ethnocultural identity of Belarusian peasant migrants in their material culture and at investigating the interactions of Belarusians with their ethnic environment. It is found that the ethnic identity of Belarusian migrant descendants is currently characterized by a high level of variability across different families. Certain representatives of the senior generation consider themselves as Belarusians. At the same time, the majority of informants emphasize in their oral stories that only their ancestors were Belarusians. The culture of food among the first Belarusian migrants had a number of distinct features. Thus, in comparison with Russian settlers, Belarusians tended to consume more vegetables, rye bread and pork. The first generation of the Belarusian migrants preferred to make clothes according to their ethnic traditions; however, the subsequent generations of migrants borrowed many clothing items from the local population, which were more practical for the local climatic conditions. A visual survey of dwellings and other buildings indicates that the national architecture of the Belarusian migrants still have a number of features introduced from their homeland. At the same time, these features have undergone certain transformations over the course of the 20th century, as a result of adaptation to a more severe climate and introduction of improved construction technologies. In comparison with the immovable objects of traditional material culture, the transformation of such cultural manifestations as cuisine and clothing is shown to be a more prolonged process.
Key words: Belarusians, Bratsk district, peasant resettlements, ethnocultural identity, subsistence, material culture.
Liskevich N.A., Kopyltsova I.Yu., Porshunova L.S.
THE EFFECT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON THE PRACTICE OF REINDEER HERDERS IN THE SUB-POLAR URALS
In this paper, we aim to determine the role of weather conditions in the annual industrial cycle of reindeer her-ders inhabiting the Sub-polar Urals. To this end, we analyse the knowledge accumulated by the local population about natural conditions significant for their production practices and weather forecasting. Main research sources consisted in the materials of field ethnographic studies conducted in 2018 across the territory of the rural settlement Saranpaul in the Berezovsky district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Yugra). The data was collected using the method of semi-formalized interview with the residents of Saranpaul and the Shchekurya village. Among the informants were ancestral reindeer herders, specialists and heads of reindeer farms. Following the treatment and analysis of the obtained data, we have revealed seasonal difficulties concerned with grazing management, as well as changes in the dates and routes of herd migration. The practical knowledge and skills of reindeer herders are shown to include the ability of operational and long-term observation of the weather, experience in forecasting and evaluating changes in hydrometeorological conditions, the ability to determine the impact of climatic conditions on both the food supply, and the behaviour and health of deer. The experience of observing climatic conditions shows that the climate is becoming milder and that the number of anomalous weather phenomena is increasing. As a result of climate change and a number of other external factors, reindeer herders in the territory under study have been forced to change the timing and routes of herd migration. Thus, the winter grazing lands in the Sosva river valley have ceased to be used, and deer is being gazed in the mountains all year round.
Key words: Komi, Mansi, Nenets, Saranpaul reindeer company, signs of weather.
Konev A.Yu., Poplavskiy R.O.
THE GIFT IN THE POLICY AND PRACTICE OF SIBERIAN NON-ORTHODOX PEOPLE CHRISTIANISATION (BASED ON MATERIALS FOR WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 16th — 18th CENTURY)
In almost all societies, the rites of passage are accompanied by the ritual of gift giving. Baptism is one of the key transition rites in the Christian tradition. At the first stages of the Russian conquest of Siberia, the conversion of heterodox believers from the indigenous population into the Orthodox faith involved two intersecting processes, with the first being aimed at religious conversion itself and the second — at making the indigenous population to be further rooted in the Russian allegiance. In this article, we set out to approach these processes using the gift theory pioneered by M. Mauss and elaborated by contemporary economists and social anthropologists. Since M. Mauss developed his theory using the example of stateless societies, our research was based on findings achieved by N.V. Ssorin-Chaikov. His research into the phenomenon of gift relations between the state and its citizens is mainly based the Hobbesian concept. We found out that, until the first decades of the 18th century, the process of conversion into the Orthodox Church not only concerned the religious aspect, but also played an important role in turning a yesterday’s «non-Orthodox» into a fully valid subject of the Russian Tsar. By allowing a non-Orthodox believer to be baptized, the state sought to establish or strengthen its sovereignty over a new convert. As early as at the proclamation stage, new converts accepted a free gift from the state — a «new time», and, a new quality of allegiance, which implied their loyal service. In return for the Christianisation, the state gifted new subjects with money and new clothes. In the second half of the 18th century, the gifts were substituted by privileges in tribute payment. The baptized representatives of the Siberian native elite could gain acceptance and prolong their status of «volost strongmen». The quality and amount of gifts presented by secular authorities and godparents were intended to mark the status of both the donator and the gifted, building up a system of hierarchical relations and incorporating newly baptized people into a particular social group.
Key words: christianization, gift theory, non-Orthodox («inovertsy»), Siberia, conversion, allegiance.
LEGAL STATUS OF MUSLIM CLERGY IN THE TOBOLSK PROVINCE AT THE END OF 18th — BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY
The establishment of the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly at the end of the 18th century marked a new stage in the relationship between the state and the Islamic community in the Russian Empire. The state took ano-ther step towards the implementation of such a key principle in its confessional policy, as the state control over all religious institutions in the country. During the period under study, the government regulated the procedure for the occupation of Muslim religious positions by having delegated the right of conducting clergy exams to the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly. However, in the first third of the 19th century, a part of the Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province fulfilled their duties without passing such exams, acting on the basis of the customary law norms. In later periods, only single cases of the violation of the official procedure for the occupation of Muslim clergy positions were recorded. During the 19th — early 20th centuries, the government tightened the requirements for candidates for the positions of Muslim clerics and the procedure for their appointment by introducing restrictions in terms of age, education, knowledge of the Russian language, etc. The involvement of Islamic institutions in the system of administrative management in the Russian Empire was also carried out by delegating some state functions, such as civil registration, notary service and court procedures, to the Islamic clergy. At the same time, Islamic «spiritual officials» who served in the parishes did not receive any state allowance and were not exempted from paying their duties. They were allowed to get a tax benefit at the initiative of their communities; however, parishioners were frequently unable to take on the maintenance of their clergy due to a poor economic situation in the Tobolsk province. The Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province, similar to all Muslims, were exempted from military service. This provision gave them equal rights with other members of the parish, although distinguishing them from their colleagues in the Orenburg district. For the latter, exemption from the state military service was a privilege. In the case of committing offenses, the Muslim clergy were subject to penalties and were to face Islamic or secular trial. In 1850, they received exemption from corporal punishment. By the nature of their professional activities, the Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province constituted a specific social group endowed with certain privileges from the state.
Key words: Islam, Tobolsk province, Muslim clergy, Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly, legal status, Tatars, Bokharan.
PROBLEMS OF TRAINING TEACHERS FOR NATIONAL SCHOOLS IN THE TRANS-URALS IN 1930s–1950s (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE TOBOLSKY TATAR PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGE)
The article discusses the activities of the Tatar Pedagogical College, which was functioning in the city of Tobolsk in the 1934–1955 period. It was the only educational institution in the Urals, whose activity was aimed at training pedagogical personnel for Tatar primary and secondary schools. For the first time, based on materials from the archives of the city of Tobolsk and field research, an attempt was made to restore the picture of the organization of the educational process in the school. It is revealed that the school periodically encountered such problems as the shortage of teaching staff, insufficient provision of educational and methodological literature and inept leadership on the part of higher authorities. Despite all the difficulties, the school graduated qualified teachers every year. It is noted that the teaching of basic subjects was conducted in the school in the Tatar literary language, which was not native to the majority of students. The educational reforms in the USSR led to the gra-dual ousting of the Tatar language and culture from the content of general education, therefore in 1955 the Tatar Pedagogical College in Tobolsk was closed.
Key words: Tatar Pedagogical College, Tobolsk, elementary education, incomplete secondary schools, curricula, pedagogical practice, employment.
THE MUSLIM LANDSCAPE OF THE URBAN DISTRICT OF TYUMEN: PLACES, SIZE AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC COMPOSITION OF PRAYER MEETINGS
Ostrovskaya E.A., Alexeeva E.V.
DIGITAL DIMENSION OF CONFESSION: RESULTS OF STRUCTURED FIELD OBSERVATION
This article investigates the digital dimension of confession using the methods of structured observation and content analysis. When investigating religious practices, contemporary sociologists and anthropologists undertake their inquiry in an essentially changed social and cultural reality. The specifics of this reality can only be understood provided that the whole range of communicative spaces of religious interactions is taken into account. Field observations of religious communities necessarily involve two dimensions of analysis: face-to-face and virtual forms of interaction. Virtual analysis implies the online monitoring of structural observation units. Synchronization of online and offline analysis dimensions allows the diversity of the interaction contexts under study to be revealed. In addition, it enables a researcher to grasp the communication that is taking place between the actors in its completeness, which is always a hard task. In this paper, for the first time, confession is investigated by analysing communication within Internet communities organized by Orthodox temples in the city of Ekaterinburg. Research data was collected using the methods of structured observation (on the complete enumeration basis) and content analysis. The research was carried out in the March 2018 — July 2018 period. For the analytical purposes, we defined confession as a social interaction presented in structured units. These units included the priest, congregation, time of confession, space, confession as a ritual and confession as a sacrament. The results of the online structured observation of these units were presented in the form of tables. A unique methodological feature of this research consists in the application of the method of structured observation to an object in its digital self-presentation. The studied digital resources included the websites of Ekaterinburg Orthodox temples, YouTube channels and themed vk.com pages of believer communities. Using content analysis, we have identified which structural units of confession most frequently appear in virtual themed communication threads in Ekaterinburg.
Key words: structured observation, structural units of observation, content analysis, thick description, religious communication, Orthodox digital landscape of Yekaterinburg.
Enshin D.N., Skochina S.N.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE EARLY NEOLITHIC POPULATION HAVING RESIDED AROUND LAKE MERGEN AS A STRATEGY OF ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE MERGEN 6 SETTLEMENT)
This paper sets out to analyse the economic activity of the inhabitants of an Early Neolithic settlement on the north-eastern coast of Lake Mergen (Lower Ishim River, south of Western Siberia) with the purpose of determining specific strategies of their adaptation to natural conditions (based on the materials of the Mergen 6 settlement). The initial data for the analysis were taken from studies characterizing the climate at the beginning of the Holocene, the paleolandscape characteristics of the territory, the geomorphological position of the settlement, the composition and conditions for the formation of the archaeozoological collection and hunting/fishing gear sets. A comprehensive analysis of these sources made it possible to develop an economic model describing the functioning of the settlement. The main features of the settlement functioning model involve the location of the settlement at the intersection of the so-called «feeding landscapes» (forest/steppe at the macro-level, lake/river at the micro-level); a probable year-round, stationary character of the settlement; the equivalence between two main economic sectors (hunting and fishing); reliance in the economic activity on ungulate hunting and fishing; a supposedly seasonal character of hunting and fishing certain fauna species. In our opinion, this model suitably reflects adaptation strategies used by the ancient population, whose main goal was to ensure the sustainability and productivity of their economy. In addition, the conducted historiography analysis has shown that the aforementioned elements of the model were common for all ancient societies with the appropriating type of economy that resided in Eurasian forest and forest-steppe territories in the Mesolithic-Neolithic periods.
Key words: Early Neolithic, economic activity, adaptation strategy, hunting, fishing, settlement Mergen 6.
Papin D.V., Stepanova N.F., Fedoruk A.S.
LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMICS FROM A STEPPE REGION BETWEEN THE OB AND IRTYSH RIVERS AS A SOURCE FOR RECONSTRUCTING ETHNOCULTURAL INTERACTION PROCESSES
Archaeological cultures formed at the end of the Bronze Age in the steppe area between the Ob and Irtysh rivers are characterized by a considerable level of variability. Under conditions, when stratigraphic observations fail to reliably differentiate archaeological materials, pottery can serve as an important cultural diagnostic indicator. The Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements having situated in a steppe region between the Ob and Irtysh rivers have long attracted the attention of researchers, because they feature all the archaeological cultures present in the region. Thus, during many years of studying various archaeological structures, the authors of the present work have gathered a significant collection of ceramics and other artefacts in this area. In this research, ceramic fragments collected in the Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements were analysed in terms of the forms of vessels, ornamental patterns and the methods used for ornamentation. The morphology and ornamentation of vessels was analysed using V.F. Gening’s method. In addition, the historical-cultural approach developed by A.A. Bob-rinsky was applied. The technical and technological analysis allowed the skills of ceramics production to be taken into account. As a result, all the ceramics fragments under investigation have been broadly distinguished into eight historical and cultural groups and their transitional forms: Sargary-Alekseevka ceramics, Dongal ceramics, Irmen ceramics, Irmen-Dongal ceramics, hybrid ceramics (Sargary-Dandybay), glazed pots with flutes on the neck, Dandybay ceramics, pottery made on a potter's wheel. A technical and technological analysis was performed on samples from 240 Late Bronze Age vessels, with 154 and 86 vessels being taken from Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements, respectively. For each settlement, a comparative analysis of raw materials and moulding compositions was carried out between the groups. It is found that ceramics from all the groups and both sites feature general and individual characteristics. It is established that both settlements shared a common tradition of adding chamotte (grog) to the moulding composition. The tradition of using grus was not local, but rather had been brought from outside. As a result of the research, it is found that societies having resided in the Altai steppe in the Late Bronze Age were influenced by the Sargary-Alekseevka and Irmen cultures. Thus, the Sargary-Alekseevka population brought the tradition of using grus in pottery making. At the final stage of the Bronze Age, representatives of the Dongal culture arrived to this land, thus stimulating the process of ethnocultural interaction between the Irmenskaya, Sargary-Alekseevka and Dongal cultures.
Key words: steppe Ob-Irtysh interfluve, Altai, ceramics, technical and technological analysis, the Late Bronze Age.
TO THE QUESTION OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES USED BY PAKHOMOVO PEOPLE IN THE TRANS-URAL REGION
Research into the diverse aspects of the life of ancient people is known to involve a number of difficulties, such as the lack of data, limited selections of artefacts, etc. Recently, combined approaches and methods successfully applied in various scientific disciplines have attracted much attention. One of the most promising approaches is the use of modelling methods that are based on both simple and multilevel mathematical algorithms. Unfortunately, the specifics of Bronze Age archaeological sources does not allow a comprehensive application of such techniques for the reconstruction or assessment of historical processes in the Trans-Ural region. However, the application of GIS techniques proves beneficial for obtaining more objective information, verifying working hypotheses and validating obtained results. In this work, we investigate the specifics of the Pakhomovo culture, both in general and on the level of some settlements, by comparing various data sets on their economic activity, environmental management and the choice of adaptation strategies. A correlation analysis between various archaeological sources has allowed us to reveal a number of logical inconsistencies, to explain or to partly prove the validity or incorrectness of certain conclusions. Using specific GIS methods, the results of paleogeography studies and paleozoological data, we have defined a hypothetical border between the economic areas of some settlements, described specifics of their economic approaches and presented some arguments on re-settlement history. In order to assess the level of spatial development in these settlements, their logistics opportunities and resource potential, we also applied techniques used in spatial archaeology and territory analysis. As a result, the hypothesis about the effect of surrounding landscapes and economy patterns on the choice of spatial development strategies has been confirmed. It is concluded that the Pakhomovo population adopted a number of cultural traditions from the Andronovo community, thus choosing the same territories and developmental approaches.
Key words: Pakhomovo culture, Tobol River, Ishim River, economy, spatial analysis, typology of the archaeological sites, strategy.
ZHURAVLEVO CERAMICS ASSEMBLAGE OF THE EARLY IRON AGE FROM THE BORKI 1 SETTLEMENT (ACCORDING TO THE 2013–2014 STUDY)
This article presents the results of a technical and technological analysis carried out to investigate Zhuravlevo-type ceramics collected from the Borki 1 settlement located in the Ishim river basin (W. Siberia). Ceramics samples were analysed using the historical and cultural approach and methods developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The conducted research has revealed the heterogeneity of traditions among potters in the Zhuravlevo culture in selecting raw materials, who primarily used clay sand and silt clay. The analysis of the moulding compositions has shown that chamotte and organic additives were frequently used; however, in some cases, chamotte was not added. When constructing vessels, patches were used as building elements. The surface treatment of ceramics was largely performed by smoothing objects with spatulas, wooden scrapers or knives. Only a quarter of the vessels under study have the signs of sealing or polishing. The vessels were fired in simple hearths. Vessels were decorated using smooth stamps, or, less frequently, comb stamps. Various ornament elements made by surface treatment tools — wooden spatulas or knives — were rather customary. The ceramics of the Zhuravlevo type is characterised by «pearl» belts, or, less frequently, holes. Ornamental motifs most commonly included inclined, vertical or arranged in a staggered order stamp prints or angle, grid, horizontal herringbone or vertical zigzag patterns. The comparison of the manufacturing style of Zhuravlevo vessels with that found in the assemblage of Krasnozerska culture (Ishim basin) shows the similarity of pottery traditions in these population groups. At the same time, the results of our study evidence to the appearance of features inherent in the Early Iron Age pottery in terms of both the technology of manufacturing vessels and their ornamentation. The conducted research suggests a continuity between the Krasnozerka and Zhuravlevo cultural traditions in the Ishim basin.
Key words: Siberia, Low Ishim basin, Borki 1 settlement, Zhuravlevo type of ceramics, technical-and-technological analysis, ornamentation.
THE EXCAVAION OF A MARKET PLACE IN TOBOLSK
This article presents the results of the excavation works of a marketplace that was laid in the historical part of the lower village of Tobolsk, near the Kurdyumka river. The conducted archaeological research has established two building periods in this part of the city. The first building period is represented by powerful, well-stratified sediments containing the remains of the wooden trading rows of the marketplace that functioned in the 18th–19th centuries. The second period, which remains were found in the lower occupation layer, is represented by the fragments of residential buildings dated late 17th — early 18th century. The materials collected in the excavation site feature typical mass artefacts (tableware made of clay, porcelain, faience, glass, and a wide assortment of iron products and leather shoes), as well as some rare findings (chess figures, smoking pipes, crosses, rings, buttons, seals, bullets, clay and wooden toys, bone combs, etc.). The assemblage comprises coins and seals in large quantities, which were reliably attached to certain occupation layer strata. The provided characteristics of trade shops and goods having been sold therein have expanded the views of historians on trade relations in one of the first Russian towns in Siberia. According to the archaeological data, the products of Russian producers, including local ones, intended for wide population strata, greatly prevailed in the market of the lower village during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Key words: Tobolsk, the bottom posad, market square XVIII–XIX centuries, retail shops, residential buildings of the late XVII — early XVIII century, artifacts.
TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE MAP OF 1806: A SOURCE FOR SEARCHING ERMAK’S GRAVE OR FALSIFICATION OF ITS AUTHOR?
This article is aimed at investigating the 1806 Map of Tobolsk Governorate, which has been presented to a wider research community relatively recently. This is a unique source indicating the exact location of the grave of Ermak (the first Russian conqueror of Siberia). On the «Plan of a location near the Irtysh river, the Vagay river and other lakes and rivers...», a provincial land surveyor V. Filimonov put a sign indicating a dry Siberian pine 10 yards from the tomb of Ermak. In an extensive text on the map, Filimonov in his own words outlined the details of G.F. Miller’s data referring to the last battle of Ermak and the details of his burial. This text was supplemented by information obtained from the local Tatar population. At the same time, as a conscientious researcher, he clearly delineated the narration of G.F. Miller’s works from the gathered data. In recent articles, I.V. Belich has made an assumption that V. Filimonov forged the historic source by changing Miller’s text and unreasonably mapped the location of Ermak’s grave near Begishevî Yurts. However, a careful analysis of the explanatory text to the map has not confirmed this assumption. In addition, there is no proof for suppositions about Filimonov’s grabbing habit and the disclosure of the forgery back in the 19th century. Archaeological excavations conducted on the site of the alleged grave of Ermak have failed to confirm the statement that local residents just pointed to V. Filimonov at a medieval burial ground or the location of a revered tree. At the same time, the map analysis shows that it was drawn by a professional, who indicated Ermak’s burial place based on the information having been obtained from local residents. As any other historical source, this map undeniably requires a comprehensive re-examination and criticism. However, this should be a scientific criticism, rather than mere accusations against its author.
Key words: Map of Tobolsk Governorate of 1806, land surveyor V. Filimonov, Ermak’s grave, S.U. Remezov, G.F. Miller, Siberian Tartars.
12th–19th CENTURY CRANIOLOGICAL REMNANTS FROM THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS REGION
This paper presents the analysis of a craniological series from the Republic of Ingushetia (Lezhg, Jegikal villages), South Ossetia (Verhnij Rokk, Verhnej Erman, Srednij Erman villages) and the Chechen Republic (Staraja Sunzha village) conducted using modern morphologic methods. The research is based on craniological materials from the MAE RAS (Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences) collections that were gathered and described by V.V. Bunak in 1953. At that time, V.V. Bunak examined the material from the standpoint of the typological approach, giving great importance to the relative value of the cranial index. Therefore, it seems relevant to study the material within the framework of the population approach using modern me-thods. The aim of this paper is to classify the morphological characteristics of the Caucasian anthropological type using samples from two neighbouring groups (Ossetian and Ingush ones), which are analysed by two different methodologies. At the first stage, skulls were measured by a standard craniometric program. Subsequently, the obtained data was analysed by classical statistical methods (Mann — Whitney U test, Principal component analysis, Canonical discriminant analysis). At the second stage, the methods of geometric morphometry were applied for comparing the Procrustean distances by the principal component method (intragroup analysis) and the canonical discriminant analysis (intergroup analysis). The results of the geometric morphometry analysis have allowed us to trace the non-linear variation of the facial part of the skulls. The results obtained at both analytical stages have shown a good agreement. It is concluded that female groups are morphologically close to each other. Male groups show similarities between the Ingush and Ossetian materials. The craniological series from Staraya Sunzha is shown to be unique. Therefore, the majority of the craniological types identified by V.V. Bunak have not been confirmed by modern analytical methods, with the only exception being the male group from Staraya Sunzha.
Key words: Physical anthropology, craniology, Caucasus, geometric morphometrics, burial vault.
Khodzhayov T.K., Khodzhayova G.K.
THE ETHNOGRAPHIC REGION OF MIANKAL AS PART OF THE BIG SOGD
This article characterizes extensive craniological and osteological materials from Miankal, the site located in the Samarkand region, the central part of the Big Sogd. A review of anthropological and archaeological data on the population having resided in the aforementioned province is given for a lengthy historical period from antiquity, through the Late Middle Ages and up to the present time. The majority of the collections are presented for the first time in their full size. The article reviews the epochal dynamics of main craniological characteristics and indicators. A comparative analysis of the Miankal series with all other Big Sogd series is performed in terms of important morphological and paleodemographic indicators. The main morphological complexes having existed in ancient, Middle Age and close to the present time populations are described. A certain morphological peculiarity of the Miankal groups is shown. These groups are described in terms of intergroup differences and in comparison with the other Sogd population. The relationship vectors of the Miankal populations with those of the Central (Samarkand), Western (Bukhara) and Southern (Kaskadarya) Sogd are demonstrated for different historical periods. A suggestion is made that Miankal, being part of the Central Sogd, was also populated by groups from the Western and Southern Sogd, as well as from other historical and cultural geographical regions, such as the Central Kyzylkum, the Sarikamish region, the lower Syrdarya. In addition, according to archaeologists, this region might have been populated by immigrants from Kangju.
Key words: Miankal, Sogd, Samarkand, Bukhara; paleolith, mesolith, neolith, the Bronze Age, anti-quity, Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages è Late Middle Ages; paleoanthropology, craniology, osteology, paleodemography; craniometric characteristics, morphological complexes, race of the Middle Asian (Central Asian) interfluvial Area, Eastern Mediterranean race, Southern Siberian race; archaeological cultures.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Engibaryan A.A., Hovhannisyan À.À., Hobosyan S.G.
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE 14TH–16TH CENTURY ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS FROM THE ZARNI ER CAVE (ARMENIA)
Newly excavated materials from the Zarni Er cave (village of Hakhpat) have allowed the anthropological composition of the Late Middle Age (XIV–XVI centuries) inhabitants of Armenia to be characterized for the first time. Two burials were discovered in the Zarni Er cave. In Burial 1, the skeletal remains of two individuals were recovered. They belonged to a subadult, whose age-at-death is estimated to be between 5–6 years, and to a middle-adult male. In Burial 2, the skeletal remains of two more individuals were discovered: those of a young adult female and of an adult male. The burials were found adjacent to a medieval wine press. On the basis of anthropological and paleopathological data, the physical features and disease pathology of the bones were analysed. The traces of unintentional head (occipital) deformation were found on the skulls, which is supposed to be associated with social-domestic conditions. Some crania are found to display traumatic lesions, with most such fractures being located on the front of the head and its sides (on the frontal and parietal bones). In addition, several well-healed fractures were observed, including facial and rib ones. A left fibula found in Burial 1 showed a healed fracture at its distal end. The degree of the muscular relief development points to a considerable physical activity associated with labour. Some signs of enthesopathy, which disorder had previously been noted in horse riders, were discovered at the proximal end of the individuals’ femora. In two skeletons, the femora featured strongly developed lineas aspera in conjunction with the pronounced areas of the insertion of all three gluteal muscles, in particular of the gluteus minimus and gluteus medius on the greater trochanter. Harris lines, or growth arrest lines, are clearly seen on the Õ-ray images of the tibial bone diaphyses. Some skeletal and dental markers, such as the frequencies of alveolar bone disease, cribra orbitalia, periostitis and Schmorl’s nodes, might be indicative of relatively poor living conditions (inadequate diet, occurrence of subadult anaemia and infectious diseases, extremely hard physical labour) in the Lori province, most probably due to a dramatic worsening of the political situation in Armenia at that time. The remains are believed to be those of the adherents of an anti-feudal, heretical Christian sect — Tondrakians — that flourished in the medieval Armenia. It is likely that the Tondrakian followers took refuge from persecution in the Zarni Er cave. The Tondrakian movement primarily had a social character and was used as a tool for class warfare. Many regions of Armenia were undergoing peasant uprisings, which first began in the form of open social protests, eventually adopting religious aspects.
Key words: Armenia, Middle Ages, Cave Zarni Er, craniology, odondology, osteology, paleopatho-logy, Tondrakians (Christian sect).
OFFERING RITUALS AMONG POQOMCHI’-MAYA
This paper provides an ethnographic description of traditional ceremonies, during which the Poqomchi’ people (Mayan language family, Guatemala) make offerings to supernatural spirits and natural forces. Poqomchi’ rituals have not received sufficient research attention yet; this accounts for the relevance of the topic. These ceremonies are analysed against a general background of Mayan ritual practices. Special attention is paid to the process of altar preparation and to the peculiarities of the ritual language within which Poqomchi’ spiritual guides make requests to their divine authorities. The study considers burning rituals during which the Poqomchi’ ritual specialists collect the offerings and place them on the altar in a specific way. Then they light it with fire so that the flames transfer the offerings to the world of supernatural spirits and forces. While the fire is burning, ritual specialists invoke the deities, inviting them to the ceremonial place and bringing to their notice the petitions of the humans. A special discursive genre, different from an everyday language, is used for this ritual communication between the two worlds. The paper also describes some basic notions and concepts of Mayan spirituality, such as the 260-day ritual calendar, nahual, copal resin, daykeeper (or shaman), colour symbolism and interpretation of colours in terms of the four cardinal directions, among others. The most of them are shared with other ethnic and language communities in the Guatemalan Highlands. It is shown that some of the properties of the Poqomchi’ ritual language, such as the abundant use of semantic and syntactic parallelism (couplets) and different kinds of borrowings from Spanish as manifestation of religious syncretism, have been observed in other Mayan languages and in the Mesoamerican area in general. Other linguistic properties, such as the use of future or potential verb forms in the optative sense, seem to be more language-specific. The article is based on the fieldwork data obtained by the author in 2017 (with the financial support from the Firebird Foundation for Anthropological Research). The working corpus comprises three offering ceremonies, recorded in different places of the Poqomchi’-speaking area (Santa Cruz Verapaz, Tactic and Pajuil) and with different spiritual guides performing.
Key words: Poqomchi’, Maya, ritual language, offering ceremonies, Guatemala.
A SELKUP SHAMAN'S ATTRIBUTE WITH A MAMMOTH IMAGE
The article describes an attribute of a Selkup shaman — a trimmed garment, which is kept in a private collection in Salekhard (the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The shamanic garment was purchased from the relatives of I.S. Bezrukikh, a famous shaman, who had lived in the village of Farkovo, Turukhansk district, Krasnoyarsk Territory. The trimming on the garment is made of fabric pieces, bead strings and some iron figures tied with laces. The total length of the trimming is 80 cm. Three bird beaks (possibly of wild ducks) and seven pieces of skin are sewn on a red ribbon. Figures of two animals — a mammoth with a long tusk and a moose with an elongated muzzle — are sewn on a white ribbon. The mammoth tusk and the moose mouth are connected. The trimming is made of things produced at different times and combined in one unit presumably in the 1970s. The iron figures and a copper ring are the earliest items, which can be dated the second half or the end of the 19th century. The animal figures (a mammoth and a moose) sewn on a ribbon must have been produced in the 1950s or 1960s. The article describes main Selkup beliefs related to mammoths using data from publications by E.D. Prokofieva and G.I. Pelikh, as well as from unpublished materials reporting the 1970 and 1979 expeditions to the Selkups. According to E.D. Prokofieva, a mammoth was believed to protect the entrance to the underground world, to the «land of the dead». Sometimes the image of an underground mammoth would merge with that of a bear (a mammoth-bear), or even with a pike (a mammoth-pike). The Narym Selkups distinguished two kinds of mammoths: sourp-kozar (a beast mammoth) and kvoli-kozar (a fish mammoth). The former looked like a moose, who would turn into a mammoth as soon as it got old, with tusks starting to grow instead of its horns in the process of transformation. The latter resembled a huge pike. As far as the two images sewn on a ribbon are concerned, they are supposed to depict either the transformation of a moose into a mammoth after its death, or a kind of confrontation between a moose and a mammoth. Iron figures that are present on most of the known Selkup shamanic costumes most likely belong to the category of myrak, a spirit enclosed in an iron object. It is known that an iron figure of a swan used to be sacrificed to the spirit when a family member was ill or when some other misfortunes had occurred, with the purpose of conciliating the spirit. Unfortunately, we lack information about the role played by the images of a mammoth, a moose, birds and other animals in the beliefs of I.S. Bezrukikh. In any case, the investigated artefact is a unique cult attribute of a Selkup shaman, which demonstrates an extremely rare plot of including an underground creature — the mammoth — into the religious ritual practices of a small northern people.
Key words: shaman, mammoth, moose, religion, cult, peoples of North-West Siberia.
KITCHEN UTENSILS USED BY THE BASHKIRS IN THE INZER BASIN IN THE LATE 19TH — EARLY 21ST CENTURy
This paper is aimed at investigating the area of distribution, production and use of kitchen utensils used by the Bashkirs, in particular by those peoples having resided or residing around the Inzersky basin (situated in the present territory of the Beloretsky district, the Republic of Bashkortostan), from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st centuries. The sources for the study comprised archival and fieldwork materials collected by the author. A series of expeditions were conducted in 2010–2011 and 2016–2017 across the settlements of Gabdiukovo, Zuyakovo, Assi, Novokhasanovo, Usmangali, Inzer, Azikeevo, Aznalkino, Khusainovo, Sermenovo, Utkalevo, Uzyannbash, Shigaevo (Beloretsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan). The author studied collections assembled by the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography of the R.G. Kuzeev Institute for Ethnological Studies (the Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and by various school and local history museums in the region. In addition, the archival materials of the National Museum of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Ufa) were examined. In the Bashkir population, who led a nomadic and semi-nomadic lifestyle for a long time, household utensils were largely made of leather and wood. With the transition to a settled way of life, leather dishes lost their popularity among the Bashkirs. At the end of the 19th century, the population began to widely use wooden utensils, which would be manufactured not only for their own needs, but also for sale in other Bashkortostan regions. Kitchen utensils used to be made from various tree parts — trunks, limbs, branches, birchbark, bast fibre, roots, etc. Virtually all tree species growing in the region were used as a working material. Due to the peculiarities of the production method, three types of wooden dishes that were in use among the Bashkirs having resided around the Inzersky Basin can be distinguished: carved from a whole tree piece, with an inserted bottom and riveted. Vessels differed in shape, size and purpose. Huge one-piece tubs were used for storing flour and grain, while smaller bowls were considered suitable for melted fat, corned beef and other supplies. In tall and narrow vessels, oil, honey, sour cream and loose products were transported. Vats and tubs were used for kneading dough, shaking kumis, storing milk, beating butter and preparing yogurt. Wood was also a material for making trays for flour, troughs for cutting meat, buckets for biscuits, rolling pins, spatulas for dough and bread, buckets for water and other items necessary for cooking. Birchbark utensils were used for harvesting berries, as well as for storing salt, flour and cereals. As a result of technical progress and the development of trade and economic relations, the items of traditional domestic production started to lose their significance. However, such their qualities as durability, accessibility, environmental friendliness and cost-effectiveness have contributed to their long-term preservation in the everyday life of Bashkir people. Even today, the Bashkirs living in the Beloretsky region remember and use many methods of wood processing, including making wooden utensils. Unfortunately, this mainly refers to the older generation: the young know little about traditional wooden utensils and rarely use them in everyday life.
Key words: Bashkirs, Inzer Basin, Beloretsky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan, wooden utensils, kitchen utensils.
FROM THE TRIBAL «STONES» OF ALTAI PEOPLE TO THE MEMORABLE SIGNS OF THE ALTAI REPUBLIC
This article is written on the basis of fieldwork materials collected by the ethnographic methods of observation and conversation with informants from the southern Altai-Telengits and Altai-kizhi population groups. The aim of the research was to reveal a connection between the new tradition of installing generic «stones» typical for the Altai-kizhi, continued in the practice of hoisting stelae in honour of the tribal leaders of the past in the Telengits, and embodied in the creation of monuments and bas-reliefs dedicated to the memory of the Altai Republic founders. This relationship is shown to be determined by the multi-level identification of the Altai characterized by tribal, territorial and ethnic specifics. Under the conditions, when Altai people have to co-exist with Russians who currently represent the population majority, the installation of tribal «stones» and memorable stelae seems to be important for maintaining the Altai cultural continuity. The revival of old traditions and the creation of new ones is initiated by the older generation as memory bearers of the past. Among them are zaisans elected from family men and the Zaisanat Council, whose function is to deal with the village and regional administration, as well as with regional authorities on various issues, such as the protection of the Altai sacred places. The territorial identification is carried out by marking the area (frequently the roundabouts of sacred mountains), where the majority of the seok reside and where the family meetings take place. Using the examples of monuments that have been erected to the memory of G.I. Gurkin and V.I. Chaptynov in Gorno-Altaisk, this article investigates the transformation of the role of the leader among the Altai. These people are famous for realizing the idea of creating the Altai Republic. These monuments reflect the ethnic level of the Altai identification, because they are meant to recognize the contribution of Altai people into the ethno-political development of the Region — from the autonomous Oirot region to the Altai Republic.
Key words: Altaians, republic, syok-tribe, zaisanat, ancestral stone signs, patrimonial consciousness, image, levels of identification.
MANIFESTATIONS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE IN THE OB UGRIANS CULTURE AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH–20TH CENTURIES
The problem of adaptation of societies to global changes is known to be one of the most challenging for research in humanities. Processes involved with the breakdown of traditional society and transition to market relations are affecting all ethnic groups, with those in the periphery suffering the most. The purpose of the article is to analyse the form of socio-cultural change in the Ob Ugrian culture that occurred during the last period of Imperial Russia. The work is based on materials collected in the Yugra region, historical psychology methods and intercultural communication theories. It is shown that the inhabitants of the Northern part of the Tobolsk Governorate chose different scenarios when the previous stability had been undermined. Initially, the associated mental discomfort urged some representatives of the indigenous population to demonstrate antisocial behaviour. However, at later adaptation stages, the people’s self-esteem and desire to defend own interests and rights was gradually restored. The behaviour of the indigenous population was realized through a spontaneous generation of protective adaptive mechanisms under the continuously growing external influence. These mechanisms were manifested in the denial or, conversely, in the uncritical perception of alien values, in the partial assimilation of economic skills and the attributes of a new life, in the assimilation of literacy and language, in mixed marriages, in the development of rental relations, in the transition to entrepreneurship, in the property differentiation. The described contradictory processes of socio-cultural change and acculturation (separation, marginalization, assimilation, integration) were spreading across the entire Yugra region: from the South-West to the North-East, from towns to taiga wilderness. They affected both sovereign men and dependent women, short-term contacts and permanent interethnic interaction. By the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, the dominant acculturation version of the Ob Ugrians had been their integration with Russian culture. However, the final assimilation has not been achieved so far, as well as a complete emancipation of the indigenous societies from Russian merchants, native entrepreneurs and other intermediaries with the outside world.
Key words: adaptation, acculturation, assimilation, changes, integration, marginalization, Ob Ugrians, entrepreneurship, market, separation.
TRANSFORMATION: MODERN MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LIFE OF THE TUNDRA
NENETS REINDEER HERDERS
The paper presents an overview of the new elements that have come into the life of the Tundra Nenets of Northwest Siberia in recent decades, and their prospective impact on the traditional reindeer husbandry. The emphasis is on those innovations or their aspects that have not yet been reflected in modern studies. These are, in particular, such points as reindeer herding, dwelling, transport, means of communication, toys and entertainment. The culture of the Nenets nomads is characterized by a special dynamism and an active driving approach — they not only easily adopt technological innovations coming from the outside world, but are also constantly ready to search and try things out to improve the quality of their living. In recent years, this process has become particularly fast and intensified. It is concluded that the presence, spreading and functioning of these innovations in the life of the Tundra Nenets often becomes an effective catalyst for large and accelerated changes, the consequences of which can become destructive for the Tundra Nenets reindeer husbandry as a traditional economic and cultural base. The topic under consideration is part of a larger issue of adapting the Tundra Nenets to the modern circumstances of active industrial development in the YNAO. There are several alarming symptoms that are caused by these modern innovations. The first symptom is a rapid reduction of the sacred sphere in the objective world of the Tundra Nenets. The second one is the increasing disruption of internal social ties, manifested in the cutback of direct personal contacts between people and in the deterioration in the quality of the traditional knowledge transfer to younger generations. The third is the trend of a cardinal change in the traditional mode of reindeer pasture management, where one plausible option for development now is the cessation of the practice of year-round nomadic movements led by family groups. And the fourth is the increasing economic and psychological dependence of the indigenous population on external resources and services.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, nomads, technological innovation, cultural sustainability, indigenous knowledge.
EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE OF THE YAMAL NENETS IN THE 20th — 21st CENTURy
This article analyses data collected by the 1959 All-Union Census and the 2002 and 2010 All-Russian Censuses on the education and employment levels of the Nenets having lived and living in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, the Northern part of Western Siberia. We use statistical analysis methods, such as statistical observation, the summary and grouping of materials, the calculation of absolute and relative values in order to characterize the level of respondents’ education, as well as differences between the age groups of men and women. The gender approach is also used to analyse the structure of employment. We draw attention to diffe-rences in education and employment levels among the Nenets residing in urban and rural areas. An analysis of the census data has allowed us not only to confirm and clarify some of the sociological survey conclusions, but also to obtain new results. Due to the efforts of the state, illiteracy among the Nenets was almost completely eliminated in 50 years. Such a coercive approach has led to a gap in the educational levels between urban and rural groups, thus resulting in a peculiar division of labour between them. It is shown that city dwellers can find jobs in the spheres of education, public health, public administration, etc.; however, the rural economic branches, such as reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting, are still the only sources of work for rural dwellers. According to the mass statistics data on urban Nenets, there is no significant difference between the educational levels of pa-rents and children. It is highly alarming that middle-aged people and older generations among the Nenets seem to be more educated than the youth. Another worrying trend is the growing gender gap in the education between men and women. It might be predicted that such trends would result in an increase in the number of interethnic marriages, migration of Nenets women to urban areas and a subsequent decrease in the number of female Nenets in the tundra areas. In general, our results indicate a significant change in educational levels among the Nenets, which occurred in the second half of the 20th century. This population is shown to possess a substantial educational potential, which could potentially be realized in various economic sectors. Nonetheless, the data on the distribution of the main sources of subsistence for the Nenets shows that this potential remains largely unfulfilled. The Nenets cannot compete successfully with Russians in the labour market. A possible solution to this problem is reliance on the resources of their traditional households, where the Nenets have no competitors.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, All-Russia censuses, All-USSR censuses, educational level, population distribution by sex, age and educational level, economic activity, population employment, sources of livelihood.
«YAPTIK-CITY»: A NORTHERN COMMUNITY IN SEARCH OF IDENTITY
The paper analyses the collective cultural representations (identities) of local communities, as well as the methods of framing and narrative coding of the social world in Northern rural communities. The research is based on the author's fieldwork conducted in the Yamalsky District of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in July — August, 2017 and April, 2018. The basic theoretical approach employed is an ethnographic version of the Theory of Local Texts. A model of the sign-textual environment of the Northern rural community (sender — form of speech — addressee) is proposed, which specifies communication levels and respective identity formulas. This model has allowed the manifestations of official and lower identity politics to be determined. With regard to the dynamic aspect, the sign-textual environment of a Northern rural community presents itself as a constantly unfolding polylogue between «producers» of meanings who have different, varying in power, interests and positions. Each position correlates with a certain form of expression (official billboard, artistic street art, graffiti) and narrative strategy. Visualization of local identity formulas, the professional brand of a community and the formation and development of a presentation «clip» (graphic promotional merchandise) characteristic of Northern communities enriches their cultural landscapes and opens new channels for self-identification and self-expression to its members. In the second part of the research, the paper presents a case study, which is aimed at analysing an actual case of producing a local text in a typical Northern community «under the patronage», the Novy Port settlement. The paper reveals interaction mechanisms between the main subjects of local text production: «Chief» companies, Administrations, painters and local citizens. At the end of the paper, it is concluded that the collective cultural representation of a place results from a situational compromise between «producers of meanings». In other words, the identity of a Northern community is not merely something given that demands expression, but rather a «negotiated» construction recorded here and now. In a wider time perspective, it is only one of possible methods for the framing and narrative coding of social experience and social world by individuals connected to this place.
Key words: local text, identity, Yamal, northern community, street art, graffiti.
Zakh V.A., Zimina O.Yu.
ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ANDREVEVSKAYA AND THE LIPCHINSKAYA CULTURES IN THE LOWER TOBOL RIVER BASIN (basåd on the materials of Velizhany 1 settlement)
The transition period from the Stone Age to the Metal Era was an important stage, as it is characterized by the spread of new technologies and industries. However, only minor changes occurred in the life of the West Siberian population. They affected only some areas of the life support system. The population continued to use mainly tools made of stone. Few tools of copper, and later of bronze, appeared only at the end of the III millennium BC. That time, which coincide with the beginning of the subboreal period with unstable climate and landscapes, is characterized by significant population movements. The comb-and-pit ornamental tradition was spreading in Western Siberia during that period, and it filtered into the territory of the Lower Tobol River basin. We suppose that the groups of population with the pit-comb ceramics penetrated to the north-west of Western Siberia close to that period, and after that they appeared in Tobol basin. Probably, they came from the north-western regions of Eastern Europe (Karelia). Groups of bearers of the false-cord ornamentation of ceramics (Lipchinskaya culture) also appeared in the Lower Tobol River basin coming from the highland and forest Trans-Urals. Probably, the initial stage of interaction between the population of the Andreevskaya and the Lipchinskaya cultures is represented by the materials of Velizhany 1 settlement in the Lower Tobol River basin. These materials show a fusion of ethno-cultural massifs with an exchange of technologies, in particular, metal production. The Mysaevsky complexes with the pit-textile ornamentation of ceramic, spread mainly in the Ishim River basin, are a continuation of the sociocultural adaptation of the population and the rapprochement of Andreevskaya and Lipchinskaya cultural massifs. They demonstrate a combination of Andreevskaya and Lipchinnskaya ornamental motifs.
Key words: Trans-Urals, the Lower Tobol River basin, Velizhany 1, Andreevskaya culture, Lipchinskaya culture, pit-comb complex, false-cord complex, interaction, adaptation of cultural traditions.
Kupriyanova E.V., Taskaev S.V.
A dAGGER from stepnoye VII cemetery as AN indicator of intercultural contacts in metalworking IN the bronze age of THE southern trans-urals
The aim of the article is to describe the results of multidisciplinary analyses of a unique bronze dragger from the bicultural cemetery of Stepnoye VII in the Southern Trans-Urals. This item was found in an Alacul’ burial which was attached to a Petrovka burial complex. There were graves of two sub-adult individuals in richly ornamented costumes with a pair of horses sacrifice and expensive grave goods in the burial. The burial built in the Petrovka burial complex demonstrates the Alacul’ population’s desire to show their belonging to the Petrovka cultural tradition. The dagger is a bronze weapon with a cut pseudo-molded-on metal handle. The suffice optical microscopy has allowed to determine the dagger production technology — lost loam mold process without further perfection. Second use traces of the object are practically absent. The dagger was made by a high-level professional especially for a certain sacrificial ritual. The material elemental analysis was identified by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) method, also roentgenostructural analysis and X-ray phase analysis were used. The dagger was made out of medium tin bronze alloy. Stannery (tin metal) concentration in the alloy amounts to 7,9–10 %, copper amounts to 88,6–90,9 %. Other elements admixtures are negligible — 1 % and less. The dagger metal chemistry is similar to a set of tools from the graves of the Petrovka cemetery of Stepnoye VII, some of them are analogues with the goods from the Seima-Turbino (circle of) burial sites, according to their typology. Two items are close analogues of the dagger according to its look: the daggers from the Gladunino hoard (Kurgan oblast) and from Shaitanskoye Ozero II site (Sverdlovsk oblast). However, a comparison of the look and production technology of the Stepnoye IV dagger with its close analogues shows higher professionalism it was made with. Obviously, there was a vast contact zone which connected different metallurgical production centres during the Bronze Age. The Stepnoye region belongs to the boarder-zone of the forest-steppe world and the steppe inhabitants, and it had been a contact zone among tribes with different economic systems at all times. The people who lived in the boundary zone (Petrovka tribes that built the sites at Stepnoye village, in particular), were the mediators of an exchange in metalwork technology between the southern and northern areas and, probably, they mediated tin alloys supply from the Northen Ural mines. From all appearances, the dagger from the complex 8 of the cemetery of Stepnoye VII was made by the local masters. The model embodied in this dagger having wide parallels does not speak for import of items, rather for import of ideas and images, common environment and relations between northern circumference metal-makers from Petrovka-Sintashta world and Seima-Turbino transcultural phenomenon representatives.
Key words: Bronze Age, Southern Trans-Urals, metallurgy, dirk, Petrovka culture, Alakul’ culture.
Kukushkin I.A., Dmitriev E.A.
EARLY ALAKUL ANTIQUITIES OF TANABAI BURIAL GROUND (based on the materials of the mound 4)
The article introduces into scientific circulation the results of the researches of Tanabai burial ground obtained by the expedition of Saryarka Archaeological Institute at Buketov Karaganda State University. The mound 4, with a diameter of 14 m, height up to 0,4 m, was chosen as the object of the work in 2014. Five altars related to post-mortuary rituals were revealed during the removal of the embankment. An oval fence was found at the under-mound site, with a size of 13×9 m, consisting of vertically installed granite slabs. 13 burial chambers, located in two groups, were found in the inner space, at the level of the mainland. The bulks of the graves were made in stone boxes, less frequently in graves. The orientation of the graves is diverse: north-east — south-west, north-west — south-east, and north — south. The undisturbed tombs 4, 11, 13, 14 are most informative. It is determined that the deceased were laid in a crocheted position, mainly on the left side, head to the western sector. A burial of a warrior or a hunter was found in the tomb 13, at the feet of which a set of bone and metal arrowheads, probably placed in a quiver, was discovered. Metal bracelets with spiral ends, paste and metal beads, pendants of animal fangs are observable in female burials. The resulting ceramic complex and inventory according to formal typological characteristics refers to the early stage of the Alakul culture. The absence of an empty zone along the neck of the vessels is a long-known specific Central-Kazakhstan feature, which may be explained by a further transformation of the Petrov culture of the region into the Alakul culture, preserving the ornament along the neck. In the matter of dating the investigated burials, in view of the almost complete absence of radiocarbon dates, it can be stated that they are chronologically somewhat later than the early materials of the Central Kazakhstan Bronze Age (Petrov culture), according to recent natural science studies. Most likely, our materials can be dated back to the end of the first quarter of the 2nd millennium BC.
Key words: Central Kazakhstan, the Bronze Age, the Alakul culture, burial ground.
A.D. Degtyareva, S.V. Kuzminykh
MODELS OF COLOR METAL PRODUCTION IN THE URALS IN THE EARLY IRON AGE
There were various models of metal production among the population of the Itkul and the Savromat archaeological cultures during the Early Iron Age in the Central and South Urals. The Itkul culture is a culture of miners and metallurgists. Its basic fraction — the Itkul or Trans-Ural center of metallurgy — was initially focused on mi-ning and metal production. The main collections of Itkul copper and bronze products were found at the objects related to production activity (settlements and hillforts of metallurgists) and cult practice (sanctuaries). Itkul tribes had a clearly expressed metallurgical specialization in production, ore processing (generally malachite) in huge scales, melting of oxidized copper and production of a wide range of products with a subsequent active participation in trade and exchange transactions. The metal of early nomads of the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan comes from funeral complexes, where representatives of military and priestly estates were often buried, with unique and sacral significant products. Relatively progressive models of production with accurately traced correlation of product type — chemical composition of a metal — technology were developed in West Kazakhstan-Southern Ural center of metal production of the Savromat archaeological culture. All sacrally significant objects are made of tin and tin-arsenic bronze. At the same time, share of tin impurities was often unfairly high, up to 31%, which resulted in fragility of metal even after it was subject to a special heat treatment. Casting on lost wax models, casting in unilateral, two-or three-leaved forms (often metal) with plug-in inserts remained the dominant scheme of receiving products. The authors describe the main vectors of historical and metallurgical contacts of the Savromat tribes with production centers of Ore Altai and Central Kazakhstan, from where tin and tin-arsenic alloys arrived. Their northern neighbors, miners and metallurgists of the Itkul culture, were the main suppliers of copper to the early nomads of the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan.
Key words: Urals, Early Iron Age, Savromat culture, Itkul culture, metal production models, non-ferrous metal, manufacturing techniques.
RESEARCH AND SOME ISSUES OF INTERPRETATION OF FRAGMENTS OF TEXTILES FROM THE MOUND 15 OF THE NECROPOLIS OF NOVOTROITSKOYE-1
Purpose: The purpose of the present work is to introduce into scientific circulation the results of technical and technological analysis of tissue samples found during excavation of Novotroitskoye-1 burial ground and to discuss some issues related to their interpretation. The paper deals with the fragments of pants, and hems of the items from a tomb of one of the Mound 15 of the necropolis of Novotroitskoye-1, discovered during the excavations by A.P. Umansky, in Talmensky district of the Altai territory. Currently, these findings are stored in the Historical Museum of the Altai State Pedagogical University (funds numbers: 39, 40, 44).
Results: the study found out that the raw material basis of the fabric is wool. The threads are twisted. Their colours are various shades of brown. The threads of the supposed «basics» and «duck» are indistinguishable, their thickness in the samples is almost the same. Total slack strands in the leaf tissue must be an evidence of that they were made on a simple fixture without fixing, perhaps, on a vertical loom, although due to the lack of edges we won't discuss it in oreder to be on safe side. The studied object is small in size, has no obvious errors in weaving, but is excessively damaged by negligent storage. The first fragment of the study, most likely, refers to men's pants. The second and third fragments probably relate to the hem of a female waist (skirt) or shoulder (dress) clothing. The main difference between the considered fragments is that the cloth of men's clothing is linen, and the one of women's is twill. This is probably due to the gender differentiation of clothing among the population of the Upper Ob River Basin in the Early Iron Age.
Conclusions: The analysis of findings provided a new perspective on design methods for making hem shoulder or waist clothing, traditional casual clothing of the population of the Upper Ob River Basin in the Early Iron Age. The data obtained in the course of the study make it possible to consider in more detail the issues related to the study of archaeological textiles within the complex subject of clothing of the ancient population of North Asia.
Key words: Upper Ob region, Early Iron Age, archaeological fabrics, technical and technological analysis, textiles.
ZOTINSKOE III SETTLEMENT, A FORTIFIED CENTER OF TRANS-URAL METALLURGISTS OF THE EARLY IRON AGE: INVENTORY AND OSTEOLOGICAL COMPLEX
In 1974 and 1977, archaeologists of the Ural State University excavated plots (441 m2) of the defensive system and the inner site of a fortified center of the Early Iron Age, located at the Bagariak River in the foothill part of the forest Trans-Urals. Ceramics of the Itkul culture, animal bones, a bone triangular arrowhead were found in the layer of the early unfortified settlement, under the embankment; pottery of the Itkul culture (first type), including production vessels, were found in the embankment; animal bones and slags were found in the ditch. Fragments of an Itkul «dining-room» (first type) and industrial ceramic ware, bones of domestic and wild animals, slags, a flat-bottomed «censer» made of stone talc, ceramic and clay discs — «spindles» with a hole in the center (probably, details of an archery device for obtaining fire), a bone piercer, a dagger-like point, copper or bronze objects — a wheel-shaped casting (ornament or psaltery) and a rectangular ornamented buckle with a hook, as well as heavily drained iron knives and shards with iron «rivets» of unclear purpose were found at the inner site of the hill-fort. A part of the Itkul ceramics and bones of animals lay under adobe platforms. An imported antique bead of orange carnelian was found near the embankment. The slag bulk was concentrated between the clay pads, they were not found in the embankment. Bones belonged to wild and domestic species: wolf, bear, roe deer, elk, large and small cattle, horse. Remains of domestic animals prevailed (227 bones from 18 individuals against 71 bones from 16 individuals). Horse bones (159 from 8 individuals) and roe deer (52 bones from 10 individuals) represent the major part of the collection. The Gamayun (VII–IV centuries BC), Vorobyevo and Gorokhovo (VI–IV centuries BC) ceramics of the Early Iron Age, medieval pottery, and products of XIX–XX centuries are represented by single findings. The Itkul’ complex dates back to the IV–II centuries BC.
Key words: forestry Trans-Ural region, settlement of metallurgists, the Early Iron Age, ceramics, tools, ornaments, osteological remains.
A TRIPOD FROM THE MONUMENT OF KHANTEPA
The article is dedicated to the study of the details of the material culture of the monument of Khantepa, located in the ancient capital center of Sogd Erkurgan. Materials from the monument gave interesting data, confir-ming ethnocultural relationships of the ancient population of the Kashkadarya Oasis. Archaeological findings from the monument of Khantepa allow us to trace the influence of nomadic cultures on the culture of the agricultural oasis. Such influence can be traced in the ceramics of everyday life and for religious purposes, as well as in terracotta. A tripod leg is of particular interest among the findings. It is thought to be a portable altar or a censer. The study of portable altars and censers of Central Asia proves that finding to appear with the nomads coming from Eastern Europe. The article describes the history of appearance of portable altars and censers in Central Asia from the Bronze Age to the Early Middle Ages in order to confirm this theory. In addition, the remaining terracotta of the monument also requires a special scientific approach. An important place is given to one of such terracotta, which complements the history of the development of the worldview of the population of Southern Sogd.
Key words: tripod, sanctuary, brick, Southern Sogd, Erkurgan, Bronze Age, migration, altar, censer, tower, Early Middle Ages.
«THE BATTLE OF SHULGIN» ON THE MAPS BY S.U. REMEZOV AND ITS SOURCE: HISTORICAL AND NATURAL-GEOGRAPHICAL PLOTS
The specifics of ethnographical and archaeological research is such, that it requires use of new sources for a more detailed analysis. So, potentially, the books, created in the late XVII — early XVIII century by Siberian cartographer S.U. Remezov are very important in modern science. The author of the article examines one of the map of the late seventeenth century, which became a source for a compilation of several pages by S.U. Remezov. The author sees several methodological bases of a research in the field of ethnoarcheology. They are system approach, synergetics, and world-system analysis. However, in this case, the author uses the theorem of Gödel, which he considers possible to adapt for the Humanities in order to justify the need to involve a wide range of sources. The methodology of the study is to compare the same geographic features on past and present maps, as well as to use written sources for analysis and interpretation of data maps. After examining it and comparing it with a modern version, the author concludes that the accuracy and reliability of the map by Strunin is undeniable. This allowed us to draw conclusions about the natural and geographical situation at the end of the seventeenth century, formed by the systems of communication, patterns of settlement of the Russians and their art of war in the defense of the border lands. The author believes that the system of the Russian settlement on the Tobol River banks is a variant of the settling on the banks of large rivers and lower reaches of their tributaries. In this case, the first settlements were founded on the most liveable places. The system of communications between the settlements had been established by the natives before the Russians arrived, they adapted them to fit their needs, and they mainly survived to the present day. As for the military, defending the border lands at the Tobol River, the Russians put an emphasis on constructing fortified settlements, and moving the equestrian army. The author pays great attention to one of the events at the end of the XVI century, the battle of Tobolsk nobleman Vasily Shulgin with the nomads. The author considers the place of the battle, the reasons for its sad outcome, and its importance for the subsequent development of the Tobol region.
Key words: Tobol, maps by S.U. Remezov, ethnographical and archaeological research, methodo-logy, methods, sources.
PALEOPATHOLOGY OF BACTRIA-MARGIANA ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX AND SOME ADJACENT TERRITORIES. A SHORT OVERVIEW
The article provides a brief overview of the paleopathological data on the population of the Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex (BMAC) and some adjacent regions (sites from the territory of Iran and Pakistan). In addition to the literature review, the results of a formalized comparison of some ancient groups according to the frequency of occurrence of several stress markers using correspondence analysis are presented. Based on this results, groups from the Margiana (Gonur-depe) and Bactria oases (Buston VI), are the closest to each other, as well as to the series from the territory of Iran and the Harappian sample. The mechanisms of adaptation to the influencial environmental biological and social factors, judging from the paleopathological data, differed significantly from the agricultural and pastoral population (Andronovo culture). At the same time, the Central Asian oases population (BMAC), samples from the territory of the Iranian plateau and the Indus valley demonstrate an obvious similarity of the pathological status. Local specificity can be considered as a result of the peculiarities of the course of adaptive processes in different environmental conditions, on the one hand, and as a fact caused by inter-researchers errors, on the other. In general, the given data correspond to those in the «idealized model of subsistence systems correlates with demography and health» for agricultural populations proposed by J. Lukacs. However, high frequency of infectious diseases does not find a clear «osteological» reflection in the material from most of the BMAC sites and sites from adjacent territories.
Key words: paleopathology, stress markers, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex, Central Asia, Iran, Indus Valley.
NEW DATA ON SELKUP CRANIOLOGY FROM THE UPPER TAZ RIVER BASIN
Some researchers pointed out that the anthropological originality of some native groups of Western Siberia was formed as a result of late metisation processes that occurred in modern times. Judging by historical and ethnolinguistic data, one of such peoples is the Northern Selkups, who moved to the Upper Taz River basin in the XVII century for political, economic and, possibly, environmental reasons. Paleoontropological data can be an important source for solving the issue of their origin. The article is dedicated to the analysis of the craniological collection from Kikki-Akki burial, received in 2013 and replenished in 2016. The cranial characteristic of this group is reduced to a combination of the following features: a low subdolichocranial skull, a slightly flattened medium-wide and medium-high mesoprozopic face, a flat nose and a very small nasal protrusion angle. The intra-group variability of the male part of the series was studied. In terms of the degree of internal morphological similarity, two groups were singled out in the population under consideration. The first were mesocranial skulls with a mo-derate protrusion medium-high face (8 individuals), the second were subdolichocranial skulls with a flattened low face (5 individuals). It has been established that the Selkups from the Narym River area are indeed the ancestors of the Selkups from the Upper Taz River region, but their physical appearance changed over a short period of time (200–300 years) because of migration to the north. According to its anthropological type, male population of the Upper Taz River region in the XVIII–XIX centuries became as close as possible to the Eastern Khanty. However, it was possible to find in their anthropological structure features of the morphotype associated in genesis with the Selkups from the Narym River region. Formation of the anthropological originality of the Selkups from the Upper Taz River region proceeded with an active metisation of these two components belonging to one West Siberian formation. However, biological connections of the Northern Selkups with the ancestral group from the Narym River region apparently weakened by the XVIII-XIX centuries, and the Ugric component became dominant. A different situation is observed in the female population from the Upper Taz River region. They clearly have both basic components, with a slight predominance of the Southern Samoyedic.
Key words: Western Siberia, Late Middle Ages, Northern Selkup, paleoanthropology, anthropological type, craniology.
Bravina R.I., Petrov D.M.
TRIBES «WHICH BECAME WIND»: AUTOCHTHONOUS SUBSTRATE IN ETHNOCULTURAL GENESIS OF THE YAKUTS REVISITED
The study of the origin of the Yakuts focuses on the ethnic history of their alien Turkic-Mongolian ancestors. Issues of mutual ethnocultural influence of local and alien ethnic groups and identification of autochthonous tribes who took part in formation of the Yakut people are not fully researched. Yakut legends mention the tribes «which became wind», Khara-Sagyly, the mysterious «long-headed» Sakha, the bellicose Tumats/Jirikinei, etc. The question of their ethnic identification is one of the most complex and not fully developed within the issue of ethnocultural genesis of the Yakuts. Some researchers (A.P. Okladnikov, S.I. Tokarev, I.V. Konstantinov, I.E. Zykov and A.I. Gogolev) consider these autochthonous tribes as the Tungusic peoples. According to a hypothesis by A.N. Alekseev and S.I. Nikolaev-Somogotto, an aboriginal layer in the Yakut culture was probably represented by paleo-Siberian and pre-Samoyedic tribes. A successful study of this issue was largely impeded by the lack of informative and sufficiently reliable sources. This problem has been partly solved due to new archaeological discoveries in the last decade, especially to that of a multi-layered man site in Ulakhan Segelenneekh on the Olekma river and thanks to the data of modern molecular-genetic researches. An attempt of a paleoethnic reconstruction of the original culture of the autochthonous tribes of Yakutia and of a comparative historical analysis of ancient traditions and cultures of indigenous peoples of Northern Asia was made in the article combining the data on folklore, toponymics, ethnography, archaeology and ethnic genetics. Integrated research data tell about the presence of ancient ethnocultural links between ancestors of the Yakuts and modern Ural peoples of Western Siberia. The tribes from historical lore and Yakutian legends are said to be aboriginal population of the north-western border of Yakutia, successors of the local archaeological cultures of the Late Neolithic and the Paleometal Age. The material given describes ethnocultural complex processes that took place in ancient Yakutia, which contributed to the formation of the Yakut ethnos and its culture.
Key words: Yakutia, Yakuts, ethnocultural genesis, autochthonous tribes, Samoyeds, Paleo-Asiatics, archaeological cultures, the Neolithic, the Paleometal Age, the Middle Ages.
FIRES IN THE CULTURE OF THE EASTERN KHANTY: MODERN ASPECTS
The study is based on the author's field research conducted in 2002–2016. The research area covers a part of territories traditionally inhabited by the Eastern Khanty in the Middle Ob region, including basins of the rivers Agan, Trom-egan, Pim, Lyamin, Bolshoy Yugan and Malyi Yugan. In the last 30 years, the industrial development, urbanization of the Middle Ob region led to large-scale changes in the culture of the Eastern Khanty, based on traditional nature use. That changes affected all aspects of indigenous culture, including relations between a human and fire. Today, fires in the forest and traditional settlements of the Eastern Khanty are more frequent in the Middle Ob region. Nowadays, weakening of traditional norms of delicate handling of fire is one of the causes of fires. Inaccurate handling of fire during industrial activities and visits to the taiga by urban people is another cause of fires. In addition, cases when the Khanty set fire to forest huts of urban residents take place. Archaic models of attitude to fires in the practical and religious spheres are preserved among the Eastern Khanty, living in the taiga and practicing traditional nature use. The practice of preserving places of human habitation and feeding landscapes (deer pastures and hunting grounds) from fires is still maintained. The traditional practice of using controlled fire to stop forest fires is used. In the last two decades, the Eastern Khanty are a the forefront of discussing the construction of industrial facilities in places of feeding landscapes, in connection with the potential threat of fires. Until now, fires in the religious sphere have been perceived by informants from the standpoint of traditional ideas about the activities of deities of fire. Representations of purifying, destroying and protective functions of fire have been still occupying an important place in the world view of the Eastern Khanty. There are differences in the assessment of the consequences of fires at abandoned settlements and cemeteries by the native inhabitants. In some cases, the Eastern Khanty consider the occurrence of fires in terms of traditional religious views, despite the objective reasons of their appearance. The transformation of religious beliefs is observed in the functioning of religious objects after they are damaged by fires, which is a vivid example of adaptation of the culture of the Eastern Khanty to modernity.
Key words: the Eastern Khanty, attitude to fire, consequences of fires, economic practices, religious beliefs, pantheon of traditional deities, transformation of world view, adaptation strategies.
SMOKE OVER TAIGA AND TUNDRA: FIRE IN THE CULTURE OF NORTHERN PEOPLES OF WESTERN SIBERIA AS A MEANS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
The article describes burning practices used by native northern hunters-gatherers and reindeer herders of Western Siberia as a potential factor of impact on surrounding landscapes. In this sense, the research focuses primarily on aspects of practical importance in the fields of cultural ecology and ethnoarchaeology. Controlled burning of grass, shrubs, and deadwood has been a very effective landscape management tool, though not a common practice among northern natives of Western Siberia. It helped certain groups restore the productivity of berry bushes, attract wild ungulates and create better conditions for reindeer herding and travelling, as well as protect the territory from devastating forest fires. There are some Western Siberian ethnic groups which traditionally have had more freedom in the use of fire (Evenks) and others whose actions in this field have been rather rigidly regulated by traditional rules and beliefs (Ob Ugrians and Selkups). The Tundra and Forest Nenets probably combined their culture features with both of the mentioned groups. This allows us to suggest a version that a relatively freer use of fire is generally a typical feature of the nomadic population. Several areas were discovered in Western Siberia, where the peoples of the North had practiced intentional burning (or supposedly could do it) in order to obtain additional economic benefit from their lands — the Konda river valley, the Upper Taz river area and the interfluve of the Demyanka and the Turtas. The local Khanty and Mansi groups of the Konda river valley adopted this use of fire from the neighbouring Siberian Tatars or Russians in 1860–70s. Simultaneously, it was also a real paradigm shift in the spheres of traditional beliefs and land use practices of the Ob-Ugrian communities. The last two areas mentioned were associated with local groups of Evenks, the people who were brought into disrepute in Siberia and the Far East as arsonists of the taiga. As ethnographic data shows, on the one hand, that was a prejudiced opinion, on the other hand, there were factors that contributed to its formation.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, human-modified landscapes, ethnic land-use practice, cultural ecology, ethnoarchaeology, indigenous knowledge.
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TWO EPOCHS: INCARNATION IN A FESTIVAL
The article was written based on the expedition to the Northern Selkups in Krasnoselkupsky district of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area in March 2016. The author managed to observe the Reindeer Herders' Day in three villages of the district — Ratta and Tolka villages, located in the upper reaches of the Taz River, and the village of Krasnoselkup in the middle reaches of the Taz river. Krasnoselkupsky district embraces almost the entire Taz river basin with the exception of lower areas, which are an ancestral territory of residence of the Northern Selkups, one of the low-numbered peoples of the North. The size and composition of the population of the settlements, which hosted the Reindeer Herders' Day, differ significantly, so the festival in each of the villages has its own special features. Reindeer herders' days in Krasnoselkup district are an important element and a state policy instrument in respect of indigenous low-numbered peoples of the North. The festivals help the Selkups improve their financial situation, give an incentive to reindeer husbandry, contribute to the preservation of traditional culture and strengthen national self-awareness, improve Selkups' relationship with the authorities. At the same time, reindeer herders' days reflect people's mood, determine the state of Selkup reindeer herding and, more broadly, the economy, and also serve as an indicator of effectiveness of the modern state social policy in relation to the Selkups and other indigenous low-numbered peoples of the North in Krasnoselkup district. Reindeer herders' day is neither an original Selkup tradition nor an innovation. The idea of the holiday originated in the depths of the Soviet era and, being successful, moved to the next era as one of the particles of its immense heritage , where it was further developed. The article introduces into scientific circulation and analyzes field materials on a topic that until now has not been examined in detail either in national or in foreign anthropological science.
Key words: ethnography, history, the Selkups, reindeer, holidays, social policy, legacy of the socialist era.
Liskevich N.A., Masharipova A.H.
TERRITORIAL AND ECONOMIC ADAPTATION OF THE KOMI RESETTLERS ON THE TERRITORY OF THE LOWER TOBOL RIVER BASIN IN THE XIX — BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY
The process of development and structuring of space by Komi resettlers in Ivanovo Volost of Yalutorovsk Uyezd of Tobolsk Governorate in the XIX — beginning of the XX century is analyzed based on field research materials, documents of management and record keeping from the state archives of Tyumen and Chelyabinsk regions, published narratives of researchers of the late XIX — early XX century and of contemporary regional ethnographers. The background and history of resettlement of the Komi to the territory of the Lower Tobol River basin, the practice of land use and the arrangement of a new place of residence are described. The main elements of the acquired space are singled out. They are residential, sacred, economic and natural spaces. Their characteristics are given. Territorial and economic adaptation of the Komi resettlers in the territory of the Lower Tobol River basin, taking into account traditions of natural management and ethno-cultural attitudes, related primarily to arrangement of permanent and temporary settlements, deforestation and farming. Formation of the cultural landscape was accompanied by structuring (organization) of the inhabited space. Names given to natural and anthropogenous geographic objects highlight significant elements of space, reflect their location, show the functional purpose and idea of the use of natural resources, corresponding names of people and significant events, structure of the settlement, location of amenity and religious buildings and places. The territory that was developed and «marked» in this way was codified by a system of symbols within residential, sacred, economic and natural spaces that played a part of basic address identifiers that helped accurately determine the location of a necessary object, the path and orientation in space, and also reflected the degree of compliance of the immigrants on a new territory of residence and contributed to the preservation of collective memory.
Key words: the Komi, the Zyrian, Ivanovo Volost of Yalutorovsk Uyezd, resettlers, land use, space structuring.
SPECIAL ASPECTS OF VENERATION OF THE «SAVIOUR» CRUCIFIX FROM KAMENKA VILLAGE IN TYUMEN REGION
The article studies special aspects of venerating the «Saviour» crucifix from Kamenka village in Tyumen region. The cross was measured using the method by D.V. Pejemsky which enables us to typologically organize venerated objects. The article examines paleography and iconography of the cross. On the whole, it is concluded that the crucifix combine orthodox and old-rite aspects due to a specific character of ethnic and religious structure of the local population. According to the analysis of a marking stamp on the crucifix, it is concluded that the cross might had been manufactured for a chapel in Sorokino village or for a church in Kamenka village. Besides, it is suggested that the name of the crucifix is locally related to annual sacred processions with the Holy Image of the Saviour Not-Made-by-Hands from Tyumen city to Kamenka village and the surrounding country. The article presents a detailed analysis of the history and the modern state of the «Saviour» crucifix veneration, mostly through narratives of the native population. On the one hand, worshiping the cross reflects a mass popular tradition of shrine veneration typical of the innates. It dates back to the mid and the end of the XX century when a crucifix was kept indoors in the houses of Sorokino village inhabitants. The crucifix was used during crisis states in the community (offering prayers with a cross in the fields in case of a drought), or in a separate household (praying aimed to recover health). By the present time, the cross has been renovated and exhibited in the church of Kamenka village but the specificity of its veneration assumed a new aspect. It results from dynamic churching of those worshipers who are forming a new ritualism of the crucifix. In connection with the revival of parishes, the practice of the crucifix veneration is oriented towards the church canon and mainly corresponds to the task a modern individual sets for religion — to be a method of healing and achieving health and well-being.
Key words: venerated crucifix, religious culture of Siberian peasants, churching of a shrine.
Korochkova O.N., Mosunova A.V.
THE ENEOLITHIC COMPLEX OF DUVANSKOYE XVII SETTLEMENT
The article deals with publication of the Eneolithic complex of Duvanskoye XVII monument, which is situated just outside the city of Tyumen. The monument is well known as a Fedorovo culture settlement. However, its Eneolithic period is of great interest as well. A dwelling with more than 50 pits was constructed in the 3rdcentury BC. The building of the pole frame construction was reconstructed due to a rectangular pit sized 6×5,3 metres and a number of pole holes situated around the pit at the distance of 1–3 meters. The samples from the building are represented by the Andreevo culture pottery, clay biconic plummets, and things made of silicium and jasper. There were over 50 regularly shaped pits randomly situated to the west of the dwelling. Some of them had debris of vessels of the Andreevo, Lipchin and Shapkul types, small fragments of ceramics, and articles made of stone, including small-sized polished ones. The majority of findings was located in the area between the pits. Their regular shape has considerable resemblance to the burial ones. However, the absence of anthropological remnants gave no chance of identifying them as burial places. The situation has changed by now. The materials from the eneolithic burial grounds of Pereyminsky 1, 2, Chepkul 20 and Buzan 3, located in close proximity, were excavated and published. A number of parallels were discovered, such as regularly shaped pits, concentration of material in the area between the graves, existence of other structures aimed at pre and post funeral rituals. All above mentioned let us consider the published complex as a burial ground. Appearance of a purposeful burial has a universal pattern. It became wide spread in the period of dramatic growth of the population density, which in its turn was caused by forming stable life sustenance systems. In this context, it refers to settled fishing, which meant a necessity to fix and control the catching areas. In the conditions of segmented communities, the processes of cultural consolidation became inevitable, which under the circumstances of the preliterate era were supported by customs and rituals.
Key words: Lower Tobol, Andreevsky lake system, the Eneolitic, burial ground, Andreevo type, Shapkul type, Lipchin type.
THE DECORATIVE PRACTICE BASED ON NATURAL FORMS IN THE PALEOLITHIC OF THE URALS
In recent years, archaeologists have found objects of decorative activity based on natural forms of bone and stone which were manufactured by men in the Ural-Volga region at the Upper Paleolithic monuments in the Kama area (Shirovanovo site), in the Middle Trans-Urals (Gari site), in the Southern Urals (Bogdanovka and Sergeevka 1 sites), in the mountainous part of the Southern Urals (Shulgan-Tash (Kapova) and Bayslantash caves) and in the Southern Trans-Urals (Troitskaya 1 site). The tradition of using natural forms in pictorial practice applies both to the early Upper Paleolithic and to the final stage of the Paleolithic era. Their distinguishing feature is the selection of shaped pebbles or bones, which have a certain similarity to an animal or a human, and they were only slightly altered by men. Depending on the material and the purpose, various processing methods were used: upholstery, sawing, stationing, drilling, engraving. The process was always aimed at obtaining important details that emphasized similarity of natural forms with an imaginary phenomenon, meaning usually eyes, a mouth, if it referred to a head, or in case of a mammoth, a recess between the back and the head, and the trunk. According to the content, items of decorative activity in the Paleolithic epoch fall into: images of people — 3 items, animals — 5 items, bird depictions — 1 item, and ornamented pebbles — 1 item. Along with this, we found examples of offerings in the form of pebbles of unusual rocks (green serpentine, crystal pendants on a shingle slate and serpentinite) in the cave sanctuary of Shulgan-Tash. In case of the Upper Paleolithic, we can assume that the use and veneration of natural forms was an important and specific way of symbolization within the pictorial activity in the territory of the Ural-Volga region. This is characteristic of «Ural» and, more broadly, «Siberian» cultural tradition of the Upper Paleolithic.
Key words: sculptures, processed shaped pebbles, processed shaped bones, the Upper Palaeolithic, the Urals.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SOURCES ON THE USE OF WOOD IN THE CITY OF TARA IN THE 17–18THCENTURIES
This article is based on materials of archaeological researches of Tara, one of the first Russian cities in Western Siberia. The aim of the work is to show the importance of wood in life of the Siberian city — from construction of dwellings and defensive works to its use as the main fuel for heating of constructions in winter time, for cooking and as the main material for production of instruments of labor and household items. The aim of the research is to show deficit of wood in life of the city of Tara which is examplified by reusing of wood in case new objects were constructed. It is possible to single out several directions of the reuse: economic constructions, bases under structures, fences, zavalinkas, for repairment of pavements and roads, as firewood. The construction of the Market square is used as an example of reusing wood as it was made of logs which had formed part of the wooden fence of the Tara fortress. The study revealed that the main reasons of the lack of wood were numerous fires, high level of groundwater and a large swamped area in close proximity to the paled part of the city. The service class population was forced to pass their time free from guard constantly repairing defensive constructions and administrative buildings of the city which suffered of fire or decayed because of the soil saturated with water. Many labor costs were accounted for making pavements and sidewalks on city streets, building drainage trenches and maintaining them in normal state. We also found it interesting to determine the number of gathered firewood for the winter period: it turned out that the city consumed more than three thousand cubic meters for these needs, which is a very large number for a small fortified city. In fact, a small forest on the area of several hectares was annually cut down. The conducted research showed a certain dependence of the city on regular deliveries of wood, both as a construction material, and as firewood. This situation was typical of most of the first Russian cities in Western Siberia, so the results of our work can be used even in the archaeological research of their historical centers.
Key words: Western Siberia, history, city, Tara, wood, fire, water, construction.
SOME ASPECTS OF SACRAL SPACE MARKERING IN THE URAL TERRITORY
The article analyses different aspects of organization of space as its sacred points — sacred places. Ancient sanctuaries were situated exactly in those marked points: caves, grottos, awnings, mountain peaks, rocks, hills, bald mountains, stone capes, etc. There could be one or several sacral centers in each sacred space depending on its dimensions. A cave was the earliest object of sacred place. There were two basic types of cave sanctuaries in the Paleolithic era: caves with painting and caves where demonstration complexes in form of animal skulls formed the central part of the cult complex. Veneration of mountains, rocks, hills, bald mountains, tall capes originated in the Stone Age among the population of the Urals and Siberia as well. Interments and hoards were often used as markers of the sacral space border. Sometimes special elements of the landscape — rocks — were marked with images. Separate water objects — lakes and bogs — were also included into the sacral practice of the local population. This is proved by such findings as ancient hoards, bronze and bone weapons, whole vessels and also large number of human bones and bodies at the bottom of lakes and peat lands. A sacral space of sanctuaries or settlements was sometimes sanctified with ocher or scattering of calcified human bones. The research of ancient sanctuaries shows that we may expect the most unordinary, unexpected and informative findings exactly at the border of a sacral space.
Key words: the Urals, sacral space, caves, mountains, cult markers, symbolic border.
Solodovnikov K.N., Rykun M.P.
AN AUTOCHTHONOUS COMPONENT IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF THE ENEOLITHIC — BRONZE AGE IN THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS REVISITED: MATERIALS FROM THE COLLECTION AND ARCHIVE OF THE ANTHROPOLOGY ROOM AT TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY
The Eneolithic — Bronze Age paleoanthropological materials from the Ulitinsky type Bronze Age burial of Karasu II (the Altai Mountains), as well as previously unpublished measurements of skulls from 1964 excavations of the Afanasievo cemetery of Ust-Kuium are introduced into scientific use. Osteometric characteristics of the individuals from the Ulitinsky type burial affirm that they belong to the steppe morphotype, which is widespread among the populations of the Bronze Age in the steppes and forest-steppe areas of Eurasia. According to the craniometric parameters, a female skull from Karasu II shows features of the anthropological type of the local population of the Altai-Sayan highland with a brachycranial skull shape and some Mongoloid features. Two female skulls from the Afanasievo burial ground of Ust-Kuium originate from burials with a set of ornaments which differ from one-culture complexes. Their Europeoid appearance is typical of the alien Protoeuropeoid population, but one of the skulls is also characterized by brachycrania, which is considered to be influence of local craniological complexes.
Key words: Afanasievo culture, the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age, the Altai Mountains, paleoanthropology, craniometry, Protoeuropeoids, Mongoloids.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Zhamkochyan À.S., Hakopyan N.G., Babayan F.S., Engibaryan A.A., Khachatryan À.À., Eganyan L.G.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS POPULATION AND ETHNOGENETIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGE
The article presents preliminary results of an anthropological research of human bone remains, obtained during excavations of medieval monuments on the territory of the Republic of Armenia. Cases of deliberate artificial modifications of skulls and unintentional cradle deformations were observed. Two unusual shapes (triangular, circular) of gaskets on the occipital bone in the individuals with frontal-occipital deformation were found. An individual from Burakn with artificial modification of the skull is characterized by a static asymmetry of the skull, the facial skeleton and the dental system. Craniological data indicates a heterogeneous anthropological composition of the population. A specific set of characteristics close to the Caucasion type were present among the inhabitants of Hovhannavank in the Late Middle Age. Results of the intergroup statistical analysis identified close morphological affinities between the Middle Age skulls from Armenia with groups from Southern and North-Western Caucasus, Iran, Mesopotamia. This article also analyzes morphological features of the postcranial skeleton. Muscular relief în bones was very well developed in the vast majority of cases.
Key words: Armenia, Middle Ages, Craniology, Osteology, Odontology, artificial modification of skulls, torticollis, heterogeneity of population.
THE TUNDRA NENETS WAYS OF SPATIAL ORIENTATION WITH THE USE OF CARDINAL DIRECTIONS
The article refers to the larger research project on the traditional wayfinding techniques of the Tundra Nenets who are one of the nomad peoples who possess outstanding navigational abilities. The focus of the research project is the description of the Nenets navigational knowledge and experience, an assessment of its practical effectiveness and its correlation with the way of life of the tundra people. This paper presents the traditional Nenets ways of orientation with cardinal directions where the primary interest lies on revealing the characteristic features of this kind of navigational knowledge and techniques, and their dependence on the environmental and traditional worldview factors. When navigating, the Tundra Nenets rely both on cardinal directions and landmarks, and it is specifically the first of the mentioned methods that makes them able to envisage adequately their geographical location on a large scale, creating mental maps that are closely in accordance to real maps. It should also be taken into account that the traditional Nenets way of transmission of geographic information is primarily based on oral descriptions. The results of the research showed that: 1) the north-south axis is of primary importance for the navigation of the Tundra Nenets; 2) they possess detailed information about the annual and daily cycle of motions and relative positions of celestial objects though use only a few of them directly for the determination of the cardinal directions (mainly the Sun, the Moon, Venus and the Ursa Major constellation); 3) they also apply a variety of other methods to adjust their routes and the cardinal directions, based on observations of wind speed and direction, features of the snow cover, shapes of plants, bird activity, etc.; 4) Nenets preferences in the use of navigation devices — they have rejected compass but rapidly became accustomed to satellite navigation systems — is based on methods of their wayfinding system where determination of cardinal directions is inseparable from references to local landmarks.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, wayfinding, Nenets, anthropology of mobility, indigenous know-ledge, navigation systems.
Samigulov G.Kh., Tychinskih Z.A.
NEW SOURCES ON THE HISTORY OF MURZAS KULMAMETEV
Òhe authors of the article return to the topic of the history of a well-known Tatar clan of Tobolsk servicemen Kulmametev. The article is based on the documents found in regional and central archives. Particular attention is paid to the analysis and reasoned criticism of recent publications on the topic, which challenge the conclusions of the authors of this article about the origin, status of clan representatives in the XVII century, which are crucial not only for the history of a particular clan, but also for understanding the whole history of Siberian service Tatars. The revealed archival materials confirm that the family descends from Prince Begish of the Siberian Khanate and that Kulmametevs' ancestors enjoyed a high status and became leaders of the service Tatars in the late 17th century.
Key words: service Tatars, Bukharians, Tatar leaders, the Kulmametevs, Prince Begish, Kulmamet, Avazbakey, Sabanak, landed estates.
Golubkova O.V., Kononova Yu.B.
SACRALIZATION OF SPACE AS A WAY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION THE RUSSIANS AND KOMI IN WESTERN SIBERIA
Ancestor worship was one of the most significant elements of traditional beliefs. In many cultures it is believed that the ancestors can become mythical patrons of a clan or a family (chur, domovoy (hobgoblin)). They help their descendants, protect them from the negative impact of alien spirits, sorcerers, and harmful corpses (navs). Our conclusions are based on the ethnographic field material, collected in different regions of Western Siberia, mainly among the Russians and Komi, as well as among the Ukrainians, Belarusians, Mordovians. The ancestors of these people settled in Siberia relatively recently (it took several generations, many of them remember the places from where their ancestors migrated behind the Urals, keep family traditions associated with «homeland» and migration to Siberia). For them, sacred dangerous loci are sanctuaries and cemeteries of the peoples who had settled in Siberia earlier (Khanty, Mansi, Tatars, indigenous peoples). The informants (Russian, Komi) consider abandoned graves of «aliens» and «infidels» as especially frightening places. They believe that other methods of burial and ritual ceremonies of other nations do not guarantee safety for a living person, especially for «outsiders». The field materials reflect emotional stories about ghosts and hostile spirits associated with the previous population of Western Siberia. Thus, we face the facts of ethnic and cultural divergence, based on the opposition of Orthodox and «non-Christian» (pagan, Muslim) worship. Besides, many informants (Russian, Komi) believe that the Siberian peoples have special secret knowledge and magical abilities. The Russians and the Komi used Christian amulets in order to provide protection from hostile spirits and wizards of the indigenous peoples. In addition, they seek mystical protection of their ancestors. This was true in isolation from their roots, from their native land.
Key words: mythology,sacralization, Russian, Komi, Western Siberia, «own — alien», the cult of ancestors, psychological adaptation.
LAND AND WATER ARRANGEMENT AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN YENISEI REGION IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY
This paper examines the process of land arrangement among the Khakas and water arrangement in the lower reaches of the Yenisei River in the early XX century, which affected the Kets, Dolgans, Selkups, Nenets, Enets and Evenks. The author considers water arrangement and land arrangement as parts of a single process. Land arrangement and water arrangement had different immediate causes, but they were of the same essence: the government secured its rights for natural resources: lands in the south of Yenisei region and fishing areas in the north of the region. During the land arrangement resettlement, the officials withdrew the land from the use of the Khakas people. The author argues that the withdrawn land was more than 744 500 dessiatins (more then 800 000 hectares). But it wasn’t ethnicity-based discrimination, because the land was taken away from the Russian people too. On the contrary, the officials responsible for relocation tried to give the Khakas people land above the limit. Fishing areas in the north of Yenisei region were withdrawn from the use of the indigenous peoples and the Russian people. It had been planned to lease fishing areas. So, there was no ethnicity-based discrimination in the north of Yenisei region. The author also argues that the goal of land and water arrangement was to create legal conditions so that big business could enter Siberia. For example, a large capitalist sheep farm «Vladimir Alekseev» was created in the south of Yenisei region. It was built on the lands that had been taken away from the Khakas people. It had been planned to lease fishing areas to big business in order to organize high-yield fisheries in the north of Yenisei region. «Enisejskaya kompaniya parohodstva» (Yenisei steam navigation company) received a lease. But that enterprise didn’t organize high-yield fisheries. It subleased the fishing areas to the local population. The goal wasn’t reached. Thus, we can conclude that government's activity in the south of Yenisei region was successful, and in the north it was a failure.
Key words: land arrangement, water arrangement, Yenisei governorate, the Khakass, Northern Yenisei region, fishing industry, capitalist economy.
THE NENETS LANGUAGE FROM CENSUS TO CENSUS (ACCORDING TO THE DATA FOR THE NENETS OF YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT)
This article deals with changes in the language situation among the Nenets of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District based on published and unpublished data of the All-USSR and All-Russian Censuses in the second half of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st centuries. Statistical facts allow us to see and analyze the situation in the whole district. According to the historiographic review, such detailed analysis among the Nenets on the base of mass statistical data has not been carried out. The article analyzes knowledge and command of languages among the Nenets, their distribution according to the native languages including the Nenets people living in towns and rural settlements, the distribution of urban and rural Nenets by age groups, native and second languages. The differences between men and women are accentuated. Results of the research demonstrate that the current language situation among the Nenets of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District surely shows a distribution and knowledge of the Russian language in the first decade of the 21st century and a high level of bilingualism. These can be considered as an influence of modern processes of globalization and internationalization, formation of an information society, the growth of urban and sedentary population and of the level of education, appearance of new occupations among them. Involvement of reindeer herders in the world process of economic, political and cultural integration is inevitably accompanied by the acquiring of values and stereotypes of the dominant Russian society and therefore by an increasing number of people who can speak Russian. Sometimes it occurred to the detriment of their native Nenets language. The function of the Nenets language is being narrowed while the ethnic consciousness is preserved at a high level. Nevertheless, we can mention some differences for a local group of the Nenets. The level of proficiency in native language is higher in regions where nomadic reindeer herders live. On the contrary, this level is lower in areas considered as a periphery of the reindeer breeding where fishing traditionally plays a big role in their subsistence, and the way of life is semi-sedentary or sedentary. It can be predicted that the number of the Nenets who know and use the Russian language, including as a mother tongue will only grow. According to the data of the last All-Russian Census, the intensity of linguistic assimilation by the Russian speaking majority has been developing faster in comparison with previous years.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, All-Russia census, All-USSR census, language situation, population distribution by sex, age and language.
A CUCKOO MAIDEN FROM IURTY PROTOCHNYE (ON THE LOCAL FEATURES OF THE CLOTHES OF THE OB MANSI GUARDIAN SPIRITS IN THE XIX — BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY)
The article is aimed to study images of a female guardian spirit in the form of a cuckoo. It existed in one of the settlements of the Ob Mansi in the XIX — early XX century. The image had been considered lost for a long time, and it was discovered by the author in a museum archive. The article provides its detailed description to determine features of the costume. Based on the comparative typological method, the material, cut, ornaments and other specific features are analyzed. It was found out that the costume of Cuckoo maiden guardian spirit consists of a traditional clothing set of the Ob Mansi. It usually includes a gown shirt, a robe and a kerchief. In the case under consideration, a wooden sculpture in the form of a bird is dressed in two shirts, five robes and three kerchiefs. The robes and shirts are sewn by hand and have a traditional Mansi cut. The composition and the cut of the costume set of Cuckoo maiden image reflects the features of the women's clothing of the Ob Mansi, of the Middle Ob and Northern (Berezovo and Kazym) Khanty of the late XIX and XX centuries. At the same time, such adornments typical of the women's clothes of these Mansi and Khanty groups as embroidery with beads, coloured threads and applied ornaments are not represented on the robes and shirts of Cuckoo maiden. But the clothes have another inherent characteristic which is a coin attached to them in some way. It is assumed that these two features of the clothes, the lack of ornamentation and the presence of coins, are sacred symbols which aim at emphasizing a special status of this image.
Key words: image of the guardian spirit, clothes of the guardian spirit, sacred symbols, image of the cuckoo, religion, cult, rituals, the Mansi, peoples of North-West Siberia.
THE BONE ARTIFACTS OF THE UST-BELAYA BURIAL GROUND, AND SOME ISSUES OF CULTURAL INTERACTION IN THE NEOLITHIC ON THE NORTH OF THE FAR EAST
The materials of the Ust-Belaya site and burial ground served as a basis for distinguishing the Ust-Belaya culture of Inland Chukotka by N.N. Dikov. However, the results of investigations of the burial ground were partially published, without morphometric and statistical description of the materials at the barrows, including bone inventory. This work is dedicated to analyze the bone inventory from the burial mound 15 and to identify on its basis the cultural and historical links with archaeological materials of cultures of the Late Neolithic — the Early Metal Age in the North of the Far East and the Pacific North. Based on the results of the technical-typological analysis of bone tools, classification elements of the types of bone tools (often cultural markers) were singled out; the economic life of the Ust-Belaya population has been partially reconstructed (namely, the orientation to inland hunting), the question of the presence of harpoons in graves has been considered; the relations (based on comparative morphological analysis) with coastal cultures of the Koryaks, Itelmen, Aleuts and Eskimos are identified, with the latter showing the greatest similarity in the types of bone inventory. Thus, a detailed analysis of the artifacts of the Ust-Belaya Site provides valuable information on the Late Neolithic of the Inland Chukotka.
Key words: Ust-Belaya burial ground, mound 15, Chukotka, the Neolithic, the Paleometal Age, the Chukchi, the Eskimos, bone and antler tools, technical and typological analysis.
Tkachev A.A., Zimina O.Y., Tkachev Al.Al.
SUZGUN FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT ABATSKOE VI IN ISHIM RIVER BASIN
The article introduces into the scientific circulation the materials of the Late Bronze Age of the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI, located in Abatsky district of Tyumen region. The site contains materials from several cultures of different periods of the Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Age, but this area was most often used in the Late Bronze period by the bearers of the Suzgun traditions, which left a well-fortified settlement. The ruins of the buil-dings, characterizing the features of the house-building of the bearers of the Suzgun culture, were investigated at the site. The buildings were semi-dug-outs with square pits of 70–90 m2, 0,3–0,5 m deep. The premises of the eastern row of the dwellings were interconnected by transitions, some had additional exits both in the center of the settlement and in the direction of the shore fence. Features of the interior design allow us to assume that the buildings had a frame-skeleton base, were heated by fireplaces and open-hearth fires. The inventory is represented by products made of metal, stone, bone, clay. Among them, a bronze knife-dagger with an annular stop, a fragment of a clay mold for casting a kelt, bone whips, a fragment of a piece of psalias, adzes, punching, playing astragals with spent facets, fragments of handle, billets and arrowheads, clay spindles. The ceramic complex of the Suzgun culture at the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI is numerous. The analysis of the ornamentation features of the pottery of the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI revealed close indicators with the main characteristics of the ceramic complex of Borki 1 in the Ishim river basin and a certain affinity with the ornamentation of the ceramics of Chudskaya Gora settlement in the Irtysh river basin. The graph of the connections of the main elements of the ornament allows us to speak about the complex structure of the ornament, which demonstrates that several ornamental patterns exist on the monument, somewhat similar to the models of the ornament of the ceramic complexes of the Irtysh river basin. The totality of the data obtained as a result of the analysis of inventory and ceramics allows us to assume that the ancient settlement of Abatskoe VI functioned at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC.
Key words: Ishim river basin, Abatskoe VI, the Suzgun culture, house-building, ceramics.
STONE TOOLS IN THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION OF THE LATE BRONZE AGE IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE TOBOL RIVER BASIN
The article presents the results of a complex analysis of stone tools from the sites of the Late Bronze Age in the forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin. The new data were obtained due to using petrographic, typological, traceological methods. They characterized household productive activities of the ancient population. It was found out that raw materials for stone working are represented, first of all, by the local sources such as small rocks and boulders that could be moved by waterways or are located in colluvial-deluvial sediments, reaching the surface of the Tobol river and the Iset river; secondly, imported raw materials originating from the fields of the Middle and Southern Urals due to the trade-exchange relations. Pebbles and tiles of sandstone, siltstone, quartzite, shale were used for household and industrial needs. Primary processing of the stone was reduced to splitting, and secondary, to lining, abrasive technology, polishing. It was the only design of working platforms, at least of the sides or of the perimeter. A multi-stage scheme was used only for making prestigious things, including still and heavy drilling. A significant portion of the tools is represented by raw debris. Minimizing the time spent on production of tools can be regarded as a progressive feature in the economic activity of the population of the Bronze Age in the Tobol river basin. The analysis of signs of use of the tools, their classification allowed us to determine the function of a significant series of products. Stone tools were involved primarily in metal processing — at the stage of casting, forging and finishing the products. Numerous pestles and passive plates were used for crushing and grin-ding of various materials. In other spheres, the stone tools were used sporadically and played a rather secondary role. As in the leather production they were replaced with bone and ceramic tools; metal tools were widely used. In general, a comprehensive analysis of stone tools from the monuments of the Late Bronze Age showed unifor-mity of materials: virtually no recorded cultural and chronological differences in the range of tools and technologies of their production were found, which shows stability and continuity of the main industries.
Key words: the Bronze Age, forest-steppe zone of the Tobol river basin, stone tools, raw materials, technology, functional attribution.
Kuzminykh S.V., Degtyareva A.D., Tigeeva E.V.
METAL PRODUCTION OF KRASNOOZERKA AND ITKUL CULTURES OF THE TOBOL-ISHIM INTERFLUVE
The data of an analytical study of copper and bronze products of the eastern (Tobol area) variant of the Itkul culture and the Krasnoozerka culture of the Early Iron Age of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve (37 items) are compared. The metal inventory was studied by the methods of X-ray fluorescemce analysis (a laboratory of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and metallographic analysis (Tyumen Scientific Centre of SB RAS). The main vectors of historical and metallurgical contacts between the Krasnoozerka tribes and the eastern group of the Itkul tribes are traced. There are connections with the eastern, mining Altaic metal-producing centers, where the tin and tin-arsenic ligature came from. Western, Gumeshevskiy sources of copper had a little significance only for the eastern Itkul tribes, the Krasnoozersk tribes had no access to that copper. Relatively weak contacts also took place with the Sayan centers, from where a small amount of arsenic bronze was delivered in the form of ingots and finished products. At the very beginning of the Early Iron Age in the Eastern Tobol river basin and in the Ishim river basin, casting techniques of artificial low-alloy tin-arsenic and tin bronzes were predominately used for manufacturing tools and weapons. Forging as a method of obtaining finished products was practiced in isolated cases.
Key words: Western Siberia, the Early Iron Age, metal production, historical and metallurgical contacts.
Anoshko O.M., Rafikova T.N.
NEW DATA ON THE BURIAL RITUAL OF THE YUDINO POPULATION (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF ZAVODOUKOVSKY-3 BURIAL MOUND)
The article presents the results of a study of the Early Medieval burial mound of Zavodoukovsky-3. Almost complete absence of burial complexes of the Early Middle Ages in the forest-steppe and subtaiga Trans-Urals determines the high importance of the materials obtained for reconstruction of the burial rite of the Yudino culture population and, in the future, for reconstruction of genesis, development of chronology and periodization issues of the Yudino culture. The research materials are interpreted from the authors' point of view on the functioning of the Yudino culture during the VII (possibly, the end of the VI) — XIII centuries AD with distinguishing of several stages within the culture [Rafikova, 2015]. By now, only one burial mound of the Pereimino burial ground has been included into the Molchanovo stage. Zavodoukovsky-3 burial ground can be considered the second funerary complex of that time. The necropolis of Zavodoukovsky-3 is of a mound type, a part of its mounds is located on the area of the Bronze Age ancient settlement of Zavodoukovskoe 11. During the excavation of this settlement complex, one burial mound with a collective burial under it was opened up, as well as three graves were. Spatial arrangement of the latter allows us to assume that they were covered with mounds, which got leveled with the ground surface. The diameter of the mound was 5,6 m, the grave was surrounded by a ritual ditch with a break from the south-west side. The remains of wood dust, found at the bottom of an undisturbed part of the grave, give evidence of a floor. All bu-ried people are lying with their heads towards the south and south-west. The burial ground provided two radiocarbon dates indicating that the object functioned in the VI–VII centuries AD. As to grave goods, bone arrowheads were found, which had been in use throughout the Medieval period. The ceramic collection is represented by the Yudino culture vessels. Interestingly, the ornamentation of dishes is poor and is represented by multirow cord and comb lines, zigzags. Figurative stamps typical of the settlement utensils of that period were not found. This tendency — a poor ornamentation of funerary vessels — is characteristic of not only of the Molchanovo stage of the Yudino culture, but also of the Yudino culture in general, and is confirmed by the materials of all Medieval necropoles.
Key words: forest-steppe Trans-Urals, Zavodoukovsky-3, the Middle Ages, the Yudino culture, burial mound, burial rite.
Pererva E.V., Dyachenko A.N.
A STRESS OR MIGRATION MARKER (A STUDY OF THE AUDITORY CANAL EXOSTOSIS IN THE SKELETON MATERIAL OF THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE POPULATION FROM THE LOWER VOLGA REGION BURIAL GROUNDS)
The paper attempts to analyze the incidences of ear exostoses revealed in the skeletal remains of the Middle Bronze Age population of the Lower Volga region. In total, we have revealed 4 incidences of bone (skeletal) formations in the ear canal. The pathologies were observed predominantly in men over 20 years old. The paper presents a description of paleoanthropological material and provides a detailed interpretation of archaeological sites the skeletal remains originated from. We have examined hypothesis of ear exostosis occurrence in the Middle Bronze Age people of the Lower Volga region. The condition may be caused by stress arising from exposure to climatic factors, a specific lifestyle and regular natural inflammatory ear processes. However, the appearance of ear exostoses in the Middle Bronze Age population in the Lower Volga region is most likely to be explained by relocation of some groups from the Trans-Caucasian, Northern Caucasian or Northern Black sea regions. This assumption corresponds to the results of the paleoecological, archaeological and craniological analysis confirming the likely migration of the population of the Trans-Caucasian, Northern Caucasian and the Northern Black sea regions as a result of an ecological crisis at the end of the III — the beginning of the II millennium BC to the territory of the Lower Volga region.
Key words: auditory exostosis, the Middle Bronze Age, paleopathology, skull.
Zubova A.V., Batanina O.V., Panov V.S., Stepanov A.D., Kishkurno M.S.
MATTA, A NEOLITHIC BURIAL IN CENTRAL YAKUTIA. RESULTS OF AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
The article is dedicated to the results of a complex anthropological investigation of the Late Neolithic Matta burial complex. The burial was found in Megino-Kangalas district of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in 1996. Radiocarbon dates obtained from the human bones fall to the second half of the III millennium BC, the time when two Late Neolithic archaeological cultures — Ymyjakhtakh and Belkachi — existed in the region. Burial customs described in the Matta complex differ from both cultures because no grave goods and unusual position of the skeleton were found. The left arm was missing and a hare leg was put in the grave instead. The fragments of the scull, bones and teeth found in the grave were investigated using a complex research program. That included standard protocols of dental anthropological analysis, used in Russia and abroad (ASUDAS), cranial measurements using Martin’s program, and osteological analysis including measurements of bones and registration of enthesopathies, using Mariotti’s method. The results of analysis reveal that morphological features of the women buried in Matta’s grave were closer to Ymyjakhtakh population than to the Belcachi. The isotopic analysis of bone collagen (δ15N and δ13C) was also made. The results allow a suggestion about the prevalence of animal proteins in the Matta women’s diet, low level of fish proteins, and using local C4 plants for food.
Key words: Yakutia, the Neolithic, the Ymyjakhtakh culture, the Belkachi culture, Matta, osteology enthesopathies, dental anthropology, stable isotopic analysis, paleodiet research.
Poshekhonova O.E., Sleptsova A.V.
THE POPULATION OF THE LOWER TOBOL RIVER IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM THE EARLY IRON AGE TO THE MIDDLE AGES ACCORDING TO CRANIOLOGY
Up to the present time, a few craniological samples of the migration period from the Early Iron Age to the Middle Ages from the Lower Tobol river have been introduced in scientific circulation [Zolotareva, 1957; Bagashev, 2000; Poshekhonova et al., 2016]. In addition, there was no acces for observation of the morphology of the cranium of the buried, due to a widespread practice of artificial cranial deformation in that period. Accumulation of materials of the III–VI centuries AD from this region became necessary to form a general sample that would allow investigating its anthropological specificity. Some important conclusions were a result of an extensive comparison of the series with groups of Western Siberia and adjacent territories of the Early Iron Age — the Middle Ages. No doubt, the population that left the burial grounds in the Lower Tobol river basin in the III–VI centuries AD was multicomponent. Those characteristics, which related to the medieval inhabitants of the taiga regions of Western Siberia, and to the Mongoloid part of the population of the previous period predominate during the morphological stage of the study of the group [Bagashev, 2000, 2017]. The population characterized by low facial and cranial length, a minimal nasal protrusion angle and a medium profiled transference. The migration of the groups from the taiga zone to the south in the III–VI centuries AD is not excluded. The Caucasian component in the ge-neral sample from the Lower Tobol river, which is already registered as a minor impurity, is not clearly observed. As a result, it was established, as well as the Sargatka paleopopulation, which became a basis for the formation of the Early Medieval tribes. However, a biological mixing has led to a leveling of the features inherent in various components, they can no longer be correlated with any morphotype of the Early Iron Age. Also we cannot make a conclusion about the migration of the population in the III–VI centuries AD from Western Siberia to the Urals, although this assumption has been repeatedly described in archaeological literature [Matveeva, 2015; Rafikova, 2011]. There is no reason to assume large-scale advancement of groups from the south or east to the territory of the Tobol river during that period, despite the fact that it was demonstrated by an artefact (appearance of a superstratum nomadic component) [Matveeva, 2016].
Key words: Western Siberia, Lower Tobol river, the Early Middle Ages, the Sargatka, Bacal, Karym, Kushnarenkovo cultures, paleoanthropology, anthropological type.
THE MANSI REINDEER HERDING AS A STRATEGY OF SUSTENANCE: FACTORS OF ORIGIN AND DECLINE
This article examines the phenomenon of nomadic reindeer herding in the Severnaia Sosva river basin. This kind of reindeer herding was borrowed from the tundra nomadic Nenets and widely spread in the taiga zone due to its potential as a new strategy of sustenance. The rapid economic development of the region in the XVIII–XIX centuries intensified the fur industry, which also stimulated the introduction of reindeer sledge as the optimum system of movement in the snow period. Thus, due to reindeer herding the Mansi of the Severnaia Sosva basin received a means of transport. There was a specialization of some households: «mobilization» that has led to some reconfiguration of settlement network and economic migrations. The reindeer mobility contributed to the establishment of close cooperation between the traditional types of land usage and contributed to the cultural and ethnic integration in the Severnaia Sosva basin. The reindeer mobility fully provided social communication in winter, ubiquity and increasing speed of communications facilitated extensive cultural contacts with the neighboring territories. The communication network based on reindeer mobility could act as a safety contour at crisis, which preserved variability of adaptation strategies. The system of reindeer mobility after several stages of reforms in the Soviet period lost its transport function. Skin and meat production of reindeer herding (Komi type) was a major and technically developed area, while social and cultural functions of the reindeer herding for indigenous peoples were ignored. The planned economy demanded only large reindeer herd economy of the Komi and small and disperse reindeer husbandry of the Mansi declined. The last private Mansi reindeer herding farms curtailed nomad practices in 1990-s due to the collapse of the socio-economic system of the district, part of which they were. The way of life of a reindeer herder was non-prestigious and difficult for the youth who grew up in Soviet villages. Social and economic network, based on reindeer mobility, did not receive an adequate replacement in the Soviet period, mechanized personal transport is still not affordable to everybody. It turned out that even a snowmobile can provide previous coverage of the space. Vehicles generally involve completely different ways of interaction between people and space. Paradoxically, the cultural isolation of the indigenous peoples of the Severnaia Sosva (Mansi, Komi, Nenets) to the end of the twentieth century increased, although they began to live in large multiethnic villages provided with telecommunications.
Key words: reindeer herding, mobility, Mansi, Severnaia Sosva, social network, sustenance.
Istomin K.V., Liskevich N.A., Ulyashev O.I.
IZHMA-KOMI REINDEER HERDING: ETHNIC INVARIANTS AND LOCAL VARIATIONS
This article raises a problem of reindeer herding types. On the basis of ethnographic flieldwork data the authors compare technological traits and herding techniques of the «classical» Izhma-Komi reindeer herding of Bolshezemelskaya tundra to those observed in the easternmost and the westernmost local groups of Komi herders. This comparison shows significant differences in reindeer herding technology between the groups. This raises questions about the exact content of the term «Izhma Komi Reindeer herding» and about the spheres of its application. The analysis shows that this term can refer to 1) a technological system of reindeer herding that existed among the Izhma-Komi of Bolshezemelskaya tundra in the second half of the 19th century, but currently does not exist anywhere; 2) a certain set of herding techniques, which is used by some, but not all modern Komi reindeer herders as well as representatives of other ethnic groups nomadizing in the same environmental zone; 3) common traits of material, spiritual and normative culture, which can be observed in most (but again not all) groups of Komi reindeer herders, can be related to reindeer herding, but they do not form a part of reindeer herding economy in the strict sense. The third meaning of the term makes the most sense, but it makes the application of the notion rather limited as far as the studies of traditional economy are concerned.
Key words: Izhma-Komi, Izhma-Komi reindeer herding, reindeer herding technology, reindeer her-ding typology.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES
The article discusses general theoretical issues related to features of the structure and functioning of traditional life support systems. A life support system is understood as a set of interrelated natural and social factors (through satisfaction of material and non-material needs), which determine the nature of the existence of human communities on a certain territory. The overall structure of the systems includes natural, material, cultural and social units. Degree of dependence of life-support systems on particular environmental conditions is suggested as a criteria for their assessment. Due to the existing natural zonality, these systems can have «zonal» or «azonal» character. «Zonal» systems are actualized in strict dependence on climatic conditions and resources inherent to a definite natural area, and the «azonal» ones are formed independently of them. «Zonal» systems are aimed at achieving the best adaptation to the natural and resource conditions in the area of residence of the society, but are highly specialized and closed for innovation. «Azonal» systems are more open, they include universal elements, which allow them to be actualized in different natural areas, but at the same time they are less adapted to specific natural conditions. Thus, the «zonal» systems evolve towards strengthening the connection-dependence of human groups with the environment, and «azonal» — towards autonomy from them. Therefore, it can be said that there are two development strategies of life support systems. It is suggested to distinguish two main phases in the development of the systems: «productive» and «reproductive». The definition of phases is based mainly on the predominance of the process of innovation or stereotyping in the system functioning (at a certain time interval). Throughout the life cycle, the formation of a structure and nature of the functioning of life support systems take place, the optimal ways of meeting needs of the society for resources in certain natural and climatic conditions are mastered and selected. In the reproductive phase, there are, mainly, consolidation and development of forms, methods and manners of the activity inherited from the previous generations. The concepts of «fluctuations», «trend» and «transformation» are used to assess the nature and extent of the current changes taking place in the system.
Key words: life-support system of traditional human societies, zonal and azonal systems, productive and reproductive phases of development.
ATTRIBUTES OF POWER IN TOP WEARS OF GUARDIAN SPIRITS OF THE NORTHERN KHANTY IN THE XX — BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY
The article is dedicated to a study of top wears of guardian spirits. It is based on the materials obtained du-ring ethnographic expeditions to the areas of residence of a northern group of the Khanty, and on the items from a museum collection. The aim of the study is to reveal symbols of power and imitations of uniform in the top wear of the guardian spirits. In order to do this, on the basis of a typological analysis, signs which distinguish imitations from traditional clothing were identified, and then initial forms of the uniform were determined. It was revealed that clothing found at the sanctuaries of the Northern Khanty differs in its cut and decorations from the traditional clothes. It is represented by two types. The first type includes clothing of a uniform type, the second one, clothes which imitate the latter. The article presents three imitations, their characteristic features are described, which allow us to correlate them with the uniforms of a certain historical period. The arrangement of clothing buttons in pairs in two (three) rows was considered as the most characteristic feature of the clothes under consideration. Based on these features, a historical analysis of the clothing garment was carried out comparing it with military and civil uniforms of the past. As a result, it was found out that, according to the main features, the top wears of the guardian spirits of the Northern Khanty under consideration are to the most extent similar to the frock coats widely used in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century as top and underway clothing among various officials and employees. It was also determined that a distinctive feature of such a garment was metal hemispherical buttons sewn in a row on each side. Such buttons often had a professional and a state emblem, a sign. If a sign correlated with the Khanty traditional symbols, such buttons were granted a higher status. If it was possible, they were exchanged, bought and used to decorate the clothing of the guardian spirits.
Key words: clothes, costume, dressing gowns, jacket, frock coats, the Northern Khanty, guardian spirits, uniform, buttons, symbols of power, imitation.
Poplavskiy R.O., Templing V.I., Cherepanov M.S., Shisheliakina A.L.
ADAPTATION OF SOCIOCULTURAL COMMUNITIES IN TRANSITION PERIODS OF MODERNIZATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING A RUSSIAN REGION
Modernization paradigm is one of the most authoritative methodological paradigms in the social sciences which explain patterns of human development. Being formed in the second half of the XX century and having undergone a long path of development by now, it focuses on explaining socio-economic, socio-cultural and socio-political changes. The main research trends within this paradigm are verification of the former and creation of new theories of modernization on the basis of data analysis covering changes in dozens of countries over a period of several decades, and specification of «big theories» by means of historical, sociological, cultural and other studies at the local level. The purpose of this work is to develop a conceptual framework for the study of modernization within the second trend. Taking into account the preceding researches, we suggest a conceptual framework for studying the mechanisms of socio-cultural changes in Western Siberia during the XVII–XXI centuries. Historiographic analysis of bibliography on the subject of modernization has revealed both a consensus formed up to date considering interpretation of this concept, and a wide variability of approaches to the study of the process itself, conditioned by methodological solutions on the spatial object and the societal complexity of modernization. This, in turn, determines the diversity of periodizations of this process. The authors of the article outline the boundaries of their conceptual framework for the study of socio-cultural changes in Western Siberia during the XVII–XX centuries and define modernization as a process of changes in the basic spheres of social life (socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-political) which leads to the expansion of human opportunities. In this regard, socio-cultural changes are considered as a part of complex modernization and they are understood as a change in values, norms and practices of communication. Socio-cultural communities acting on the territory of Western Siberia are defined as a social object of modernization. The process of transformations in values, norms and practices of communication at the level of sociocultural communities under the influence of changing conditions which provide human security (socioeconomic changes, wars, ecological disasters) is explained by the authors as cultural adaptation. Transitional periods in West Siberia's modernization from the XVII till the XX centuries are determined in order to chronologically focus the research on cultural adaptation at the level of sociocultural communities.
Key words: modernization, transitional periods of modernization, sociocultural communities, cultural adaptation.
«THE CENTRE OF ALMOST EVERYTHING»: (ON THE EXAMPLE OF KHANTY-MANSI AND YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS OKRUGS)
The author focuses on educational boom in the Tyumen North in 1990–2000s which was manifested a wide-scale « small towns when in almost each of them. À structure which incorporates a wide range of actors such as «basic» university management, rotation lecturers, students and parents' community, municipal board, representatives of local industrial enterprises, business community etc. closely connected to almost every aspect of the life in a small town. It wasbuilt into thetown’s were not limited to rendering educational services. During the period under consideration, it was an assembly location of the local community. Among other things, small town and remote areas were provided through the activities of . The activities of the in the period of the booming education in the Tyumen North have still not received a comprehensive evaluation. If anyting could be said for sure about the affiliated part of a small town’s sociocultural landscape.
Key words: small town, the Tyumen North, affiliated migration .
Arefyev S.P.,Zakh V.A.
TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES AS AN INDICATOR OF FLUCTUATION OF WATER LEVEL IN THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM IN THE BEGINNING OF THE XIX — XXI CENTURY
The article analyzes tree-ring chronologies of contemporary pines growing on different hypsometric marks in relation to the modern level of the Andreevskoe lakes, on the low-ridges of terrace-like formations, floodplain lowlands and riams. The tree-ring chronologies from these areas, their correlation, dependence of the width of the rings on various natural factors, such as fires, harmful insects and fluctuation of groundwaters itself, reflecting the level of lakes in the Andreevskoe lake system are described. As a result of the study, 8 tree-ring chronologies were made, ecological and biological regularities were found out determining the formation of annual pine rings in the lake area due to a change in its level. The longest chronology of the lake coast for 197 years (since 1821) confirmed low water level in the lake, recorded on the map of surveyor Vasily Filimonov, created in November 1829. The use of chronologies was analyzed based on the difference in width of the annual pine rings according to the principle of contrasting biotopes (high — low, dryland — peatland), limited possibilities for reconstructions of this type based on individual ring chronologies are shown. A 174-year-old difference chronology (since 1843) was created, verified by a number of historical evidence, results of studies of lakes in the south of Western Siberia and cartographic material of the recent decades. The difference created chronology is recommended as a basis for reconstruction of the lake's level regime (possibly in combination with certain ring chronologies), although the fluctuation amplitudes can be specified for further dendrochronological reconstructions using old construction timber and fossil wood (in peat bogs).
Key words: Andreevskoe lake system, tree-ring chronologies, annual rings, fires, harmful insects, lake water level.
Bikmulina L.R.,Yakimov A.S., Kupriyanova E.V., Chechushkov I.V., Bazhenov À.I.
GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF THE ASHY LAYER (ZOL'NIC) AT THE BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENT OF STRELETSKOE-1 IN THE FOREST-STEPPE TRANS-URALS
The paper summarizes the results of a geo-chemical study of the soil samples collected from the ashy layer (zol’nic) at the Bronze Age settlement Streletskoye I in the Southern Trans-Urals and from the nearby natural deposition. The site is located on the left bank of the Ui river in Chelyabinsk region, Russia. The data on the distribution of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, sulfur, iron, titanium, rubidium, vanadium, cobalt, zinc and strontium are considered. The comparison demonstrates that concentrations of such elements as phosphorus, calcium, manganese, sulfur, rubidium exceed background values 2–3 times, while levels of potassium, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, and strontium are below background values. At the same time, humus of buried soil underneath the ashy layer demonstrates highest values that exceed the usual one 2–4 times. The statistical analysis (t-statistics) supported the conclusion of very different proportions of elements between the cultural layer and the natural soil deposition, except for vanadium, cobalt, and strontium. There are two zones of element accumulations within the cross-section of the cultural layer, which are the ashy layer and the humus horizon. The conducted analysis contributes to the understanding of the subsistence strategies and craft. The high levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, possibly sulfur and zinc suggest the dominance of livestock breeding. The pre-sence of pottery production indicated by concentrations of manganese, iron, titanium, rubidium, strontium, vanadium and cobalt which could come with raw materials (clay) and broken ceramics. The discovered ashy layer is interpreted as a midden where wastes were repeatedly burned. Thus, layers of ash are complex objects that accumulate information of the economic activities and are unique for each ancient settlement.
Key words: ashy layer (zol'nic), chemical element, cultural layer, soil, t-statistics, Student's test, the Bronze Age, settlement, the Trans-Urals.
FOOD RESOURCES AND LIFE SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE III MILLENIUM BC ON THE TERRITORY OF THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM
Based on a reconstruction of paleolandscapes, the food resource base of the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system in the 3rd millennium BC is described. The complexes of the Shapkul, Bairyk and Andreevskaya cultures are analyzed. Their bearers represent typical groups with appropriating type of economy, based mainly on fishing with nets and, possibly, with traps. Fishing with nets is proved by settlements located, as a rule, near the water, spreading of a cultural layer containing fragments of clay weights on the coast of lakes. Hunting, most likely, played an auxiliary role. The diet could include meat of ungulates and birds, fish, eggs and various wild plants. Assuming that energy demands per day for a man are 2700 kcal, and for a woman are 2100 kcal, we can conclude that a person needed to have an annual diet consisting of approximately 73 kg of animal meat, 73 kg of poultry meat, 365 kg of fish and 730 eggs for a normal life-support. Wild plants, apparently, also formed part of the menu, but it is difficult to calculate their quantity. Keeping in mind the fullness of resources of the Andreevskoe lake system, we believe that a maximum of 250 people could live on its territory at a time, and taking into account possible volume of resources procured, about 130 people. Most likely, they lived in one or two villages. This number is close to the number of inhabitants of non-Slavic yurts according to the information given on the maps of 1701 by S. Remezov and of 1829 by V. Filimonov. In our opinion, the assumption that an increase in the number of monuments in the III millennium BC is related to an increase in the population engaged in fishing with nets, is unfounded.
Key words: Tobol river basin, Andreevskoe lake system, resources, life support, population size.
Sergusheva E.A., Moreva O.L.
AGRICULTUE IN SOUTHERN PRIMORYE IN THE I MILLENNIUM BC ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOBOTANICAL DATA FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF CHEREPAKHA-13
The paper presents the results of an archaeobotanical study of charred seeds obtained with the water flotation technique on the site of Cherepakha-13. The multilevel site is located on the western seacoast of Ussuri Bay in Southern Primorye. The area of the site was totally excavated (7616 ì2) in 2015. Remains of 52 pit-dwellings, one land based dwelling, 114 pits with different functions and 26 burials were unearthed at the site. The site deposits content materials of five chronological periods: the Zaisanovskaya archaeological culture of the Late Neolithic, the Lidovskaya culture of the Bronze Age, the Yankovskaya and the Krounovskaya cultures of the Early Iron Age, the Middle Age (XII c.). The vast majority of the constructions' remains and archaeological materials belong to the Yankovskaya culture. According to the analysis of the ceramic collection of the site and its location in pit-dwellings, we distinguished two chronological periods of the site occupation by the Yankovskaya culture population. More than 150 litres of soils were studied by the water flotation in pit-dwellings of the 1st (¹ 10, 17, 18) and the 2nd (¹ 1, 48) periods of occupation by the Yankovskaya culture and from a pit-dwelling (¹ 19) of the Krounovskaya culture. 420 seeds of plants were obtained from 20 samples. Cultural plants seeds were found in all pit-dwellings. Seeds of foxtail and broomcorn millets dominated among them. We obtained the most numerous millet seeds from the samples of the pit-dwelling ¹ 48, which is 87 % of all seeds in the dwelling. One seed of nuked barley (Hordeum vulgare var. nudum) and one seed of soybean (Glycine max) were found in the same deposit. But there were not many remains of cultural millets in the deposits of the 1st occupation period by the Yankovskaya culture. Thus, our data demonstrates an increasing role of the millet agriculture in the 2nd period. Seeds of barnyard millet were discovered in the Krounovskaya culture pit-dwelling. It is the first finding of millet of such species in the Prehistoric time of Primorye. The archaeobotanical data from Cherepakha-13 site testify a significant role of the agriculture in the subsistence system of the Yankovskaya culture population that chose to live on the seacoast. Our data do not confirm the importance of barley for the Krounovskaya culture population.
Key words: agriculture, water flotation, seeds, foxtail, broomcorn, barnyard millets, naked barley, soybean, the Early Iron Age, I mil. BC, the South of the Russian Far East.
Sizov O.S., Idrisov I.R., Molchanova K.V.
AN ATTEMPT TO RECONSTRUCT THE ORIGINAL LANDSCAPES USING A LARGE-SCALE MAPPING OF THE TERRITORY OF THE ANDREEVSKOE LAKE SYSTEM (INTERFLUVE OF THE TURA AND PYSHMA RIVERS)
analysis of geosystems is one of the most important methods of implementation of
the historicism principle and assessment of conditions of use of the nature in
the Holocene. The initial stage of such studies is analysis of the modern
landscape structure and its detailed mapping. The purpose of the research is to
develop methods for inventory and mapping of modern landscapes in the
reconstruction of the original (natural)
properties of anthropogenic
complexes based on the interpretation of the Earth remote sensing data using
geoinformation systems. The paper presents the results of a large-scale mapping
of the restored landscapes of the territory of the Andreevskoe lake system (the
interfluve of the Tura and Pyshma rivers). In the process of inventory and
mapping of the landscape structure, special attention was paid to the definition
of invariant features of landscapes. Vegetation and microrelief are the defining
properties in the selection of species of the tracts. In the course of the
landscape study, based on heterogeneous materials (space images, topographic
maps, field surveys), 170 species of tracts belonging to
Key words: reconstruction of the original landscapes, large-scale mapping, decoding, remote sen-sing, paleolandscapes, resource base, life support system.
TECHNOLOGY OF POTTERY PRODUCTION AMONG THE CHERCASKUL CULTURE POPULATION IN THE LOWER TOBOL BASIN (ON THE MATERIALS OF THE SETTLEMENT OF KHRIPUNOVSKOYE 1)
The article presents the results of technical and technological analysis regarding a pottery complex of the Cherkaskul culture from the settlement of Khripunovskoye 1 located in the forest-steppe area of the Tobol River basin. The analysis is made within the framework of historical and cultural approach and the structure of the pottery industry, developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The conducted research revealed heterogeneity of the traditions that existed among Cherkaskul potters of the settlement Khripunovskoye 1. The potters used two types of soft raw material: clays and silty clays. Analysis of the moulding masses showed a variety of artificial impurities, which were used by the potters. Chamotte used with various organic impurities was a dominant tradition, but also they used talc, crushed quartz, calcined bone, crushed river moluscan shells. The construction of «seed-bodies» of the vessels was manufactured in accordance with the bottom-capacitive program. The vessels were made by the method of sculptural modeling on a plane and with the help of a form-basis. The «seed-bodies» and the hollow bodies of the vessels were constructed using patches. The surface treatment of the ceramics was carried out mostly by a simple method of smoothing with hard tools, after which the walls of the vessels were polished. The vessels were fired in simple hearths. Basing on the data obtained and comparing them with information from other territories, it is possible to say that groups of the Cherkaskul population in the Lower Tobol region appeared as a result of their migrations, most likely from the territories associated with the Ural region.
Key words: Lower Tobol basin, the settlement of Khripunovskoye 1, the Chercaskul culture, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation.
Orfinskaya O.V., Tolmacheva E.G., Belova G.A.
LATE ANTIQUE TEXTILES FROM THE GRAVE 213 (DEIR AL-BANAT, FAYUM, ARE)
This paper is aimed to study Egyptian textiles from the grave 213 dated to 5–7 AD that belongs to the Deir al-Banat necropolis (Fayum). These textile finds are published for the first time which would extend our know-ledge on Egyptian Late Antique burial custom and would further enrich our understanding of the function that textiles had in Egyptian funeral practice. Moreover, the data from this burial would help us to study Egyptian weaving technologies of that time. The textile finds from the grave 213/1 are rather diverse. The male body from the grave was stretched out on its back with the head towards the west. It was dressed in three wool and one (closest to the body) linen tunics and wrapped in the fourth wool tunic. A rectangular linen cloth covered the face of the deceased. The head was resting on a pillow, under which an unfinished wool rectangular textile was found. A similar pillow was placed at the foot of the man. Fourteen textiles of different quality were used to wrap the body. Twelve of them were of a poor quality («wrappings» or «coarse funeral shrouds»). Two other textiles from the upper layer of the «wrappings» (probably, reused furnishing textiles) quite differed from the ordinary coarse shrouds. There are different groups of textiles: reused furnishing textiles, coarse funeral shrouds, tunics. Coarse shrouds with simple decorations were woven presumably on a vertical loom with two beams. This kind of loom was rather primitive and could have been used in small workshops specializing in production of large number of low quality textiles for burial needs. The woven-to-shape three-piece tunics and furnishings were not produced on the same loom as the coarse shrouds. Both one-piece and three-piece tunics have starting/finishing borders and were attached to a wooden bar or string but not simply looped around the beam. All these objects were rather heavy and demanded certain skills from a weaver. Besides large and complicated looms, Egyptian weavers could have probably used rather small and simple devices such as a band loom with a rigid heddle. Textiles of different functions were used in burial practice. Among them were both textiles specially intended for burial (coarse funeral shrouds) and reused lifetime items (tunics, furnishing textiles). From other archaeological sources, it is known that Egyptians of Late Antiquity did not have special garments for funeral. The economic context of the textiles from the grave 213 is rather unclear. Some of the objects could have been produced in small household workshops, the others demand professional skills.
Key words: Late Antique Egyptian textiles, burial custom, textile technologies, «Coptic textiles».
Berlina S.V., Kostomarov V.M., Rafikova T.N., Novikov I.K., Tkachev À.À.
THE MEDIEVAL SETTLEMENT OF ISETSKOIE 2 IN THE ISET RIVER BASIN
The article deals with materials of excavations at Isetskoie 2, an unfortified settlement of the Middle Ages, located in the Lower Iset River basin. The published materials are important due to poor previous study of unfortified settlements of the Bakal culture. The place is single-layered which makes it a valuable source for reconstruc-ting house-building traditions and material culture of the Medieval population of the forest-steppe zone of the Trans-Urals. A representative series of radiocarbon dates allows us to refresh a problem of chronology of the Medieval antiquities of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve, indicating that the Bakal culture functioned throughout the Early and High Middle Ages. Fifteen buildings were studied during excavations at the settlement, three types of buil-dings were distinguished: above-ground buildings with log-framed or light-framed walls and deepened framed and pillared buildings. Dwellings erected in log technique were found at a site of the Bakal culture for the first time. Among the buildings, both temporary seasonal dwellings and outbuildings are singled out. The ceramic material of the settlement is represented by vessels of the Bakal culture, separate fragments of Kushnarenkovo dishes which often accompany the Bakal complexes in the territory of Western Siberia, are found as well. Statistical analysis of the ceramic material and a series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the settlement functioned for a long period of time, in the III–XII centuries AD. A lack of system in arrangement of the buildings, weak saturation of the cultural layer, absence of fireplaces inside the buildings, characteristics of the inventory allow us to conclude that the settlement was seasonal.
Key words: Middle Ages, forest-steppe Trans-Urals, the Bakal culture, dwellings, ceramics, chronology.
Tataurov S.F., Tikhonov S.S.
SPECIFICS OF PLANIGRAPHY ÀND IMPROVEMENT OF A SIBERIAN TOWN IN XVI–XVIII CENTURIES
The results of 2007–2016 archaeological excavations of Tara and historical materials on the town planigraphy in the period under consideration gave birth to this work. The study made it possible to reconstruct the history of the territorial development of the town from its foundation until the adoption of an unified urban plan in 1775. The survey allowed to identify the principles of foundation and development of a Siberian Russian city at the end of XVII–XVIII centuries. During the work, we tried to determine the importance of such factors as defenses, availability of transit routes, fire safety, etc. for the development. In the course of excavations at Tara fortress, archaeologists from the Omsk Branch of Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS excavated about 1500 m2 of the cultural stratum with a capacity of 2 m and more. We received information about different aspects of the culture of Tara population at the end of the XVI–XVIII centuries, including about the fortress planigraphy and conditions of its streets. Furthermore, considering the geographical features of the location of Tara stronghold, the authors have studied the roads leading to it. The article presents the results of these works considering the roads leading to Tara fortress from different angles, transitions across the rivers that surrounded it, Tara streets, transformation of planigraphy of the fortress in the late XVIII century. Tara fortress was built with the use of natural barriers. From the West, it was well protected by a marsh and a river. From the East, the road to the castle was complicated by the Irtysh floodplain and the Arkarna River's tributaries. There were only three roads to get to the city, which were covered by the towers of the fortress. Nowadays, these roads turned into streets and are used to travel more often than others located between them. By the end of the XVIII century, Tara had gradually become one of the most comfortable and clean town in Siberia. The town dealt with fires, and arrangements for drainage of wetlands solved the problem of mud at Tara streets. In general, the system of roads leading to Tara started to develop since the fortress was established, correct geometric planigraphy of the town began to take shape in the second half of the eighteenth century, taking into account the existing road. At the same time, indiscriminate housing development disappeared and improvement of the streets began.
Key words: archaeology of Russian Western Siberia, Tara fortress, spatial archaeology, transport, planigraphy.
ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF STUDYING CORRESPONDENCE OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS (A LETTER FROM N.N. BORTVIN TO K.V. SALNIKOV)
The paper contains the analysis of a letter of archeologist N.N. Bortvin to archaeologist K.V. Salnikov. The text is filled with precious information on the history of archaeology in the Urals and in the Trans-Urals in the 1920–1930th years, and information about known archaeological sites of the Southern Urals and Trans-Urals.
Key words: Southern Urals, Trans-Urals, history of Ural archaeology, archaeological sites, museums of the Urals.
Solodovnikov K.N., Tur S.S.
ON ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE NEOLITHIC POPULATION OF THE OB RIVER BASIN NEAR BARNAUL (BASING ON THE MATERIALS OF THE BURIAL GROUND OF FIRSOVO XI)
The results of a study of Neolithic skulls from the burial ground of Firsovo XI, on the right bank of the Ob River near the city of Barnaul, are presented. The restoration resulted in obtaining craniometric characteristics of 7 male and 3 female skulls of different degrees of preservation. The series is characterized by a structure of the facial skull, intermediate between the Caucasoids and the Mongoloids, it contains skulls of a more Caucasoid and a more Mongoloid appearance. According to the results of an intergroup comparison, the Firsovo XI series differs greatly from the Afanasyevo culture series and the similar cultural types of the Altai Mountains, which confirms the conclusion that the Afanasyevo population of Southern Siberia has no local roots. The craniological series under consideration is very similar to the synchronous groups from the Northern foothills of the Altai (burial grounds of Ust-Isha, Itkul, Solontsi V, etc.). There is also a great morphological similarity to the Neolithic series of the more Northern areas of the Ob River Basin near Novosibirsk and Kamen', Kuznetsk Depression, Baraba forest-steppe zone, the Irtysh River basin near Omsk, Northern Kazakhstan, and the forest-steppe Trans-Urals. The similarity to the synchronous groups of the Upper Lena and the Upper Angara is also revealed, as a reflection of racial and genetic connections between the population of the Altai foothill regions and the Neolithic population of the Circum-Baikal region. The male group under consideration also demonstrates a significant morphological similarity to the Neolithic and Early Eneolithic craniological materials from the burial grounds of Lebiazhinka IV and V, Chekalino V, S''iezzhe I in the Volga-Ural interfluve. A hypothesis is made that, before the Bronze Age, an anthropological community of ancient population of the plain forest-steppe zones of Eurasia with intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial features existed in the territories of Western Siberia and Eastern regions of Eastern Europe. Besides, the group, which left the burial site of Firsovo XI, especially its female part, demonstrates presence of brachicranian component, also with intermediate Mongoloid-Caucasoid racial features. Probably, it belongs to the Southern Eurasian anthropological formation, which determined the anthropological composition of the local population of the Altai-Sayan Highland in the Neolithic — Late Bronze Age.
Key words: the Neolithic, Firsovo XI, paleoanthropology, craniometry, Caucasoids, Mongoloids, Western Siberia, forest-steppe zone.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Hakopyan N.G., Zhamkochyan À.S., Engibaryan A.A., Hovanisyan À.À.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS OF THE IX–XI CENTURIES FROM THE MONUMENT OF DVIN (ARMENIA) WITH GROWTH DISORDERS
Irrespective of era and habitat, people paid more attention to extraordinary and unlike phenomena, than to everywhere found and usual ones. This article is about unusual individuals of the 9th–11th centuries from Dvin, among which traces of delay of growth processes were revealed. The paper analyzes individual features of craniological, cranioscopic, odontological, osteological and paleopathological characteristics of two individuals. Basing on a comprehensive anthropological study of finds, an attempt to reconstruct the way of life of the buried was made. Due to the lack of bones of the post-cranial skeleton of the individual No. 1, we can state only nanocephalia. Markers of an incidental stress (hypoplasia of enamel, cribra orbitalia) in this individual indicate systemic influence of negative factors, such as infections, frequent periods of starvation which interfered with normal development of the organism in the childhood. The skeleton No. 2 is characterized by the Laron-type dwarfism (Laron syndrome). The research of bones of the skeleton showed presence of serious pathologies, unrepresentative for so young age, related to excessive exercise stresses. An optional version of the activity is possible: the dwarf was a clown-acrobat. Harris lines, or growth arrest lines are clearly seen on Õ-ray images of two diaphyses of tibial bones. Another marker of growth delays (enamel hypoplasia) is also found in the individual No. 2. Existence of one of the diet indicators (odontolith) and absence of caries indicate similarity of ingredients of the meals of two individuals, and tying, perhaps, proteinaceous origin of their food.
Key words: Armenia, Dvin, IX–XI centuries, ðaleoanthropology, craniology, odontology, osteology, paleopathology, Laron syndrome, gistrions.
MANSI SACRIFICIAL KERCHIEFS (TYPOLOGY AND FUNCTIONS)
The aim of this study is to systematize information on kerchiefs that the Mansi present to the guardian spirits. The analysis is based on the typological method. The article analyzes materials kerchiefs are made of and their ornaments, ways of throwing on and tying, their functions. The research is based on information gathered during ethnographic expeditions, studies of museum collections and ethnographic literature. It is found out that kerchiefs are the most common type of sacrificial offerings at contemporary Mansi shrines. Regardless of sex, they are presented to female and male guardian spirits. A coin tied into a corner is a distinctive feature of sacrificial kerchiefs. Kerchiefs with pendants made of seed beads, beads, bells or small bells sewn on have a special status. Two types of sacrificial kerchiefs are distinguished: home-made and tailor-made kerchiefs. Currently, the most common kerchiefs are tailor-made. It was determined that sacrificial kerchiefs perform a number of functions at sanctuaries. They form part of a costume of the images of guardian spirits as headdresses, belts, bedspreads, etc. Sometimes they completely replace clothes in the images of guardian spirits. Kerchiefs often form a basis of a figure depicting a guardian spirit. They are used to cover the skin of a bear during a bear feast. It is found out that kerchiefs exercise magical (apotropaic and carpogonical) functions in family rites.
Key words: the Mansi, clothes, costume, kerchiefs, shawls, adornments, guardian spirits, sanctua-ries, fabrics, typological analysis, ethnographic researches, images of guardian spirits, magic functions.
TERMINOLOGY AND CONTENT OF RITUALS OF KOMI-PERMYAK WEDDING
The article is dedicated to a study of some components of a wedding ceremony of the Komi-Permyaks. Several problems are solved in this research. First, wedding terms which refer to wedding acts and rituals are divided into groups. Secondly, wedding traditions of the Komi-Permyaks and Russians are compared. Completion of these tasks allows us to identify analogies with the Russian local customs and ethnic specificity of the wedding ritual culture of the Komi-Permyaks. Most of the terms describing wedding acts and rituals of the Komi-Permyaks are borrowed Russian words. In addition, there are designations in the Komi-Permyak language, some of which appeared due to the influence of the Russian language, other terms can be considered as a result of the development of their own language as a part of ritual culture. The system of wedding terminology of the Komi-Permyaks is quite complicated, because it combines vocabularies of different languages and different local versions of the terms for the same ritual. The article analyzes in more detail the wedding rituals and acts which have an ambiguous meaning or, according to their names, suggest an ethnic specificity. Content analysis of the customs shows that the most important moment — action or its symbolic importance — is reflected in the name of a ritual. Perhaps, existence of different names of the same ritual is a result of changes in the wedding ceremony on different territories among local groups of the Komi-Permyaks. Comparative analysis of the Komi-Permyak and Russian wedding traditions indicates that more similarities are observed with those Russians who lives in Kama region and in the European North. A part of the wedding rituals and acts discussed in the article can be considered unique Komi-Permyak traditions, as they have no analogies found among the Russian customs. Among them are acts like eating dumplings at the bachelorette party, treating to people who were not invited to the wedding (kudpydes), a custom when a mother-in-law gives her daughter-in-law a handkerchief, and puts it on her shoulders or on newlyweds’ shoulders.
Kåy words: wedding ceremony, Komi-Permyaks, wedding terminology, engagement, dumplings, bathing of the bride.
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF THE YAMAL NENETS PEOPLE ACCORDING TO ALL-RUSSIAN CENSUSES OF THE 21ST CENTURY
The article is dedicated to demographic characteristics of Siberian Nenets people and identifies their ethno-demographic potential in the 21st century. The work is based on a set of published and unpublished data from the All-Russian Population Censuses of 2002 and 2010 for the Nenets people living in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. We used ideas about demographic security of Novosibirsk Economic and Sociological School and of K.B. Klokov and S.A. Khrushchev about ethnoses as demoi and ethnoses as societies. Common and specific demographic features of the Nenets are identified, the indicators characteristic to the Nenets are compared with other ethnic groups, mainly Russians. The article considers both dynamics of the number of Nenets in general, and in towns and rural areas of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, attention is drawn to the peculiarities of formation of an urban group of the Nenets. Analyzing demographic processes and demographic behavior, we focus, first of all, on the characteristics of age and sex structures and the number of children born by a woman during her life. In addition, indicators characterizing natural population changes in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District by certain nationalities, including the Nenets, are provided for 2000–2008. It is noted that the nature of changes of the indicators in the first decade of the XXI century demonstrates that both the Nenets living in villages and the nomads perceive demographic stereotypes of behaviour of the dominant society. On the whole, the Nenets in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District are safe from depopulation. According to data from the All-Russian censuses, there is a favorable demographic situation among them in the first decade of the 21st century. But current trends point out that some demographic risks exist, primarily those related to the number of children in the families. The nature of the quantitative indicators suggests that demographic behavior of the Nenets is determined by family values of the dominant majority.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, demography, All-Russian census, age-sex structure of population, urban and rural population, town, village, number of children.
Nanzatov B.Z., Sodnompilova M.M.
TUNKA BURYATS IN THE 19TH CENTURY: ETHNIC COMPOSITION AND SETTLEMENT
The article deals with a study of ethnic composition of the Tunka Buryats and features of their settlement on the territory of the former Tunkinskaya Steppe Duma, which was split into four parts called Torskaya, Koimorskaya, Kharibyatskaya indigenous authorities and Okinskoe separate clan district in 1890. Creation of the first Buryat territorial administrative units — Mirskay izba and Steppe bureau (Stepnaya kontora) and their further evolution to Steppe Dumas led to formation of ethno-territorial groups of the Buryat people, the identity of which remains relevant to the present time. One of these groups are the Tunka Buryats. The ethnic composition of the Tunka Buryats occupying Russian border area with Mongolia is of great interest as they are tribes living in the border region. Buffer status of the territory along the East Sayan Mountains led to the emergence and settlement of different Mongol, Turkic, Samoyedic tribes, such as Khurkhut, Dalakhai, Khongodor, Khoykho, Chaldar, Terte, Shosholok and others in this area during different periods of history. The tribe of Irkit also lived among the Bu-ryats. Its genesis is connected to the Samoyedic peoples who had lived in the Sayan region long before Turkic and Mongolic tribes appeared there. Some of them preserved traditional reindeer husbandry in the 19th century. This study continues a discussion on ethnicity and origin of small Buryat tribes and their relations with the Mongolic and Turkic tribes of Central Asia and South Siberia. Author's version of their origin is based on historical and linguistic analysis of ethnonyms of these tribes, which form an ethno-territorial group of the Tunka Buryats. Reconstruction of network of settlement of the Buryat ethnic groups on the territory under consideration in the 19th century allowed us to demonstrate the most complete picture of settlement of the Tunka Buryats and Irkits, and to show the maximum number of uluses and villages, which existed there at the end of the 19th century. The author's maps also show status of the territory, ratio and density of population of the Buryat tribes.
Key words: ethnic history, ethnonym, settlement, ethnic mapping, linguistic analysis, Buryats, Samoyedic people, Turkic people, Mongolian people.
ASPECTS OF ETHNICITY OF THE GERMANS IN THE CENTRAL URALS
The article is dedicated to a local group of the Russian Germans living in the Central Ural Mountains (Sverdlovsk region). This research analyzes features of ethnical history, today's consciousness and complex identity of this group. Generally, episodes of the Russian national and regional (Ural) history are significant for the Germans in the Central Ural Mountains: Catherine the Great's manifesto, deportation, the Labor army, rehabilitation. European and German plots are manifested in historical memory much more weakly; but they are present in the religious and ceremonial sphere (for example, Osterhase, the Easter rabbit). The Volga River is a bright symbol of the Russian-German identity, for the Ural Germans in particular. In the 1960s, the Soviet Germans began a movement for rehabilitation of their people, restoration of territorial autonomy and culture. Ivan Kronevald, a resident of the Urals, was one of the leaders of that movement. In the 1990s, the Ural Germans actively initiated ethnical projects: public associations, centers for meetings and culture centers appeared, which aimed to restore the lost ethnical and cultural basis as the main objective. However, the movement for restoration of autonomy of the Russian Germans resulted in emigration to Germany.
Key words: Russian Germans, Central Ural, ethnical history, identity, symbols of ethnicity, ethnical projects.
Ryazanova S.V., Logvinov R.N.,Drozdov S.T.
EVOLUTION OF THE ANTHROPIC MYTH IN UNITED STATES’ MYTHOLOGY: REASONS, PREREQUISITES, LOGIC
Evolution of the myth of a hero as the central anthropic image in the mythology of the United States occurred under the influence of mentality of the groups/subjects of mythogenesis and has a complex character. The emergence of spontaneous plots with a significant share of regional specifics, where the starting idea was the demiurgic myth of the frontier, was the first stage of the heroic myth. The basic mythological images are constructed on the archetypal basis, being filled with content due to the Protestant context and constantly ongoing processes of expanding the cultural ecumene of the country. The images of national heroes as symbols of the people and as deputies of the idea of an ancestor constituted the majority of the United States' anthropological myths until the 1920s. External factors of the country's development, such as active urbanization, secularization of culture, the First World War, the Great Depression, served as an impetus for the transformation of the heroic myth. The heroes of the frontier were replaced by superheroes, whose images combine superhuman and totemic features. In the national mythology, images of superheroes are associated with presentation of archetypal patterns and traditional plots, pushing the heroics of the frontier to the spheres of advertising, glamour and some kind of hagiography, which leads to a change in the heroes’ paraphernalia and the accompanying symbolic and sign range. A superhero as the central image of the contemporary national mythology of the United States emerges on the cusp of the processes of secularization, rise of the idea of a man, mass culture and technology, in close relation with the archetypal ground.
Key words: myth, national mythology, mythogenesis, culture of the USA, heroes of the frontier, Paul Bunyan, Davy Crockett, superheroes.
Afonin A.S., Ivanov S.N.,
ÅNVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN
THE TRANSITION PERIOD BETWEEN THE BRONZE AND THE IRON AGE IN THE ISHIM RIVER
BASIN, WESTERN SIBERIA
(according to the on-site
paleobotanical data from the settlement of Marai 1)
The paper focuses on
the new archaeobotanical data of the environment near the hillfort of Marai 1
and on evaluation of their role in the paleoeconomical changes in the
forest-steppe area in the transition period from the Bronze to the Iron Age.
Archaeological materials of the cultural layers characterize various
paleoeconomic models which existed in the same landscape niche with a
four-century interval. We compared the bottom and the roof level of semi-dugouts
by the composition of archaeobotanical macro-remains of two habitation phase:
the transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (IX — the beginning of
the VIII century BC), and the Early Iron Age (IV–III century BC). Plant macro
analysis revealed that the village was surrounded by grass and forbs meadows
during the first and the second occupation phases, the local living environment
did not change significantly. The economic activity was more intensive in the
early Iron Age, which caused an increase in the proportion of weeds near the
dwellings. Not many coastal and aquatic plants were discovered at the roof
level, which is indicative that the roof was covered the sod, and cane or reed
sheaves were not used. The analysis of saturation with fish bones of the
cultural layer into dwellings floor showed equal results for both habitation
periods. Basing on pollen and spore data of the cultural layers, we can say that
the settlement was surrounded by open forest-steppe landscapes during two
occupation phases. Meadow and steppe were the main vegetation background, with a
significant share of wet meadows in the flood plain. There were only small birch
forests in the immediate vicinity of the
settlement in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Age,
but the share of forests near the hillford of Marai 1 began to increase in the
Early Iron Age. In general, the reconstruction of local environmental conditions
near Marai 1 in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Ages
did not show any signs of an ecological crisis or significant changes in the
appearance of landscapes which could cause a return to an appropriating economy.
Therefore, reorientation to hunt elk and roe was not synchronized with a
widespread appearance of forest along the Ishim River valley. The economy
specificity of population of the Krasnoozersk culture, formed as a synthesis
among the local pastoralists and groups of taiga fishermen and hunters who came
from the North, was not so much determined by natural conditions as by the
influence of the newcomers. Later, in the Early Iron Age, there was indeed a
slight increase in the proportion of forests in the immediate vicinity of Marai
1 settlement, despite this, livestock breeding was a basis of the hillforts'
economy. Fish was unambiguously one of the important components in the diet of
the population during both habitation
phases, regardless of the basic
economic orientation. Thus, there is no reasonable basis yet for indicating that
a serious climatic cataclysm dramatically changed the habitat of the population
of the Ishim River basin at the boundary between the Bronze and the Early Iron
Key words: ånvironment,
macro-remains, palynology, the boundary of the Bronze and the Iron Ages,
paleoeconomy, forest-steppe, Western Siberia.
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL
STUDIES IN THE SETTLEMENTS BOL’SHAYA BEREZOVAYA-2, MALAYA BEREZOVAYA-4 AND
ALEKSANDRO-NEVSKOYE-II IN THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS
The paper presents the results
of studying archaeozoological collections from three settlements of the Late
Bronze Age of the Southern Trans-Urals. The archaeozoological material comes
from layers associated with the Alakul culture, the Srubno-Alakul period and the
finale of the Late Bronze Age. A special emphasis is made in the study on
paleopathological analysis of the bones of domestic animals and on discussion of
the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle. The paper also
suggests a cattle breeding model for a group of the settlements under
consideration. For this reconstruction, in addition to archaeozoological
collections and the osteophagia phenomenon, paleobotanical and ethnozoological
parallels are also used. The study of collections showed that the inhabitants of
all three settlements were sedentary pastoralists and that their livelihood
during all the time of functioning of the settlements was livestock farming.
Traditions and features of livestock farming were consistently unified in all
settlements and in all periods of their habitat. Cattle and small cattle
breeding was predominantly milk and meat oriented. According to the available
data, the character and the role of horse breeding are difficult to reconstruct
beforehand. Pig breeding was an insignificant direction of livestock breeding in
all three settlements. The most probable model of cattle breeding is preliminary
reconstructed as a homestead. One of the most important and interesting features
of livestock breeding of all three settlements, which was identified processing
the collections, is the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle.
Osteophagia was revealed at all stages of functioning of the settlements in the
Bronze Age. Previously, the main cause of osteophagia among domestic ungulates
could be an intensive dairy exploitation of animals. Attraction of
ethnozoological data made it possible to find out that osteophagia also
indicates that cattle were kept in the settlements. Some evidence shows that
detection of osteophagia can indirectly indicate the presence of animals in the
summer. Paleopathological analysis did not reveal unsatisfactory conditions of
livestock keeping in any of the settlements under consideration. Almost all
pathologies found out are the results of accidental injuries and inflammatory
processes. Some pathologies on the cattle bones from Malaya Berezovaya-4
settlement can indirectly indicate the use of bulls as working animals.
Key words: the Bronze Age, the
Trans-Urals, the Alakul culture, archaeozoology, livestock farming, osteophagia
in ungulates, paleopathology.
Afonin A.S., Ivanov S.N., Ryabogina N.E.
ÅNVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD BETWEEN THE BRONZE AND THE IRON AGE IN THE ISHIM RIVER BASIN, WESTERN SIBERIA
(according to the on-site paleobotanical data from the settlement of Marai 1)
The paper focuses on the new archaeobotanical data of the environment near the hillfort of Marai 1 and on evaluation of their role in the paleoeconomical changes in the forest-steppe area in the transition period from the Bronze to the Iron Age. Archaeological materials of the cultural layers characterize various paleoeconomic models which existed in the same landscape niche with a four-century interval. We compared the bottom and the roof level of semi-dugouts by the composition of archaeobotanical macro-remains of two habitation phase: the transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (IX — the beginning of the VIII century BC), and the Early Iron Age (IV–III century BC). Plant macro analysis revealed that the village was surrounded by grass and forbs meadows during the first and the second occupation phases, the local living environment did not change significantly. The economic activity was more intensive in the early Iron Age, which caused an increase in the proportion of weeds near the dwellings. Not many coastal and aquatic plants were discovered at the roof level, which is indicative that the roof was covered the sod, and cane or reed sheaves were not used. The analysis of saturation with fish bones of the cultural layer into dwellings floor showed equal results for both habitation periods. Basing on pollen and spore data of the cultural layers, we can say that the settlement was surrounded by open forest-steppe landscapes during two occupation phases. Meadow and steppe were the main vegetation background, with a significant share of wet meadows in the flood plain. There were only small birch forests in the immediate vicinity of the settlement in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Age, but the share of forests near the hillford of Marai 1 began to increase in the Early Iron Age. In general, the reconstruction of local environmental conditions near Marai 1 in the transition period between the Bronze and the Early Iron Ages did not show any signs of an ecological crisis or significant changes in the appearance of landscapes which could cause a return to an appropriating economy. Therefore, reorientation to hunt elk and roe was not synchronized with a widespread appearance of forest along the Ishim River valley. The economy specificity of population of the Krasnoozersk culture, formed as a synthesis among the local pastoralists and groups of taiga fishermen and hunters who came from the North, was not so much determined by natural conditions as by the influence of the newcomers. Later, in the Early Iron Age, there was indeed a slight increase in the proportion of forests in the immediate vicinity of Marai 1 settlement, despite this, livestock breeding was a basis of the hillforts' economy. Fish was unambiguously one of the important components in the diet of the population during both habitation phases, regardless of the basic economic orientation. Thus, there is no reasonable basis yet for indicating that a serious climatic cataclysm dramatically changed the habitat of the population of the Ishim River basin at the boundary between the Bronze and the Early Iron Age.
Key words: ånvironment, macro-remains, palynology, the boundary of the Bronze and the Iron Ages, paleoeconomy, forest-steppe, Western Siberia.
RESULTS OF ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL STUDIES IN THE SETTLEMENTS BOL’SHAYA BEREZOVAYA-2, MALAYA BEREZOVAYA-4 AND ALEKSANDRO-NEVSKOYE-II IN THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS
The paper presents the results of studying archaeozoological collections from three settlements of the Late Bronze Age of the Southern Trans-Urals. The archaeozoological material comes from layers associated with the Alakul culture, the Srubno-Alakul period and the finale of the Late Bronze Age. A special emphasis is made in the study on paleopathological analysis of the bones of domestic animals and on discussion of the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle. The paper also suggests a cattle breeding model for a group of the settlements under consideration. For this reconstruction, in addition to archaeozoological collections and the osteophagia phenomenon, paleobotanical and ethnozoological parallels are also used. The study of collections showed that the inhabitants of all three settlements were sedentary pastoralists and that their livelihood during all the time of functioning of the settlements was livestock farming. Traditions and features of livestock farming were consistently unified in all settlements and in all periods of their habitat. Cattle and small cattle breeding was predominantly milk and meat oriented. According to the available data, the character and the role of horse breeding are difficult to reconstruct beforehand. Pig breeding was an insignificant direction of livestock breeding in all three settlements. The most probable model of cattle breeding is preliminary reconstructed as a homestead. One of the most important and interesting features of livestock breeding of all three settlements, which was identified processing the collections, is the phenomenon of osteophagia among cattle and small cattle. Osteophagia was revealed at all stages of functioning of the settlements in the Bronze Age. Previously, the main cause of osteophagia among domestic ungulates could be an intensive dairy exploitation of animals. Attraction of ethnozoological data made it possible to find out that osteophagia also indicates that cattle were kept in the settlements. Some evidence shows that detection of osteophagia can indirectly indicate the presence of animals in the summer. Paleopathological analysis did not reveal unsatisfactory conditions of livestock keeping in any of the settlements under consideration. Almost all pathologies found out are the results of accidental injuries and inflammatory processes. Some pathologies on the cattle bones from Malaya Berezovaya-4 settlement can indirectly indicate the use of bulls as working animals.
Key words: the Bronze Age, the Trans-Urals, the Alakul culture, archaeozoology, livestock farming, osteophagia in ungulates, paleopathology.
ON THE COMB-PIT ORNAMENTAL TRADITION AND PERIODIZATION OF THE NEOLITHIC OF THE LOWER ISHIM BASIN
The article analyzes the time of formation of the comb-pit ornamental tradition, its area, and periodization of the Neolithic of the Lower Ishim basin connected with the process. Lack of roads («corridors») to the Ishim and Irtysh basins and to the Baraba from the North-Western, Western and Northern territories marked by monuments whose complexes would have ceramics with the comb-pit decoration, as well as absence of enough early centers with such tradition in the «mother countries», assumed by some researchers, most likely, mean that it was formed within the limits of the Ishim basin and the Baraba region. Local complexes with divergent-scratched, divergent-scrathched-comb ornamentation probably served as a basis for its formation. However, already at early stages of the Neolithic, they had an increased number of single sequences of pits, or pits of various forms at different zones of a vessel in the region. Stratigraphical occurrence of the complex under consideration above the Boborykino-Koshkino culture in the settlements of Borovlyanka 2 and Avtodrom 2/2 and the fact that it is overlapped by dwellings containing ceramics proximate to the Sosnovka-Ostrov culture at the settlement of Serebryanka 1 are indicative of the time of formation of the comb-pit tradition or, more specifically, of the divergent-comb-pit tradition. A research of a complex in the Ishim basin, at the settlement of Mergen 7, which is close to the Kozlovo culture and chronologically follows the Koshkino culture, allows us to arrange the periodization scheme of the Ishim basin so that the Kokuy materials (with divergent-scratched-comb ornamentation) are between the Kozlovo culture and the settlement of Serebryanka 1, which is located on the Western border of the area and is close to the Sosnovka-Ostrov culture. Materials with comb ornamentation were not found in the settlement, thus the scheme of development of the comb-pit ornamental tradition there could differ, excluding a break between the Kokuy and Ekaterininsk complexes. Materials of the settlement of Mergen 7 narrow the period of the beginning of formation of the tradition under consideration. Taking into account correlation of the calibrated dates of the monuments of Mergen 7, Serebryanka 1, Protoka and Sopka 2, we argue that, most likely, it is a period between V and IV thousands BC.
Key words: Western Siberia, Ishim basin, Baraba, the divergent-comb-pit, comb-pit ornamental tradition, periodization.
Enshin D.N., Skochina S.N.
ORNAMENTS ON BONE AND HORN ARTEFACTS FROM THE NEOLITHIC COMPLEX OF THE SETTLEMENT OF MERGEN 6
This article analyzes ornamented items of bone and horn from the Neolithic complex of the settlement of Mergen 6 (forest-steppe zone of the Ishim River basin). Working method of application of an image was described with the help of use wear analysis. Micro photos of traces of application of images on the surface of the artefacts were made. The study highlighted two groups of images — marks and ornaments. Notches dominate in the first group, and zigzags and straight lines dominate in the second group. Composite constructions are singled out on the whole artefacts. Image location analysis on the whole artefacts revealed features of their dislocation, manifested in delineation with marks and ornaments of zones of hand grip and working parts of the items. Ornamentation and, in particular, its composition allow us to firmly connect the core Neolithic pottery complex of the settlement (Boborykino and Koshkino materials) and the artefacts under consideration. In addition to co-occurrence of ceramic vessels and tools of bone and horn in the dwellings, as well as to analogous compositions on ceramics and bones, the relation is observed on the basis of the dominant position of the main ornamental elements (straight lines, zigzags) regarding the others. Moreover, a clear determination of cultural identity of the ornamented tools and analogies within Boborykino and Koshkino antiquities of the whole Trans-Urals allowed us to to reach a wider range of comparisons and to consider the ornaments and the artefacts as links between the Trans-Urals and such Southern territories, as the North Caspian Sea, steppe Volga region, etc. This scale allows us to use the artefacts under consideration as one more evidence of a hypothesis that the Southern migrations were a driving force of neolitisation of the region. In turn, variability of functional purpose of the ornamented items of the Neolithic period, in comparison with the previous chronological periods, allows us to consider them as an indicator of changes in the ideology and the economic and ecological adaptation of ancient societies at the frontier of two epochs.
Key words: Neolithic, forest-steppe zone of the Ishim River basin, settlement of Mergen 6, ornaments, use wear analysis, tools of bone and horn, the Boborykino culture, Koshkino stage.
USING SHELLS IN THE CULT AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF ANCIENT POPULATION
The article is dedicated to one of the aspects of symbolic activities of ancient population regarding the use of a rare variety of natural material. From ancient times, shells, as bright and unusual material, served for making jewelry: bead necklaces and pendants. In the Urals, such artefacts had been used from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic to the Modern Times. The shells rarely served as combs punches, scrapers and containers for paints. Petrified shells were very rare and unusual. That is why they were used in symbolic activities and could serve as amulets, cult symbols and communicative signs.
Key words: shell, petrous shells, jewelry, symbolic activity.
QUESTIONS OF SYNCHRONIZATION, CULTURAL AFFINITY OF SINTASHTA AND PETROVKA SITES AND THEIR POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
The paper is aimed to discuss problems of synchronization and cultural affinity of Sintashta and Petrovka sites. The author denies a possibility of complete synchronization of Sintashta and Petrovka sites. He believes that comparing Sintashta and Petrovka sites, we try to compare incomparable phenomen: materialized remnants of the history of a community of the Sintashta clans of miners, metal-makers, blacksmiths, foundrymen, on the one hand, and sites of a community of the Alakul pastoral cultures, on the other.
Key words: the Bronze Age, Southern Trans-Urals, Northern Kazakhstan, Sintashta sites, Petrovka sites, clans of miners, metal-makers, blacksmiths, foundrymen, Alakul cultural-historical community sites.
Kukushkin I.A., Zhusupov D.S., Dmitriev E.A.
AKSHOKY BURIAL GROUND: A NEW MONUMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF ANDRONOVO ANTIQUITIES OF SARYARKA
In recent years, archaeological studies have covered a group of Fedorovo monuments, which demonstrate a «pure» line of development (Besoba, Sherubai-1, Bada, etc.). A multigrave structure 1 excavated at the Akshoky burial is one of these complexes. It consists of two rectangular fences penetrating each other and elongated latitudinally. Seven graves arranged in a line with remains of cremation are buried in the internal site. Key features of a burial rite of the Akshoky fence are similar to Fedorov antiquities of Saryarka and adjacent regions, they also reflect a combination of some essential features of the regional and common cultural scale: multigrave complexes (Sanguir II, Aishrak), paired boxes (Aishrak, Belasar, Balakulboldi II), construction of double fencing, including different construction methods which are known according to the materials of the burial grounds of Aksu-Ayuly II, Zhylandy III, Besoba. Simultaneous burials of many people are probably associated with exceptional circumstances of death beyond natural mortality. Perhaps, one of those reasons was some kind of military tribal clash, which is not contrary to the variegated cultural situation in Central Kazakhstan, where the complex processes of assimilation and integration at different stages occurred between the Petrovka, Alakul and Fedorovo groups of population. It is problematic to determine a specific chronological position of the Akshoky fence, firstly, due to lack of detailed periodization of the Fedorovo culture; second, because of the almost continuous robbery of the investigated graves in ancient times. It seems to the authors that the most correct decision is to accept a wide date range within the first half of the II Millennium BC, as it is evidenced by wide application of methods of radiocarbon dating of Fedorovo antiquities.
Key words: Saryarka, the Bronze Age, Andronovo antiquity, the Fedorovo culture, burial grounds, cremation.
Bagashev A.N., Slepchenko S.M., Alekseeva E.A., Sleptsova A.V.
A CRANIOLOGICAL FINDING FROM A SHRINE AT BOLSHOY LOG FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT OF THE KULAY CULTURE IN OMSK
The paleoanthropological material discovered at a shrine in Bolshoy Log fortified settlement of the Kulay culture is of a big interest regarding the formation of the morphological type of the Kulay population. Despite the wide area of distribution (the Middle and Lower Ob River basin and adjacent territories of Western Siberia) and a long historical period of functioning (in the middle of the 1st millennium BC — the middle of the 1st millennium AD), there are only small data which would help to determine the morphological type of the Kulay population. These are materials from the burial grounds of Kamenny Mys, Aldygan and single skulls from Ust-Poluy and Kulayskaya Gora shrines. Investigation of a skull from Bolshoy Log shrine showed that morphological features of the individual (a male of mature age) completely fits into the variability, typical of the very Kulay population, despite of high individual variability. The morphological type of this male includes both Caucasoid and Mongoloid components. There are two trepanation holes on the skull, they were made after the skull had been separated from the body and after it had been cleaned off of soft tissues. The nature of holes location does not exclude a possibility of using it in ritual-magical actions. Facial reconstruction clearly demonstrates features of his appearance, which do not contradict a conclusion about the similarity of this male to a female from Ust-Poluy.
Key words: craniology, dental anthropology, facial reconstruction, trepanation, Kulay cultural-and-historical community, Bolshoy Log hillfort, Ust-Poluy, Kulayskaya Gora, West Siberia, the Early Iron Age.
KhudaverdyanA.Yu., Gasparyan B.Z., Pinhasi R., Kanayan A.S., Hovanesyan N.À.
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS OF THE LATE ENEOLITHIC FROM THE ARENI 1 CAVE
Newly excavated materials from Areni 1 cave allowed characterizing for the first time the anthropological composition of the Late Eneolithic inhabitants of Armenia. Based on anthropological and paleopathological data, physical features and disease pathology of the bones were analyzed. Results of the intergroup statistical analysis identified close morphological affinities between the Eneolithic skulls from Areni 1 with groups from Tepe Hissar II, Ginchi, Catal Huyuk, Alishar Huyuk and the bearers of the Kuro-Araxes from the Southern Caucasus. Their connection with bearers of the Maikop, Khvalynian, Pit-Grave and Catacomb cultures was also revealed. As for race and genetics, the Late Eneolithic inhabitants from Areni 1 cave, more probably, originate from the territory of the Middle East. Special treatment of the bones of the deceased is observed (polishing). Certain crania, mostly male, display traumatic lesions. Such markers of childhood stress as enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia were found among individuals from Areni 1 cave. Exposure to cold coinciding with chronic staphylococcal and streptococcal foci was likely the major cause of otitis media. Auditory exostoses may indicate exposure to cold air and/or cold water, too. Unintentional deformation of the head (parietal and occipital) is found on the skulls, which is associated with social-domestic conditions.
Key words: Armenia, Areni 1, the Late Eneolithic, craniology, odontology, disease pathology, ritual, unintentional deformation.
A NEW OLD HYPOTHESIS OF THE ORIGIN OF THE YAKUTS (ON THE OCCASION OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF A.A. SAVVIN, A SPECIALIST IN FOLKLORE, ETHNOGRAPHER, AND LOCAL HISTORIAN)
A.A. Savvin (1896–1951) was one of the first Yakut ethnographers and folklore specialists who left huge scientific heritage of which only a small article was published during his lifetime. The Manuscript collection of IHRISN of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science keeps his personal collection consisting of about 100 items with a total amount of more than 500 printed pages. The guiding idea of his works was the question of the origin of the Yakuts. A.A. Savvin didn't have time to arrange his views into a well-knit system during his lifetime, but nevertheless, his notes and reflections based on a wide use of folklore, ethnographic, linguistic, archeological and historical sources have stood the test of time. The aim of this article is to select, order and systematize his random notes and essays and to reconstruct thereby the author's vision of the problem of the origin of the Yakuts. Many ideas stated by A.A. Savvin in his manuscripts find scientific support nowadays, confirming thereby his deep understanding of the scientific problem under consideration, for example, periodization of the ethnogenesis of the Yakuts in three main stages, distinguishing of the layer of Yakut-Hun parallels, personification of ancient and medieval clans which made up the central core of the Sakha people and their culture, early (prior to Russian) occupation of Northeast outlying areas by nomadic herders, etc. Hence, this article considers the modern conceptual ideas of the problem of the ethnogenesis of the Yakuts, basing on cross-disciplinary analysis of the latest paleoethnographic data and archaeological artifacts of the last several years.
Key words: A.A. Savvin, hypothesis, ethnogenesis, the Yakuts, interaction, nations, culture.
BJARMIAN TROPES OF POETRY PIONEER — A MYTHOLOGEME IN FINNISH METAGEOGRAPHY
The article analyzes origins and interpretations of a mythologeme pioneer in Finnish culture. Its literary origins are rooted in J.L. Runeberg’s poems and O. Manninen’s «The Woodsman» (1902). The hero leaves human society and enters a silent forest. He becomes the sole master of his domain. Suddenly, he sees wood chips carried along by the river. The woodsman travels far, to the upper reaches of the river, to get rid of the unwelcome neighbor: «he discover, strikes dead». This poem has indexical and laconic tropes as ancient incantatory formulas do. In the literary Finnish language, information space is structured according to the definition kirjoitustaito, an ability to write, and lukutaito, an ability to read. The definitions are taken from the traditional worldview in which lukea means to cast a spell, and kirjoittaa means to create an ornament. This cultural dichotomy determines quasi-social division between those who produce and consume texts. Nietzschean idea of Manninen’s poem turns towards a traditional archetype, inseparability of the process of creation of a sign and its interpretation, «reading» and «writing». Literary code-switching of the image of a pioneer accompanied understanding of cultural and metageographical borders of Finland. Mythology of the woodsman is widely represented in the poetic prose of Samuli Paulaharju where history and ethnography are intertwined. The specificity of quasi-social division is reflected in the bjarmian tropes, discourses marking «red» and «white» Greater Finland.
Key words: mythologeme of the woodsman, traditional archetypes, metageography, Runeberg, Manninen, Greater Finland.
ON POSSIBILITIES OF STUDYING HISTORY AND HOUSEHOLD OF RUSSIAN SETTLEMENTS OF LONG-TERM RESIDENTS IN THE IRTYSH RIVER REGION NEAR OMSK IN THE XVIII–XX CENTURIES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VILLAGE OF ANANYINO
The article is aimed to analyze possibilities of combining written, cartographic and ethnographic sources for studying history and problems of formation and development of household complexes of long-term resident settlements in the Irtysh River region near Omsk in the XVIII–XX centuries. The main object of the study is the village of Ananyino, which does not exist nowadays. Its study helped to overcome the problem of fragmentation of collective memory in case a unified community disappears. The paper describes the living place of the members of the community and its borders. Relatively precise localization allows us to specify the nature of established links between the population of Ananyino and nearby settlements. A comparison of written and ethnographic materials makes it possible to identify a degree of influence of external factors on the development of key sectors of the household of the long-term residents in the area under consideration, as well as to specify the role of agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing in the structure of the household. At the same time, the article describes the process of searching for and analysis of the source base within the local interdisciplinary studies. The materials de-monstrate an important role of the state fiscal policy in the development of all spheres of the economic complex in the XVIII–XX centuries: fishing equipment presented in the sources, social and economic stratification of the population, which consisted mostly of service-men in the XVIII–XIX centuries, were formed under its influence. In addition, the sources indicate that in spite of the abundance of fairs and active exchange of goods carried out by the population of Tara, the residents of Ananyino didn't participate in it. Available materials also reveal the presence of specialization of individual farms, which began to take shape in the XVIII — first half of the XIX century and affected migrational processes in the course of further settlement of Ananyino residents after the village disappeared.
Key words: economy of the Russian population of Western Siberia, Irtysh River region near Omsk, Russian long-term residents, local studies.
TEMPORARY SUMMER DWELLINGS OF THE BASHKIRS OF THE INZER RIVER BASIN IN THE LATE 19th — EARLY 21st CENTURY
Temporary summer dwellings of the Bashkirs of the Inzer River basin in the late XIX — early XXI century are analyzed. Data from the State Archive of Orenburg region (Orenburg) and the Scientific Archive of the Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ufa) are used, as well as information gathered by the author during expedition trips in 2010–2011, 2016 to the villages of Gabdiukovo, Zuiakovo, Assi, Novokhasanovo, Usmangali, Inzer, Azikeevo, Aznalkino, Khusainovo, Sermenovo, Utkalevo, Uziannbash, Shigaevo of Beloretsky District, Republic of Bashkortostan. The Bashkir population, which for a long time had led a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life, had temporary and permanent settlements: the first ones included spring, summer and autumn sites, the second ones are represented by winter camps, on the basis of which auls (villages) appeared. On the cusp of the XIX–XX centuries, the Bashkirs of the Inzer River basin kept on following a semi-nomadic cattle breeding way of life, raising large numbers of horses, sheep, cows and a small number of goats. They made hay and did forestry (wood logging and transportation, they prepared firewood for factories, produced bast and tar, etc.). Mass departures to summer camps in mountainous areas stopped before the Civil War and the crop failure of 1921–1922, but some families continued to migrate in summer until the collectivization of the early 1930s. At the end of the XIX century, mainly wealthy families went to the summer pastures, and some Bashkirs, who tended cattle or were hired for work, went with them. The places of seasonal camps and dwellings in them remained traditional for a long time. Three types of temporary summer dwellings got widespread at the end of the XIX century: a hut (burama) and two kinds of cottages, which differ in form, material, and size. A hut was made of logs, cottages were made of bark, (linden bark), laths, branches. Up to date, cottages are preserved in the area under consideration, they are mounted during haymaking as an overnight stops and for storing food and clothes. Burama as a temporary dwelling during haymaking is scarcely used today.
Key words: the Bashkirs, Inzer River basin, Beloretsk district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, cattle breeding, summer dwellings, nomadic camps, burama, huts.
HOST ALTAI SOCIETY AND DEPORTED ARMENIANS IN THE CONTEXT OF PERMANENT REPRESSIONS AND DEPORTATIONS IN THE 1930–1940s: IMAGES AND CULTURAL INTERACTION
The aim of the article is to study the influence of ethnical deportations on the rural population of Altai Krai by using oral history as a method and source of ethnographic research on the example of the 1949 Armenian deportation campaign. It is asserted that the study of nations and cultures in the context of global historical processes of the XX–XXI centuries requires new approaches. The techniques of oral history which deal with historical memory are one of the ways of studying anthropological contents of historical processes. The main sources of the article are the materials of field research on the territory of Altai Krai. The research focuses on host, mainly Russian population in the context of permanent ethnical deportations of the 1940s. It is mentioned that the population of the Altai countryside became multiethnic in quite a short period of time which was related to resettlement of families and small groups of deported nations all over the territory of the region. It led to cooperative living and common experience in overcoming war period difficulties, basing on life support culture. The article compares attitudes of local population towards different waves of ethnical migrants (Germans, Armenians, Moldavians, Polish and the others), it analyses the images formed and interethnic interaction. The article identifies commitment of the deported population to consolidation with reclamation of the outskirts of the settlements and preservation of song, dance and holiday traditions. A conclusion is made about the influence of the deported population on the host society, the changes which took place in cultural, social and manufacturing spheres of the Altai countryside are described. It is pointed out that cultural exchange in difficult living conditions firstly took place in the material sphere and was connected with such basic components of life support culture as dwelling and food. As a result, ethnocultural skills of the deported population encouraged interethnic consent.
Key words: Oral history, Altai, deported nations, Russian rural population, interethnic interaction, ethnocultural influence.
Shisheliakina A.L., Bobrov I.V.
FOREIGN NATIVES: ON PRACTICES OF WEARING OF A MUSLIM HEADSCARF IN A NON-MUSLIM REGION OF RUSSIA
Using gender approach, the article describes mutually excluding standards for Muslim women who wear hijab in everyday life in one of the non-Muslim regions of Russia — Tyumen region. On the one hand, secular society imposes restrictions on wearing hijabs. On the other hand, Muslim women and Muslim community basing on religious norms insist that a woman must be «covered» when being in public. Besides, within the Muslim community it is discussed how a hijab should look, and the parties involved in this discussion stigmatize each other. In this regard, the issue of interest is to clarify what wearing a religious headscarf means for young Muslim women. What impact do hijab restrictions have on their daily lives?
Key words: Islam, a Muslim headscarf, hijab, woman, Muslim, gender, everyday practices, Tyumen region.
Bobrov I.V., Cherepanov M.S.
FRAGMENTATION OF RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY IN ISLAM (TYUMEN CASE AT THE TURN OF THE XXI CENTURY)
The social sciences have been demonstrating a steady growth of interest in Islam in recent decades. It is becoming more obvious that the Islamic faith has different, often conflicting, variations in practice. What influences the process of formation of such different versions of Islam? One way to answer this question is to study religious authority. This article is based on the empirical material gathered in Tyumen region since the beginning of the 1990s and analyzes multiplication of positions of religious authority, which is one of the manifestations of fragmentation of authority in Islam. In the late 1980s — early 1990s, basic positions of Islamic authority in the region were mullahs, abystai, astana keepers, and organizers of religious rites among the residents of a particular place. Their activities resulted in the appearance of different interpretations of Adat Islam, which included, among others, Sufi practices. In the early 1990s, new positions began to form alongside with the previously mentioned authoritative Islamic positions: the Ulema and imams. Their attempts to centralize religious authority in order to ensure uniformity of Islamic meanings and practices led to even bigger fragmentation of that authority and increased the number of dogmatic and ritual interpretations of Islam. The already existing interpretations of Adat Islam were supplemented by interpretations of different schools of Sufism, which were more and more taking shape, as well as versions of Salafism, which rejects all practices and meanings not justified by the Koran, the Sunna and fatwas of authoritative, mostly foreign, theologians. Moreover, up to date, the region has a localized Shiite interpretation of Islam too. In addition, Islamic political activists, another position, new for the regional religious field, has been formed since the late 1990s. Due to their efforts, Islam began to be interpreted as a range of religious and political concepts: from recognition of the possibility of living according to the secular laws to jihadism. Thus, the study of the materials of Tyumen region dated starting from the 1990s up to the present day identified a growth in positions of religious authority in Islam, resulting in multiplication of interpretations of Islamic teachings.
Key words: Islam, religious authority, interpretations of Islam, fragmentation of authority.
OSTEOPHAGIA IN DOMESTIC UNGULATES IN THE BRONZE AGE
SETTLEMENTS OF THE TRANS-URALS (ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL AND
The paper provides a detailed description of the bones,
which were subject to chewing and exposed to digestive enzymes of cattle and
small cattle. Eating bones is called osteophagia. The bones with such changes
were found in the archaeozoological collections of two fortified settlements of
the Bronze Age in the Trans-Urals. They are Kamennyi Ambar and Konoplyanka.
While processing the collection and inspecting modern cattle paddocks, all forms
and stages of chewing bones among cattle and small cattle were detected.
Key words: osteophagia,
Southern Trans-Urals, the Bronze Age, Archaeozoology, Ethnozoology, bone chewing
by ungulates, cattle (Bos Taurus), small cattle (Ovis et Capra),
ungulates digestive corrosion.
OSTEOPHAGIA IN DOMESTIC UNGULATES IN THE BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENTS OF THE TRANS-URALS (ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL AND ETHNOZOOLOGICAL MATERIALS)
The paper provides a detailed description of the bones, which were subject to chewing and exposed to digestive enzymes of cattle and small cattle. Eating bones is called osteophagia. The bones with such changes were found in the archaeozoological collections of two fortified settlements of the Bronze Age in the Trans-Urals. They are Kamennyi Ambar and Konoplyanka. While processing the collection and inspecting modern cattle paddocks, all forms and stages of chewing bones among cattle and small cattle were detected.
Key words: osteophagia, Southern Trans-Urals, the Bronze Age, Archaeozoology, Ethnozoology, bone chewing by ungulates, cattle (Bos Taurus), small cattle (Ovis et Capra), ungulates digestive corrosion.
Medvedeva P.S., Alaeva I.P.
TEXTILE IN THE BRONZE AGE OF THE SOUTHERN TRANS-URALS AND NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN
In this paper, we explore the technological characteristics of the Bronze Age cloths produced by the Sintashta, Petrovka and Alakul archaeological cultures. It employs a detailed structural analysis of textile prints on ceramic vessels which were found in cemeteries from the Southern Trans-Urals and Northern Kazakhstan, dated back to the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Plain weave dominates in the fabric and is divided into four types according to morphological features (density of working threads per 1 cm2, distance between working threads, thickness of the thread). It can be concluded that there are significant similarities in the textile characteristics of Sintashta, Petrovka and Alakul cloth. However, the samples at the Petrovka-Alakul sites, compared with earlier Sintashta-Petrovka sites, demonstrate a clear tendency to growth of the average density of working threads per 1 cm2. This is due to a greater proportion of rare type of plain weave in the Sintashta-Petrovka textile. This trend can be associated with a variety of weaving devices, manufacturing tradition or the presence of imported fabrics.
Key words: the Bronze Age, weaving, textile prints, the Sintashta culture, the Petrovka culture, the Alakul culture.
The KATKOVO-1 BURIAL MOUND (on the upper date of the Verkhneobskaya culture of the Novosibirsk Ob basin)
The article presents the materials of the burial mound of Katkovo-1 (excavations by Durakov I.A.), located in Kochenevsky district of Novosibirsk region, for the first time. A brief history of the changing views of researchers on the dating of the Verkhneobskaya culture gives us the basis for identification of the following issues: a definition of the upper date of the existence of the culture and a cultural and chronological definition of the monuments where a combination of the Verkhneobskaya culture material and later material complexes was found out, which greatly complicates its dating. A similar situation is observed at the settlement of Yurt-Akbalyk-3. Originally, the complex was considered as Yurt-Akbalyk stage of the Verkhneobskaya culture (VIII–IX centuries AD.). The cemetery is characterized by a combination of the material of the Verhneobskaya culture with a later material complex, which dates back to the X–XI centuries AD. The purpose of the work is to clarify the dating of the burial mound of Katkovo-1. The vessels found at the monument by their morphological characterstics and ornaments can be attributed to the Verkhneobskaya culture, however, there are some changes in the ornamentation observed, due to the influence of Northern tribes, while morphological characteristics are largely unchanged. One decorative element isn`t typical of the Novosibirsk Ob basin, it was brought by the Northern tribes of the Lower Ob river. Weapons, in particular, some flat iron arrowheads and spearheads are dated back within the VI–X centuries AD by the researchers, elements of harness date back to the IX–XII centuries AD. Bronze jewelry belongs to the VIII–X centuries AD. The ceramic material found, as well as items of armaments and harness, in comparison with their analogies found in Southern Siberia, the Ob river basin near Tomsk and Novosibirsk, and other adjacent territories, confirmed their dating back to the the Yurt-Akbalyk stage of the Verhneobskaya culture, but afforded ground for extension of the datings’s top limit of the burial ground up to the X century AD. This situation allowed us to question the IX century AD as the top date of the Verkhneobskaya culture. Presence of the materials used in the X–XI centuries AD on the monuments gave us an opportunity to expand the upper limit of the existence of the Verkhneobskaya culture up to the X century AD.
Key words: the Verkhneobskaya culture, chronology, funerary complex, dating material, Yurt-Akbalyk stage.
SACRIFICIAL COMPLEXES WITH CLOTHES FROM CEMETERIES OF THE VETLUGA-VYATKA INTERFLUVE AREA OF THE IX–XI CENTURIES
Sacrificial complexes in the intersepulchral space (SC) as explorative signs of the Mari Medieval burial grounds were designated by the author in the 90-s. Four variants of the SC are singled out, among which the variants III and IV are the most characteristic and mass scale for the Mari culture monuments. The article describes and introduces into scientific discourse 26 complexes from Rusenikhinskiy and Vyzhumskiy burial grounds, excavated by the author of this article in 2010–2015. Emergence of additional materials has allowed disclosing semantics of these objects in a new way. Internal contents of the complexes are represented by dishes, instrument of labour or welfare items, clothes and jewelry. With the help of an improved technique of excavation of these objects, opening and fixing by layers from 1 to 3 cm, level bedding of jewelry and elements of clothes in vertical direction from the head the legs is found out. Elements of headdresses and footwear, caftans, dresses or rectangular pieces of fabric were successfully distinguished among the fragments from certain objects. Judging by the external signs: abundance of fabrics, fragments of clothes (doth underclothes and top garments), structure and localization of jewelry in certain vertical zonal distribution corresponding to the place of a certain ornament or suit element — it is possible to assume that a doll made of clothes of a dead person was placed in these complexes. Connection of the soul of a dead person with clothes of the Maris is confirmed by ethnographic and folklore data. The ceremony of making dolls from clothes of the dead is known at Ugrian (Khanty, Mansi) and Turkic people. In spite of the fact that this ceremony has different names and various material forms of expression at diffe-rent peoples, but its essence is the same: the doll is a temporary receptacle of soul the of the dead. It is obvious that the complexes at the intersepulchral space or stock lines of sepulchral holes with a set of clothes in the Mari Medieval burial grounds were commemorative, they served as a receptacle of the souls of the ancestors and contributed to the transition of souls to the other world after a certain time period. This ceremony could appear under the influence of the Ugrian or Turkic tradition. The word for a doll — «kurchak» — favours the last version, because it corresponds to the Kyrgyz word for a doll («kkurchak») and coincides with the name of images of female ancestral spirits at the Shors (qurtujaq), the Kumandins (urtyjaq), and the Barabinsk Tatars («kurtsak»).
Key words: funeral and memorial rites, the Mari, the Mordovians, the Middle Ages, the Turks, sacrificial complex, clothes, seat of the soul.
THE YAKUTIAN BURIALS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGES IN OIMYAKON DISTRICT (THE 17th–18th CENTURIES) (Indigirka, North-Eastern Yakutia)
For the first time, this paper reports on and describes the data on three Yakutian burials of the Late Middle Ages (the 17th–18th centuries): Ebyuge I-II and Sobolokh (Neleger), discovered during research work of the International Sakha-French archaeological expedition in 2014 in Oimyakon district of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (basin of the upper reaches of the Indigirka river). Before the beginning of the expedition, the Medieval (preliterate) history of the entire North-East of Yakutia was mainly based on the data on folklore, toponymy, and certain archival documents, according to which the settlement of those territories by the Yakuts, probably, dates back to the period of internecine wars of the 16th–17th centuries. However, certain archaeological monuments of that period were not known. The analysis of the discovered objects and items shows their chronological and typological affinity with the data on the monuments of the 17th–18th centuries, belonging not only to Central Yakutia, but also to its other districts — Vilyuysky and Verkhoyansky. The only noticeable difference of the Oimyakon monuments from the others is its lack of funerary dishes, a usual attribute of almost all known Yakutian burials. This fact could be a result of the predominance of horse breeding (its products) over cattle breeding during that period in Oimyakon.
Key words: Oimyakon, Indigirka, North-Eastern Yakutia, the Sakha-French archaeological expedition, Ebyuge, Sobolokh (Neleger), burials, the Yakuts.
THE WOMAN’S BURIAL OF ATLASOVSKOE-2 OF THE XVII CENTURY IN CENTRAL YAKUTIA: RESULTS OF A COMPLEX RESEARCH
This article presents a complex study of the female burial of the XVII century in Central Yakutia. The burial rite (traces of ritual roasting of the coffin, orientation to the North) and composition of the accompanying inventory (a knife of the non-Yakut origin, a sphero-conical top part of a headdress with a support for a plume, twin overlaid decorative details of the headdress’s crown, a composite pectoral panel picture of sewn-on patches, an earring in the form of a question mark with a biconical bead) determine the peculiarity of the burial, and their nearest parallels can be traced to the Medieval cultures of the Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe nomads, as well as to the population of the Siberian forest and tundra zones of the XVI–XIX centuries. Craniological characteristics of the buried woman draw her closer to the populations of Central Asian and Baikal anthropological types of the North Asian formation.
Key words: Central Yakutia, the Late Middle Ages, burial sites, the burial of Atlasovskoye-2, the Yakuts, craniometry, anthropological type, X-ray-spectral analysis, exchange of goods.
CRANIOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS AND ETHNOGENETIC SITUATION IN SOUTHERN EASTERN EUROPE IN THE LATE BRONZE AGE AND IRON AGE
The article is dedicated to the study of the anthropological composition and origin of various groups of the ancient population of Armenia. Along with the paleoanthropological materials previously published by other researchers, the author studied new collections, gathered by various archaeological expeditions of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences. We investigated a total number of 90 skulls of adult individuals of both sexes (57♂, 33♀). The new materials characterize the anthropological composition of the population of Lori, Shirak, Aragotsotni, Syunik regions of Armenia for the first time. The results of statistical analysis identified close affinities between the Transcaucasia samples and the samples from Southern Eastern Europe (Maikop, Lolinsk, Catacomb, Srubna cultures of the Fore Caucasus).
Key words: Craniology, Armenia, the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, genesis.
Uchaneva Eu., Kazarnitsky A., Gromov A., Lazaretova N.
THE EARLY IRON AGE POPULATIONS OF THE MINUSINSK HOLLOW: REVISITING INTER- AND INTRAGROUP VARIATIONS
By means of multivariate statistics, we analyzed male craniological series of the Early Iron Age from Western and Southern Siberia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. The intra-group analysis of the series from the Minusinsk Hollow reveals specificity of individuals from the tombs of the Tesinsk culture, in comparison with other groups. At the same time, the population which left Tesinsk burials is obviously related to the Tagar culture. The analysis of the Tagar series reveals a strong differentiation of individuals from the burials between the Podgornovo and the Saragash periods. The results of the intra-group analyses are confirmed by a broad-scale inter-group analysis of the Eurasian Iron Age series. The Tagar series show clear craniometrical specificity which includes rather small cranial and face breadth, not very broad orbits, small naso-malar and zigomaxillary angles, long cranium and protruding nasal bones.
Key words: Early Iron Age, craniological data, the Minusinsk Hollow, the Tagar culture.
AT THE GARIFUNA OF ST. VINCENT
The article introduces modern ethnic processes among the indigenous inhabitants of the island of Saint Vincent — the Garifuna Indian people («Black Caribs»). It is based on a 2015 ethnographic study when 10 % of the Garifuna were interviewed with the help of a special questionnaire on their ethnic territory. The Garifuna make up only 3 % of the country's population, their number which had grown during the entire twentieth century, has begun to decline rapidly in recent years. Negroes and «mix» («mixed») people are the vast majority of the population. The last ones include not only mulattos (born of one white parent and one black parent) but all the mixed population, including children of mixed marriages among the Garifuna and the Blacks. Less than a third of the Garifuna remained on their main ethnic territory, in Sandy Bay district, the others migrated to other parts of the country, and many of them moved abroad. The proportion of the Garifuna in the district is reducing, the number of Negroes and, especially, «mix» people is growing rapidly. There have been active migrations in recent years. The reason is a limited number of jobs in this agricultural district. Migrants go mainly to the South of the island, where tourist industry is actively developing. There are almost no ethnic differences left in the material and spiritual culture and in the language between the Garifuna and the majority of the surrounding Saint Vincentians (blacks and mulattos). The native language went out of use in the first half of the twentieth century. Almost all Garifuna are Christian (Catholics, Anglicans, etc.), as well as the rest of the population. The number of mixed marriages with Negroes and «mixed» people in Sandy Bay district is close to 50 %, and most of the children do not belong to the Garifuna, they join the community of the «mix» people. During the twentieth century, the situation was different: almost all Garifuna were concentrated in the neighborhood of Sandy Bay, where they were the vast majority of the population, there were significantly less mixed marriages, and children in mixed families were often consi-dered to be Garifuna. As a result, the number of the Garifuna on the island was rapidly growing, as well as their proportion in the total population. Things have begun to change only recently, in the last 20–30 years, which threatens the very existence of this ethnic group in the decades to come. At the moment, the uniqueness of the Garifuna is manifested only in their ethnic identity and some minor anthropological features, although there are little differences in appearance of the Garifuna and the Blacks (as a result of an intermixture several centuries long with the surrounding majority).
Key words: Saint Vincent, the Caribs, the Garifuna, ethnic processes, language processes, migrations, demography, mixed marriages, mestization.
THE EVENKS OF THE LOWER IRTYSH VALLEY: A SMALL COMMUNITY ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE ETHNIC AREA
The paper presents the first compilationof information on the history and culture of the Evenks of the Lower Irtysh valley. Comparison of different information sources allowed to argue on reasonable grounds that several Evenk family groups named Likhachev and consist of 20–30 individuals migrated from Turukhansky Krai to the Demyanka-river and Turtas-river valleys in the last decades of the 19th century. The migration was caused by the need of finding unoccupied hunting grounds. The migrants were initially characterized by well-preserved traditional culture, they led a nomadic existence and relied primarily on transport reindeer herding and hunting. The easy penetration of this community into the territory, which was already populated by other Siberian ethnic groups, was due to their occupation of vacant areas of watershed swamps. Being small-numbered the Evenk migrants were compelled to look for marriage partners among neighboring ethnic groups from the very beginning of their relocation. By the end of the 20th century, they lost their language and almost all of their traditional ethnic characteristics. However, their ethnic identity persisted, due to a specific set of strong cultural boundaries, the composition of which have been evolved over time.
Key words: Western Siberia, ethnic identity, cultural boundaries, migration, nomads, taiga reindeer husbandry.
Nabok I.L., Serpivo S.E.
TRANSFORMATION OF THE FEMALE SPACE IN THE TRADITIONAL NENETS CULTURE UP TO THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY
The paper addresses conditions and factors of transformation of the female space in the traditional culture of the Nenets of Yamal up to the beginning of the XXI century. It is noted that the impact of socio-economic and cultural transformations of the modern society contributes to the deformation of the traditional life supporting system and the penetration of non-traditional elements into the life of the indigenous population. The work is based on the data of the author’s sociological research conducted in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (Tazovsky, Yamalsky, Purovsky, Shuryshkarsky, Priuralsky and Nadymsky areas). Education is considered as one of the main factors of this transformation, in particular, an increase in educational level of women, leading to greater economic independence and a change in the position of the Nenets women in the family. Changes in ritual and ceremonial culture are studied as factors of transformation of the female space in the traditional Nenets culture, in particular, changes in the ceremonies of the life cycle (wedding and maternity ceremony), as well as interethnic marriages associated with intensification of industrial development of the Nenets traditional territories.
Key words: traditional culture, female space of a culture, gender approach, transformation, education, the Nenets, ethnic identity, status, interethnic marriages.
Bakieva G.T., Timofeeva A.M.
THE NATIONAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD IN SIBERIAN TATAR PROVERBS
The paper makes an attempt to highlight the most important concepts for the Siberian Tatars and to characterize a set of ethical rules and regulations specific to their culture on the basis of the analysis of their proverbs because they define the foundation of the national picture of the world, the philosophy of life. More than four hundred proverbs of the Siberian Tatars collected and published by one of the authors of the article were the source of the study. Those proverbs and sayings were collected during long-term expedition trips, in places of compact residence of the Siberian Tatars, mainly in villages in the South of Tyumen region. The proverbs were recorded as they sounded in the living speech of the Tatar speakers, thus they preserved phonetic, lexical and grammatical peculiarities of the people's spoken language. It was found out that special attention in the Siberian Tatar proverbs is paid to family, work, knowledge, friendship, fate, homeland, faith. There are a lot of proverbs which regulate relationship between a husband and a wife, parents and children, and determine rules of behavior among them. A Siberian Tatar woman was a keeper of the family foundations, she was responsible for peace and joy in the family, a husband was the undisputed family head, and the children were its main wealth. Proverbs on the topic «work — laziness» have a special place in the paremial fund of the Siberian Tatars. For them, an ability to work hard is an important, inalienable human quality; it is work that brings income. The people's wisdom teaches us not to be afraid of any work, we can judge a person looking at the results of the work he or she did. The topic «knowledge — ignorance» is of high importance in the proverbs of the Siberian Tatars. All the examples address the importance and benefits of knowledge for humans. The topic «poverty — wealth» is also central to the paremial fund. Many Tatar families had a hard life in the harsh climate of Siberia, it was difficult to earn means of living. As a result, we can find far more proverbs and sayings about poverty. As for human relations, the Siberian Tatars valued restraint, perseverance, hospitality, kindness, modesty. Excessive talkativeness, meanness, indifference, curiosity, greed, hypocrisy, envy were subject to condemnation and rejection.
Key words: Siberian Tatars, national picture of the world, folklore, proverbs, culture, philosophy, ethics, people's experience.
MUSEUMIFICATION AS A METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN ETHNO-CULTURAL SPACE AMONG THE CHUVASHES IN THE TOBOL RIVER BASIN IN TYUMEN REGION
The article is dedicated to a cultural and anthropological description of the process of museumification among a Chuvash ethnolocal group in the Tobol river basin in Tyumen region. The paper aims to show how museumification becomes a technology of construction of modern ethno-cultural space in the group under consideration. At the end of the XX century, an urgent demand for ethnic self-determination and preservation of cultural traditions appeared among the Chuvash people in the region. In this regard, processes of ethnic consolidation activated. Museums and museum rooms in various villages of the Southern part of the region gradually start to become centers of such consolidation. They contain artifacts of the culture of daily living activities of the Chuvashes. In course of time, museumification activities of such centers rise to a new level. They begin to have a significant influence on the formation of the ethnic and cultural space of the Chuvash people in the Tobol river basin in Tyumen region through the preservation of traditions, and innovations in cultural transmission. Similarly, private museumification begins to affect the ethno-cultural space. This is a new phenomenon for the group under consideration, and it has been not previously studied.
Key words: the Chuvash people, the Tobol river basin in Tyumen region, museumification, ethno-cultural tradition, ethnic processes.
Sataeva L.V., Sataev R.M.
THE ROLE OF TREES IN THE LIFE OF ANCIENT POPULATION OF GONUR-DEPE (THE BRONZE AGE, TURKMENISTAN)
The article is aimed to clarify the role of woody plants in the life of the ancient population of Gonur-Depe (Turkmenistan), the proto-urban center of Ancient Margiana, which was located in the South-Eastern Karakum (Turkmenistan) and belonged to the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAK). Remains of monumental architecture (a Kremlin with a central palace and a temple complex, surrounded by robust defensive walls with towers) and an adjacent unfortified «suburb» were found in the settlement. According to the radiocarbon datings, the settlement functioned in the time period of 2500 to 1500 years BC. Òhe results of our research show that the population of Gonur Depe widely used wood and wood products. Microscopic analysis of wood showed that saxaul (Saxaul sp.) was used as main fuel. Shrubby types of thistle (Salsola sp.), tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), camel-thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi) were not so widely used. The coal collected in the territory of the Palace-temple complex belongs to tamarisk, saxaul, Calligonum, poplar (Populus sp.), maple (Acer turcomanicum), Spireantus Shrenk's (Spiraeanthus schrenkianus). Poplar and willow (Salix sp.) were used for construction purposes. Pro-ducts of different function (wagon wheels, tools, jewelry) were made of elm (Ulmus sp.), maple (Acer sp.), willow (Salix sp.), ash (Fraxinus sp.), leather smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), exochorda (Exochorda sp.), chaste tree (Vitex sp.). A part of the wood and/or wood products were received from the outside, which again confirms the existence of well-established trade contacts of the inhabitants of Gonur with neighboring regions which were situated at different distances from it.
Key words: archaeobotanical research, use of woody plants, Ancient Margiana, Gonur-Depe.
Nomokonova T.Yu. , Losey R. J., Tupakhina O.S., Tupakhin D.S.
SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS of population of the Lower Ob river basin during the Eneolithic (based on faunal remains of the settlement of GornIy Samotnel-1)
This article is dedicated to the analysis of faunal remains found at the Eneolithic settlement of Gorniy Samotnel-1. This habitation site has a modeled age spanning from 3060 to 2920 cal. BC, firmly within the Middle Holocene. This site is located on the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region on the shore of the Ob’ River. The paper considers the identification of faunal remains from the site, their relative abundances, bone modification (such as natural erosion, carnivore gnawing, butchering traces, and tool making), as well as proportions of skeletal elements and reconstruction of age at death of some individuals. The resulting data demonstrate relatively broad use of natural resources by the inhabitants of Gorniy Samotnel-1 during the Eneolithic, despite a relatively small size of the analyzed assemblage. The results of species identification and other faunal analyses are discussed in association with the rest of the archaeological context. In addition, the article includes information on the reconstruction of paleodiet based on the stable isotope analyses of the residues of pottery vessels at the site. Finally we introduce the zoomorphic images at the site, including possible depictions of elk and waterfowl, which were found in a direct association with the site’s faunal remains.
Key words: zooarchaeology, Eneolithic, faunal remains, settlement of Gorniy Samotnel-1, subsistence patterns, taphonomy, reindeer, fishing.