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USE OF RESINOUS SUBSTANCES BY THE EARLY NEOLITHIC POPULATION IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ISHIM AREA
In this study, the author set out to determine the chemical composition and possible use of a substance, which remnants were found on a tile fragment made of soft brown shist. This item was discovered in the occupation layer of a Neolithic settlement belonging to the Boborykino culture (Mergen 3), located on the terrace of Lake Mergen in the forest-steppe of the Ishim area (south of Western Siberia). By analogy with the complexes of the Boborykino culture in the Tobol area — Yurtobor 3 (7701 ± 120 BP (UPI 559)) and Tashkovo 1 (7440 ± 60 BP (LE 1534)) — which age was determined using carbon-14 dating, the Mergen 3 settlement can be attributed to the second half of the 7th millennium Cal. BC. The fragment measuring 3.0 × 2.1 × 0.55 cm has a spherical indentation in the centre measuring 2.0×2.0×0.2 cm with a volume of 0.118 cm3 (0.118 ml). The whole item probably had a square shape with rounded and slightly raised edges. A visual analysis of the spot was carried out using an MBS-10 binocular microscope at a magnification of 16×. The analysis revealed a brown substance on the edges of the indentation, which looked like a dark porous carbon-like spot in the centre. These remnants were studied using a Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer with an Eco-ATR module — a single reflection ATR sampling module equipped with a zinc selenide crystal (ZnSe) that allows you to analyse liquid, solid and powder samples without preliminary sample preparation. The measurements were performed in the wavenumber range of 300–4000 cm-1 at a resolution of 4 cm-1. Some of the most significant absorption bands (709; 975; 1,024; 1,027 cm-1) were observed, which characterise vibrations bending and stretching the bonds in the skeleton of an organic molecule containing single Ñ–Ñ and Ñ–Î bonds. The obtained spectra are most consistent with the IR absorption spectra of resin acids, in particular, dehydroabietic acid that is present in resin obtained from coniferous trees. Considering the small volume of the above-mentioned substance and the limited of its burning, the author excludes the use of this tile as a lamp, the use of the substance for the preparation of glue that held together the parts of complex tools, as well as the use of the substance for healing wounds and for cosmetic purposes, which involved additional ingredients. Signs of burning indicate the use of the artefact for rituals, in particular for obtaining finely dispersed soot employed when applying tattoos. The conducted experiment showed that the soot from a burnt drop of fresh resin covered 4 cm2 of the wrist area. Soot formed at the very beginning of the combustion process (probably combustion of volatile components), then the substance was oxidised without noticeable emissions. The remnants of the porous substance on the tile confirm the importance of the moment of resin burning with the abundant production of soot. However, the possibility that there were other unknown areas of application of galipot obtained from coniferous trees is not excluded. In any case, it is safe to say that the early Neolithic population living in the Ishim area purposefully used natural resins in their activities.
Key words: Ishim river region, Neolithic, Mergen 3, slate tile, resin, IR spectrometry, dehydroabietic acid, healing and cosmetic properties, ritual practice.
Nasonova E.D., Ryabogina N.E., Afonin A.S., Ivanov S.N., Tkachev A.A.
VEGETATION AND CLIMATE OF THE ISET-TOBOL INTERFLUVE FROM THE ENEOLITHIC TO THE EARLY IRON AGE: NEW PALAEOECOLOGICAL DATA ON THE OSKINO-09 SWAMP VEGETATION AND CLIMATE OF THE ISET-TOBOL INTERFLUVE FROM THE ENEOLITHIC TO THE EARLY IRON AGE: NEW PALAEOECOLOGICAL DATA ON THE OSKINO-09 SWAMP
The article analyses new data, which provides the opportunity to reconstruct the natural environment of people in the Tobol area (forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia) in the 3rd–1st millennia BC. The authors consider the issue associated with the consistency between off-site pollen data and on-site palynological data, as well as how correctly they reflect natural conditions defining the living environment of the ancient population. Materials for the study were obtained from the Oskino-09 swamp-lake located near the confluence of the Iset and Tobol Rivers in the immediate vicinity of a multilayer settlement (Oskino Boloto). The age of swamp-lake sediments was determined using an age-depth model developed on the basis of AMS dates. In this study, the authors analysed pollen and plant macro-remains, as well as the indicators of economic activity (non-pollen palynomorphs, weed pollen). The analysis of stratigraphy, the composition of plant macro-remains and local pollen revealed that up to 1.2 cal ka BC the water body in question was developing as a fresh lake, which allowed the inhabitants of the Oskino Boloto settlement to use it for fishing and as a source of water in the Eneolithic and in the Bronze Age. Its transformation into a swamp occurred in 1.1–0.8 cal ka BC, which coincided with the transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. During the study period, the swamp-lake and the settlement were surrounded by forests confined to the terraces of the Iset River; starting from the middle of the Eneolithic, birch-pine forests appeared in the vicinity. However, pine forests were actively replaced with birch forests at the beginning of the Bronze Age; evidently, warmer temperatures and higher humidity resulted in the appearance of deciduous trees. Most of the Bronze Age is associated with a gradual decrease in humidity, with the signs of an increase in the water table level and the active expansion of birch forests being observed only at the turn of the Bronze and Iron Ages. A new stage of coniferous forest expansion in the Early Iron Age (ca 0.8 cal ka BÑ) is probably associated with a low level of the water table, as well as with a general fall in the temperature. The natural environment at the beginning of the Early Iron Age is very similar to that at the end of the Eneolithic. New data indicate that there were no completely treeless areas in the studied interval; forests always grew along river terraces. However, most of the settlements located nearby in the Ingala Valley were confined to open meadow-steppe areas forming an inhabited landscape. Despite the differences in the off-site pollen data obtained from the swamp and the on-site data, these data reveal similar trends in climatic changes in the 3rd–1st millennia BC.
Key words: South of Western Siberia, palynological analysis, macro remains, habitat environment, Eneolithic — Early Iron Age, Holocene.
Degtyareva A.D., Vinogradov N.B., Kuzminykh S.V., Rassomakhin M.A.
METAL PRODUCTS OF THE ALEKSEYEVKA-SARGARY CULTURE FROM THE MIDDLE AND UPPER TOBOL AREAS
The article describes morphological and typological characteristics of non-ferrous metal, determines the formulae of alloys, as well as identifies techniques used for the production of tools by the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture from the South Trans-Urals (15th/14th and 12th/11th BC). We carried out the morphological and typological study of the non-ferrous metal along with the X-ray fluorescence (Institute of Archaeology RAS, Institute of Mine-ralogy UB RAS; X-MET3000TX analysers from Oxford Instruments Analytical, M1 Mistral from Bruker Nano GmbH) and metallographic (Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS; Zeiss Axio Observer D1m microscope) analyses. A total of 19 tools exhibiting morphology inherent to the tool collections of the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture were selected for the study. These tools comprised random finds and items from the settlements of the Chelyabinsk and Kurgan regions of Russia, as well as from the Kostanay Region of Kazakhstan: daggers, à spearhead, sickles, socketed chisels, a spear end cap and single-blade knives. A group of tools and weapons characteristic of all Eurasian cordoned-ware cultures was distinguished — daggers with handguards and socketed grooved chisels. In addition, weapons characteristic of the sites attributed to the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture (Saryarka, Altai, and Semirechye) were identified within the weapon complex of the South Trans-Urals. These weapons included bush hooks of the Sosnovaya Maza type, knives having marked handles, spearheads with holes and socketed straight-blade chisels. The metal of the South Trans-Urals is distinguished by the marked heterogeneity of its chemical composition with the predominance of low-alloyed bronzes Cu–Sn, Cu–Sn–As and Cu–As (66.7 %). There are 4 pure copper items, as well as products from the complex alloy Cu–Sn–As–Ni–Co and products with elevated iron concentrations (up to 2.68 %). These data indicate that the population experimented in the course of metallurgical processing of raw materials; they transitioned to smelting metal from sulphide ores or to the smelting of copper with sulphide or silicate nickel ores of the Ufaley Massif (deposits in the Chelyabinsk Region). South Ural craftsmen produced bronze and copper primarily using technologies for casting tools in one-sided (with flat covers) and two-sided moulds. The casting was followed by refining operations using the cold forming technology with the intervals of low-temperature forging modes. This choice of temperature is justified in the procession of low-alloyed bronze. Clearly, the centre for metal production of the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture in the South Trans-Urals was a metallurgical one, with the development of both oxidised and sulphide deposits in the South Urals. Innovative technologies of smelting copper with chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and nickel-containing ores were introduced. The complex of tools attributed to the Alekseyevka-Sargary tribes from the Tobol area is generally identical to the bronze inventory from Saryarka, Altai and Kyrgyzstan. Local craftsmen employed the traditional technologies of processing copper and bronze commonly used in the centres for metal production throughout the area of the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture, working primarily with bronzes low-alloyed by tin. As in previous eras, tin ingots and products were delivered from Central Kazakhstan and Ore Altai, but in much smaller quantities. The small number of products and the data of an analytical study indicate the relocation of the main centres for metal production of the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture from the Urals region (as compared to the big centres of Petrovka and Alakul cultures) to Central and Eastern Kazakhstan, up to Xinjiang in China.
Key words: Southern Trans-Urals, Bronze Age, Alekseyevka-Sargary culture, metal composition, production technology.
Kostomarov V.M., Novikov I.K., Kisagulov A.V.
NEW DATA OBTAINED ON THE ARCHAEOZOOLOGY OF THE ALAKUL POPULATION FROM THE MIDDLE TOBOL AREA DRAWING ON THE EXCAVATION MATERIALS FROM THE ZOLOTOYE 1 SETTLEMENT
The article presents the results of a taxonomic study of the archaeozoological collection from the Zolotoye 1 settlement. The settlement is located in the steppe zone of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve (the Polovinsky District of the Kurgan Region). A significant part of artefacts, including bone remains, belong to the Alakul culture of the Late Bronze Age (17th–16th centuries BC). A small collection (a total of 6 fragmented vessels) attributed to the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture was also identified. The relevance of this work is determined by the fact that data on the species composition of Alakul archaeozoological collections are predominantly obtained from necropolises, whereas economic characteristics are primarily reflected by materials from the settlements. The study in question was conducted using the paleozoological method. The taxonomic affiliation of bones was determined using the reference collection of skeletons from the Zoological Museum of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS along with corresponding atlases. The conclusion about the taxonomic affiliation of fossil remains was based on the similarities in composition and size between the morphological structures of bones. The age of the individuals was determined by the degree of tooth abrasion and by the attachment of the pineal gland. The studied osteological collection includes 2783 items. In order to define the features of its occurrence considering species composition, a planigraphic analysis was performed. To this end, we used data collected from a digital total station and field inventories. As a result, it was found that the bone remains belong mainly to domestic animals (99.5 %). Cattle bones (47 %) predominate, followed by the bones of small cattle (34 %) and horses (18 %). Jud-ging by age characteristics, cattle were kept for the production of milk and meat. The remains of wild animals are scarce (0.5 %). They include commercial species (elk, hare, waterfowl), which indicates that the Alakul population was engaged in hunting. The comparison of domestic and wild animals, the composition of the herd from the Zolotoye 1 settlement located in the interfluve area with the archaeozoological collections of the Late Bronze Age from the forest-steppe Trans-Urals revealed their similarity, first of all, with Alakul materials originating from the layer of settlements confined to river systems. This fact reflects the general line of development in livestock breeding of the period under consideration, which suggests that the carriers of the Alakul culture developed stable forms of adaptation to different living conditions.
Key words: Alakul culture, zooarcheology, herd composition, paleo-economics, animal husbandry, farming, Trans-Ural.
Zimina O.Yu. , Chikunova I.Yu.
GRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF A KASHIN DWELLING DATING BACK TO THE EARLY IRON AGE
The article presents the results of archaeological studies carried out at the Yakushkino 3 settlement attributed to the Kashino culture of the Early Iron Age (subtaiga Tobol area, Western Siberia). The settlement was preliminary dated at the 4th–3rd centuries BC. In this work, the authors set out to study the house-building tradition of the Kashino culture using the Yakushkino 3 settlement as an example, create its graphic visualisation; identify certain characteristics of the structure defining the nature of the settlement — seasonal use or place of permanent residence, which indicate the adaptation strategies of the population. In 2016–2017, two structures connected by a passage were studied at the settlement. The former is interpreted as a residential structure, whereas the latter is thought to have been used for utility purposes. The multi-chamber residential structure (ca 48 m2) was chosen for the reconstruction. To this end, the authors employed the method of theoretical reconstructions. Drawing on the planigraphy and stratigraphy of the excavation site, the main elements (foundation pit boundaries, pits, ditches, etc.) of the structure were identified. The authors defined the layout of the structure on the basis of the characteristic arrangement of structural elements; identified techniques used in the construction of walls and roofs; determined the possible use of certain building materials; as well as suggested interior variants. Finally, a graphic image of the structure was created. As a result of the study, the following assumptions were made. The structure consisted of 4 near-square rooms: the main central chamber (1) — 25 m2; chamber 2 — 12.5 m2; chamber 3 — 6.75 m2; chamber 4 — 3.5 m2. The second chamber was divided into two unequal parts, with ceramics being concentrated in its larger part, which could serve as a kitchen or a dining area. Chambers 3 and 4 could be used as bedrooms or as utility rooms. There was no hearth in the structure. The structure had a frame, with vertical posts providing support for the roof beams and being part of the frame-wall construction. The walls could be constructed of wicker boards or erected by leaning poles against the upper beam of the frame. The roof could be gable, covered with reeds and poles. Against the background of uniform buildings of the Early Iron Age, Kashino dwellings are cha-racterised by one common structural detail that was traced in the layout of the dwelling from the Yakushkino 3 settlement — additional chambers (utility or sleeping rooms) attached to the main room without an additional corridor. This fact distinguishes these buildings from the dwellings of the Sargatka or Gorokhovo cultures of the Early Iron Age (Western Siberia). The absence of a hearth and the lightness of the construction suggests that the dwel-ling from the Yakushkino 3 settlement was used in the spring-autumn period.
Key words: Western Siberia, Trans-Urals, Early Iron Age, Kashinî culture, settlement, Yakushkino 3, house-building.
Matveev A.V., Anoshko O.M.
EXCAVATION SITE IN OKTYABRSKAYA STREET (TOBOLSK)
The article gives a historical interpretation of a stakewall with an underground passageway found in the central part of the upper posad drawing on the materials from the excavation site in Oktyabrskaya Street (204 m2). The thick log wall consisted of vertical posts erected at the bottom of a specially dug ditch. The underground passageway constituted a manway, starting on one side of the stakewall and ending on the other. Its ceiling and walls were covered with planks supported by low half-logs, thick planks and small logs. The plank ceiling of the underground tunnel was just below the base of the log wall, with the horizontal adit being so small that one could only crawl through it. In order to determine the absolute age of the stakewall, we carried out the dendrochronological and radiocarbon studies of its logs. For the purpose of identifying this object with one of those mentioned in written sources, we reconstructed the history of fortification construction and localisation by performing a detailed analysis of historical data and all known plans of the city. As a result, it was established that the wall found during the excavation in terms of its location and orientation better correlates with the building shown on S.U. Remezov’s plans, which was located in the central part of Trinity Cape and surrounded by a rectangular stakewall, rather than with the posad fortifications. On the plans of 1687 and 1688 from the Chorographic Drawing Book, the object in question was captioned as ‘prison’ and ‘prison yard’. This assumption allows us to date the log wall discovered in Oktyabrskaya Street at 1687, or, quite possibly, at an earlier time. This prison yard fence could be used after 1714 and, judging by the stratigraphic and planigraphic observations made at the excavation site in Oktyabrskaya Street, until the period of stone construction in the upper posad.
Key words: Tobolsk, the upper posad, the 17th–18th centuries, wooden stockade, underground passage, prison yard.
Kostomarov V.M., Tretyakov E.A.
SETTLEMENT STRUCTURE OF EARLY MEDIEVAL GROUPS IN THE TRANS-URALS
The article considers the settlement of Early Medieval population in the Trans-Urals (4th–9th centuries AD). The study is based on the data about the location of monuments attributed to the Bakal culture, which are recorded on the territory of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve and its water system in the area of the modern forest-steppe belt. The relevance of the study is determined by the following points: presentation of new data on the monuments of the Bakal culture; analysis of the settlement system and landscape use in the specified period; identification of economic areas characteristic of the early medieval population. In this study, the authors used the methods and approaches of landscape and settlement archaeology. In addition to the spatial and morphological characteristics, the source database includes data on the Earth's digital model drawing on SRTM30 data. The analysed materials (81 monuments — 36 hillforts, 40 villages, 5 burial grounds) were collected in one geoinformation system; the authors proposed an improved classification of fortified villages, which provides the opportunity to characterise the economic structure of the Bakal groups in a new way. The hillforts comprise 27 terrace settlements located on the high bedrock coasts of rivers, as well as 9 floodplain fortified settlements situated on isolated hills. When identifying economic zones on the basis of constructed Thiessen (Voronoi) polygons, it was found that there was one or, less often, two fortified villages (hillforts) in the centre of one zone. Settlements were located not far from the centre (most often in a floodplain). The analysis of direct visibility from the settlements showed that direct visual watch was kept over the villages in the floodplain, with the visibility zones covering large floodplain sectors, thereby providing fairly tight control of the territory. It was established that the burial grounds were located in the immediate vicinity of fortified villages. The analysis revealed a correlation between the location of the village and the economy of the Bakal population, where cattle, prevailing in quantity, played an important role. This is due to the presence of large fortified settlements located in floodplains, whose population kept livestock. The authors established a system of the settlement and space-related occupation of the Medieval population in the Trans-Urals, with hillforts being the main centres used to control the territory simultaneously performing the functions of political, trade and economic centres.
Key words: Trans-Urals, Åarly Middle Ages, Bakal culture, landscape archeology, resettlement, range, GIS.
DWELLINGS AND HOUSEHOLDS OF THE LATE NEOLITHIC SOSNOVY OSTROV CULTURE IN THE TRANS-URALS: A MODEL OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
In this work, the author set out to test the procedure for studying the size of dwellings from the perspective of the household using the Sosnovy Ostrov culture of the Late Neolithic as an example. This implies considering the house collective as being maximally adapted to local environmental conditions and as being optimal in size for the implementation of a specific type of economic activity associated with the household. The study covers the southern taiga zone of the Tobol basin area (the border region between the Urals and Western Siberia) in the first half of 5th millennium Cal ÂÑ. In the course of the systematic source analysis, the author employed the methods commonly used in natural science, geography and the humanities: topographic, hypsometric, planigraphic, comparative ethnographic, etc. It was found that the dwellings of the Sosnovy Ostrov culture were large in sizes (60–125 m2) as compared to the dwellings of other Neolithic cultures in the Trans-Urals. In addition, a pattern in the location of villages relative to the water network was shown. They are situated close to lake isthmuses and wellhead capes (located downstream of a tributary mouth). The analysis of settlements revealed in-depth long-term dwellings, as well as light structures and utility pits located inside and outside of dwellings. This fact, along with the material distribution, suggests the sedentary lifestyle of the population. A settled way of life in the context of appropriating economy is possible only if the population possess a highly productive skill. The modelling of the situation, drawing on the ethnographic data available for these territories, indicates that the population was engaged in weir fishing. This conclusion is consistent with paleoclimatic reconstructions and the topography of the settlements. In addition, it is indirectly confirmed by a large number of woodworking tools in the stone inventory. The construction and maintenance of a weir require the coordinated work of a large team, which correlates with the size of the Sosnovy Ostrov dwellings. The presence of a common hearth in the dwellings suggests that the Sosnovy Ostrov households were built on the principles of undivided authority and existed in the form of large (extended) families. The study results indicate a high informative potential of a dwelling when considered from the perspective of a household adapted to the specific conditions.
Key words: the Neolithic, Trans-Urals, Sosnovy Ostrov culture, dwelling, household, productive fishing, sedentary life.
Pererva E.V., Djachenko A.N.
BIOARCHAEOLOGY OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE ON THE BASIS OF MATERIALS FROM THE BURIAL GROUNDS OF THE VOLGOGRAD REGION
The paper studies the burials and anthropological materials of children (Early Bronze Age; Yamna culture), originating from the burial complexes of the Lower Volga using the method of paleopathological examination of skeletal remains and through the interpretation of the archaeological material. The skeletal remains of seven individuals whose age did not exceed 15–16 years were examined. The bone material exhibited varying degrees of preservation. In 6 skeletal remains, only fragments of the cranium were examined, whereas in 5 individuals it was possible to examine the postcranial remains along with the skull bones. In this study, we applied a procedure for studying pathological abnormalities in the human skeleton developed by A.P. Buzhilova . Different me-thodological recommendations were used when recording bone porosis [Ortner, Ericksen, 1997; Ortner, Putschar, 1981; Lukacs, et al., 2001; Brown, Ortner, 2011; Maclellan, 2011]. The analysis of anthropological series helped to assess the incidence of porotic hyperostosis of eye sockets (cribra orbitalia) and cranial roof bones; to detect the signs of inflammatory processes in the bones of the postcranial skeleton in the form of periostitis, inflammation on the inner surface of the bones of the cranial vault, as well as the pathological conditions of the dental system [Hegen, 1971; Stuart-Macadam, 1992; Waldron et al., 2009; Walker et al., 2009; Suby, 2014; Zuckerman et al., 2014]. The analysis of archaeological materials from children's burials of the Early Bronze Age revealed that almost all burials of children and adolescents are inlet, i.e. they do not have their individual barrows. The collection of items is extremely small and is primarily represented by ceramics of very poor quality. A low proportion of children's burials attributed to the Yamna culture is observed in the Lower Volga burial grounds. As a rule, children are buried together with adults, so separate burials are very rare. Two of the seven studied individuals were 4 to 7 years old, while the remaining five individuals were buried at the age of 8–16. The reason for the small number of children's burials of the Yamna culture is associated with the low social status of the immature part of the population, which, in turn, may suggest some special, poorly fixed archaeologically, burial ritual for the bulk of children, given that subsequently the number of children's individual burials increased quite significantly on the same territory. Nevertheless, their design and accompanying items are not much different from those of adult burials. Young individuals of the Early Bronze Age are characterised by markers of episodic stress that occurred during various periods of childhood, predominantly from 2 to 4 years old. The stress can be associated with the transition from the dairy diet to the solid food diet. The widespread occurrence of tartar in immature individuals can indicate the specificity of their diet, which was based on soft and, possibly, fatty food. In addition, it may indicate a lack of oral hygiene, which is quite natural for the historical period. Vitamin deficiency recorded in the stu-died group results either from exposure to negative factors during the late transition from breastfeeding to solid food or from chronic hunger. Young people of the Early Bronze Age had non-specific inflammations, which, most likely, were not systematic, but occurred sporadically. We can presume that children and adolescents of the stu-died age lived peacefully and participated in the economic activities of the social groups. Being exposed to episodic stresses, immature individuals of the pit culture successfully adapted to environmental factors.
Key words: paleopathology, Yamna culture, children, Lower Volga river region, disease.
Poshekhonova O.E., Razhev D.I., Slepchenko S.M., Marchenko Z.V., Adaev V.N.
DIETARY STRATEGIES OF NORTHERN SELKUPS IN THE 18th–19th CENTURIES
The article considers the dietary habits of a small Selkup group that lived in the north of Western Siberia along the upper reaches of the Taz River in the18th–19th centuries. To this end, we carried out paleopathological and archaeoparasitological studies of the anthropological material from a burial ground located next to the once-existing settlement of Karakonskaya, as well as performed an isotopic analysis of organic samples. Another objective was to study archival documents containing information on the inhabitants of the Upper Taz area. The isotope analysis included 17 anthropological and zooarchaeological samples, represented by the bones, hair and nails of 10 people, bones of a herbivore (reindeer), an omnivore (squirrel) (2) and fish (3). Soil samples taken from the surface of the sacra of 22 people served as the material for the archaeoparasitological study. Paleopathological studies included the bone remains of 23 people. We examined the originals of 19th-century documents stored at the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In order to differentiate the sources of land- and river-based diet, we analysed the stable-isotope ratio of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in anthropological and zooarchaeological samples. The comparison of collagen and keratin isotopic values in one individual allowed seasonal variations in the diet to be established. For the purpose of identifying gender differences in the diet, an isotopic comparison between men and women was performed. In order to characterise the ways of food consumption and preparation, soil samples taken from burials were studied to detect eggs of intestinal parasites, as well as to establish their species. Other aspects of the group’s diet were studied by analysing the manifestations of porotic hyperostosis on the skull and dental diseases. When working on the archival materials, we employed cross-validation of information and analysed some documents covering large time intervals. It was established that the everyday diet the local Selkup group included bottom-dwelling and predatory fish, whereas the consumption of land mammals was minimal. Moreover, when preparing fish dishes for all members of the group, including children, fish was not heated or it was not heated enough. Seasonal fluctuations in the diet associated with hunting certain animals were recorded. The consumption of sugar and flour-based food by the Northern Selkups until the beginning of the 20th century was insignificant. Regular periods of hunger occurred given that the population had no tradition to make long-term food reserves. The consumption of certain food (dishes) resulted in the da-mage to the teeth and soft tissues of the mouth. For the men of this group, hunted food was somewhat more accessible than for women. The dietary system of the Northern Selkups had more in common with their closest neighbours — the Khanty of the Vakh River — rather than with the ethnically close Southern Selkups.
Key words: Western Siberia, Upper Taz Selkup, diet, isotope analysis, archeoparasitology, paleopathology, archival data.
Kishkurno M.S., Sleptsova A.V.
NEW DATA ON THE DENTAL CHARACTERISTICS EXHIBITED BY THE POPULATION OF THE KULAYKA CULTURE IN THE NOVOSIBIRSK OB AREA
The article covers the results of a study on the odontological series from the Kamenny Mys burial ground (3rd–2nd centuries BC). In this work, we set out to study the genesis of the Kulay population of the Early Iron Age in the Novosibirsk Ob area. The main relations of the population with the groups of adjacent territories, as well as the nature of their interaction with the local groups, were determined. The odontological series from the Kamenny Mys burial ground includes the teeth of 24 individuals: 12 males, 6 females and 10 adult individuals whose gender could not be determined. The anthropological materials were examined according to a standard procedure, which involves the description of the tooth crown morphology considering the archaic features of the dental morphology. Also, an intergroup comparative analysis was performed via the method of the principal component analysis using the program STATISTICA version 10.0. It was established that the dental characteristics exhibited by the Kulayka population reveal signs of mixed European-Mongoloid formation with a significant predominance of the Eastern component. We compared the morphological characteristics of the sample with data obtained for the populations of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The intergroup comparison revealed the closest connection between the Bolshaya Rechka culture and the Kulayka group. The studied material provides anthropological confirmation of the interaction between Kulayka (taiga) and Bolshaya Rechka traditions (steppe), drawing on the data about the burial rite and ceramic complexes. The comparison of the Kulayka series with Bronze Age samples suggests that the forest-steppe populations occupying the territories of the Novosibirsk and Tomsk Ob and the Ob-Irtysh areas had no effect on the genesis of the Kulayka population. We suppose that the origins of the Kulayka population in the Novosibirsk Ob area should be traced to the populations from the West Siberian taiga of the Bronze Age, which is significantly complicated by the lack of sufficiently complete and representative series dating back to the specified period from the territory of the Middle Ob area. Further accumulation of anthropological material from the Middle Ob area will provide the opportunity to trace the genesis of taiga populations of the Early Iron Age.
Key words: Novosibirsk Ob area, Early Iron Age, Kulayka culture, dental anthropology, archaic features.
Perevalova E.V., Danilova E.N.
CAULDRONS IN THE CULTURAL TRADITIONS OF THE OB UGRIANS AND SAMOYEDS: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACT AND ‘LIVING’ TRADITION
The first part of the article published in this journal considers the archaeological context along with the functional, morphological and social aspects associated with cauldrons in the cultural traditions of the Ob Ugrians and Samoyeds of North-Western Siberia. In this work, the authors analyse field ethnographic materials collected from the Khanty (Synya, Voykar, Sob, Kunovat, Polui, Ob, Salym, Yugan, Pim, Tromyogan, Agan, Vakh, Polar Urals), Mansi (Northern Sosva, Lyapin and Lozva Rivers) and Nenets (Yamal Peninsula, Pur and Agan Rivers) in 1980–2018. The study of cauldrons in a ‘living’ culture along with analysing them as an archaeological artefact has greatly expanded the chronological range of the research from the 1st–4th centuries AD to the present time. The archaeological and ethnographic research is based on a structural and semiotic approach. A cauldron, as an element of material and spiritual culture, associated with the methods for obtaining and preserving energy, is directly related to the experience of using natural resources and to the development of life sustenance models for the Northern communities. Numerous archaeological discoveries of intact cauldrons, as well as their fragments and items made from their fragments in North-Western Siberia, indicate the archaism and the continued use of cauldrons as vessels for storage and cooking; fashionable, prestigious, high-status items; a receptacle for the soul; a divine attribute and a talisman, etc. It is not surprising that the cauldron, whose direct purpose consists in storage and preparation of food, is incredibly versatile in Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic cultures. The cauldron appears in the surviving toponyms and legends of the Nenets, Khanty and Mansi. It acts as a measure of volume and time. Cauldrons possess features and properties of a living organism; they contain the energy of fire and stone-iron. The ability of cauldrons to change their condition and position (full/empty, boiling/not boiling, upside-down/right-side-up) is manifested in their diverse duality making them mediators in the following juxtapositions: peace —enmity, familiar — alien, kinship — property, birth — death, wealth — poverty, happiness — trouble. À cauldron is a symbol of family unity, the source of the power for birth-recovery, as well as an attribute of shamanic rites and a border between the worlds. The high mythical and ritual status of the cauldron is emphasised by its celestial origin.
Key words: North-Western Siberia, the Ob Ugrians, the Samoyeds, cauldron, energy, symbol, the spiritual and ritual practices.
Kabakova N.V., Korusenko S.N.
SIBERIAN PAPERWORK AND CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES OF THE TURN OF THE 17th–18th CENTURIES: THE PHENOMENON OF ‘RECOGNISING’ OF NEW TERRITORIES IN THE EMPIRE
The present article is aimed at estimating the informative value of the Patrol Book of the Tara District (1701) and the Chorographic Drawing Book of Siberia by Semen U. Remezov. Drawing on the comparative analysis of these documents, the authors consider their presentation of the south of Western Siberia through the settlement system of the Russian and Tatar. The study covers late 17th — early 18th centuries, which is associated with the datings of the studied sources. The Patrol Book was compiled by Ivan R. Kachanov, with the patrol having been ordered by Peter I. The Patrol Book contains statistical and descriptive material, includes information on settlements, their inhabitants, as well as various geographical features. Also by the order of Peter I, Semen Remezov created the Chorographic Drawing Book in 1697–1711. It included known data on Siberia and adjacent territories. This source is organised in accordance with the river routes. The Tara District of the Tobolsk Governorate is depicted on pages 84–93 and 107. The maps contain information similar to that found in the Patrol Book, which provides the opportunity to perform a comparative analysis of these two documents. A total of 48 Russian and 51 Tatar settlements are described in the Patrol Book. The Chorographic Book depicts 65 Russian settlements, three small forts (ostrogs), 79 yurts, 5 towns and 8 Tatarian volosts. The difference in numbers was due to the fact that Ivan Kachanov was to note places of residence, places of tax collection, as well as places to which the authorities allocated pay for service-men. During this period, the population of the Tara District developed new lands and founded new temporary settlements, some of which years later turned into permanent ones. Semen Remezov recorded these settlements, so their number on the map is greater than in Patrol Book. The comparison of the studied documents revealed the inconsistency in the names of many settlements. A comparative analysis and comparison of the content of the sources helped determine settlements having similar names and identify identical settlements having different names. The reason for the unestablished names is that some settlements were named after the surnames of first inhabitants; others were named after geographical objects or other inhabitants. For Siberia, both sources, on the one hand, were a sensory, somewhat illusory phenomenon, and on the other, they constituted an experimental perception of the newly included territories.
Key words: Siberia, Patrol Book of the Tara District 1701, Chorographic Drawing Book of Siberia S.U. Remezov, visualization and description of new territories.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF ZONALITY: NATURE AND CULTURE IN THE SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY
The article is theoretical in nature and does not cover any particular region; however, the phenomenon of zonality is of particular relevance to the northern part of Siberia. The article draws a fundamental analogy between the classical theoretical zonal model of Thünen and zoning models of various regions of the world (Southeast Asia, Africa and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Ugra in Russia). Zonality is usually perceived as a natural phenomenon — regularly and naturally alternating natural zones (tundras, taigas, steppes, etc.). Under the influence of changing natural conditions, human activity also changes to one degree or another. However, there are many cultural and human factors under whose influence a similar picture of regularly and naturally differentiated zones emerges. For example, it could be the centre and periphery, previously and newly developed zones, etc. These zones are differentiated not only from an economic point of view but also as complex phenomena including holistic, imperious, behavioural and other aspects. The article is aimed at expanding the standard use of the concept ‘zonality’, reconsider zoning as not only and not so much a natural phenomenon as a broad theoretical approach effective for comparative studies in anthropology, economic and social geography, history, economics, as well as other disciplines. The technique used in this study consists in the identification of similar features when modelling the geographical differentiation of processes of different nature. As a result, the author proposes a general conceptualisation framework for the concept ‘zonality’ as a universal phenomenon of spatially differentiated conditions for activities and the understanding of these conditions by people. The phenomenon of zonality can be observed when the geographical differentiation of any studied process is determined by a regular difference in a certain basic condition from place to place, which has a definitive effect on the development of the studied process. In the case of natural zonality, this is the distribution of solar radiation; in the case of economic zoning, cost of transportation often serves as the differentiating factor; in the case of areas of new development, the differentiating factor is the age of development.
Key words: zoning, geographical zone, center-periphery, development, frontier, new economic geo-graphy.
Ganopolsky M.G., Markova L.M.
SETTLEMENT STRUCTURE OF THE TYUMEN REGION IN THE AREA OF THE MAIN OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: SPATIAL LAYOUT AND SOCIOCULTURAL DYNAMICS
The article analyses the settlement of the Tyumen Region from the perspective of the interaction between the traditional settlement scheme that has developed over the last four centuries, and a group of settlements, where oil pumping and/or gas compressor stations of main oil and gas pipelines are located and maintained. The genesis of this interaction revealed two main directions: eastern and northern. In the first case, the junction points of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which served as administrative outposts, initiated the process of forming agricultural, commercial and then industrial zones (and, accordingly, new settlements); the north direction reflects the main stages of Russia's advancement to the North, including the massive industrial development of a unique West-Siberian oil-and-gas province. The homogeneity of the considered settlements in terms the production, territorial and social aspects allows us to interpret them as a territorial and production cluster. The organising role of the pipeline transport network in the further development of this cluster is shown. Firstly, it contributed to the emergence of new settlements, and secondly, former small settlements turned into the nodal points of the transformed settlement scheme. The result of the cluster formation is correlated with the dynamics of the urbanisation process and is presented in the form of a framework for the development and settlement of the Tyumen Region and its scheme. The consideration of the subject matter is multidisciplinary in nature due to its complex and multi-aspect character. In this study, elements of various methods and approaches were employed: historical-geographical and economic-geographical when studying the genesis of the settlement structure; ethno-demographic when considering the processes of natural and forced migration; socio-cultural and economic-organisational when trying to create a sociocultural scheme of a territorial community.
Key words. Tyumen Region, West Siberian oil and gas province, new industrial development, resettlement support frame, nodal and linear support frame elements, trunk pipeline, oil pumping stations, gas compressor stations, territorial production cluster, colonization vectors.
Liskevich N.A., Kopyltsova I.Yu., Porshunova L.S.
WEATHER FORECASTING IN THE PRACTICE OF REINDEER HERDERS FROM THE SUBPOLAR URALS
The present article considers a complex of various signs used for predicting significant weather phenomena in the practice of reindeer herders from the Subpolar Urals. The authors obtained empirical data in the course of ethnographic expeditions (2007, 2012 and 2018) by conducting semi-structured interviews with hereditary reindeer herders, managers and specialists from the reindeer herding company of Saranpaul village (Beryozovsky District, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra). Systematisation along with the thematic classification of the field data revealed that the practical knowledge and skills of reindeer herders include prompt and long-term weather observation, experience in predicting and evaluating changes in hydrometeorological conditions, the ability to determine their impact on the food supply, as well as on the behaviour and health of deer. A complex of various signs helps to predict short-term weather changes or seasonal prospects: incoming of spring / summer / winter, rainy weather and summer temperature, snow depth in winter, bad weather, rain, snow, snowstorm, wind, cold, frost, heat and other meteorological changes. For making a short-term forecast, the following points are taken into account: wind direction in the mountains; presence and location of fog in the mountains; colour of sunset; twinkling of stars; halo around the moon; beauty of Northern Lights; quality of carried sounds (voiced and voiceless); fire draught and smoke movement; cloud form; bird cries; and animal behaviour (deer, dogs, insects). For the most part, these signs are rationally explained by changes in atmospheric pressure and humidity. As a result of long-term weather observations, reindeer herders have noted certain climate mitigation, as well as an increase in the number of anomalous weather phenomena, which are uncharacteristic of their seasons.
Key words: Subpolar Urals, Komi, Mansi, Nenets, reindeer herding, signs of weather.
Kliueva V.P., Mel’nikova N.V.
TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS FOR THE SOVIET ATOMIC INDUSTRY IN THE MEMOIRS OF CONTEMPORARIES
The article considers the training of specialists, who worked in the Soviet atomic industry, covering the period from 1945 to the 1960s — from the initiation of the Soviet Atomic Project until the establishment of atomic energy as one of the leading branches of the Soviet industry. The present study is based on published memoirs of students majoring in atomic physics and biographical narrative interviews of atomic scientists who studied at the Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in the 1940s–1960s, conducted by one of the authors of the article. The training of atomic scientists consisted in the development of theoretical knowledge, as well as engineering and practical skills. The training was provided at various universities of the country, among which a prominent place was occupied by the Moscow State University, the Saint Petersburg State University, the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute and the Ural State Technical University along with the specialised faculties of other Soviet universities. The public mood (onset of the Cold War, romanticised image of an atomic scientist) and personal aptitudes of applicants (engineering and technical aptitudes) influenced the career choice. When selecting future atomic specialists, a number of «filters» were used, narrowing down the number of prospective candidates. Ideology, latent anti-Semitism and gender influenced student selection. The training of atomic scientists was conducted in secrecy, which was offset by various financial (high scholarship and, later, high salaries) and non-financial (being trained by outstanding scientists, professional fulfilment, patriotic feelings) incentives. The involvement of students during training in scientific and industrial activities resulted in an effective corps of atomic specialists. Following graduation, they worked in restricted-access cities (Arzamas-16, Chelyabinsk-70, etc.), as well as at research institutes exploring atomic issues.
Key words: Soviet Atomic Project, studentship, Soviet physicists, education, post-war USSR.
ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SETTLEMENT OF THE KOMI IN THE YALUTOROVSK DISTRICT OF TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LOCAL POPULATION
The article discusses the issues associated with the settlement of emigrants from Vologda in a new place in the 19th century drawing on the analysis of archival sources, primarily paperwork materials. An extensive group of sources allowed us to trace and analyse the activities of government bodies, as well as identify the causes of emigration and main problems associated with the settlement in a new place. The analysis of archival materials was supplemented by field studies conducted by the Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS in 2005–2008 in the south of the Tyumen Region, where the descendants of the Komi settlers live (Zavodoukovsk, Yurga, Yalutorovsk and Yarkovo Districts). The settlement of Komi family groups from the Vologda Governorate is dated at the first third of the 19th century and is primarily related to the economic situation of the peasants (shortage of land, poor harvest, growing tax arrears). Most of the immigrants from Vologda settled in the Yalutorovsk District of the Tobolsk Governorate, having established compact settlements in Zavodoukovsk, Ivanovo and Pletnevo volosts. Due to a long period of land management works, the first settlers could not get a job for a long time. With the permission given by the Tobolsk State Chamber in 1841, the Komi-Zyryans settled in the lands of the non-indigenous Tatars (Aslaninskaya Volost), who traditionally used these lands in accordance with the cadastres, annually paying yasak (tribute) to the treasury. The culture, everyday life and the lifestyle of the indigenous population and immigrants differed significantly. Land management works caused great discontent among the indigenous population, which led to numerous land disputes. Difficulties and hardships of immigrants were reflected in the archival documents on the allocation of land and forest allotments, their use, as well as appeals to official authorities (complaints, petitions and legal disputes). When resolving the land dispute, local authorities tried to find a compromise and resolve the conflict through the allotment of vacant state lands. However, the Tatars demanded the return of the land given to the Komi settlers. As a result, the land was allocated to the settlers. As the proper conditions for the settlement were not created, in the following years they had to develop new lands, as well as to establish relations with the surrounding population. Later immigrants were settled on the excess land taken from long-term residents, who did not give it to the settlers and oppressed them. A lot of immigrants due to their plight made a decision to move to other governorates.
Key words: Komi (Zyryans), resettlement, migrant, foreigners, Tartar, Yalutorovsk District of Tobolsk Governorate.
Skochina S.N., Tkachev A.A.
Eneolithic bone tools from the Oskino Boloto settlement
The present article studies the Eneolithic complex of bone tools from the Oskino Boloto settlement. This settlement is located on the territory of the subtaiga Tobol area (Yalutorovsky District, Tyumen Region), on the left bank of the first floodplain terrace of the Iset River. The Eneolithic complex is dated to the time between the early (end of the 4th — beginning of the 3rd millennia B.C.) and late (first third — end of the 3rd millennium B.C.) stages in the development of the Bayryk-Lybayevo culture. Given the absence of tools made of bone and horn in many settlements, which could provide additional information on the production activities of the carriers of Eneolithic cultural traditions from the subtaiga Tobol area, this study is aimed at introducing a complex of bone tools from the above-mentioned settlement into scientific circulation. The planigraphic and stratigraphic analyses of the settlement’s occupation layer indicate that the distribution of bone tools is restricted to the structure 56 and two adjacent ditches containing ceramics of the Eneolithic Era. Using typological and trace analyses, the authors determined the methods used for the production of these tools, their assortment and functional purpose. The trace analysis of bone tools from the Oskino Boloto settlement revealed that the predominant use of tools for hunting and fishing, as well as the presence of tools for processing of hides and wood, pottery making and braiding. The typological forms of bone tools from the Oskino Boloto settlement reflect almost the entire range of economic and production activities. A dagger and heads of throwing weapons constitute the most significant items of this complex. Their forms are consistent and fit into the range of similar items, characteristic of both the preceding Neolithic Era and the Eneolithic Era.
Key words: forest-steppe Tobol basin, Eneolithic, Bayryk-Lybayevo culture, ceramics, bone tools, use-wear analysis.
Korochkova O.N., Fedorova N.V.
Ural and West Siberian hoards (Bronze Age — Early Iron Age): composition, context and interpretation
The present article analyses the hoards of the Bronze Age – Early Iron Age discovered in the forest-steppe and mountain-forest of the Trans-Urals, as well as the Middle and Lower Ob areas. Only three hoards dating back to the Bronze Age have been discovered: Andreevo, Prygovsky and Gladunino. By the Ural-Siberian standards, these are considerable collections consisting of metal-intensive symbolic objects (celts, knives, sickles). The hoards are grouped in the forest-steppe area, where the population of the Petrovo and Alakul cultures of the Andronovo community lived at that time (first half of the 2nd millennium BC). Conversely, hoards dating back to the Early Iron Age are localised in the taiga zone. Being characterised by a distinctive composition and definite chronological contexts, these hoards reflect profound changes in the lifestyle of Siberian aborigines caused by the widespread introduction of metal, the development of reindeer herding, new communication corridors and fur trade. The first group is represented by hoards that comprise symbolic metal items dating back to the second half of the 1st millennium BC (Azov Mountain, Karaulnaya Mountain, Lozvinsky, etc.). Sometimes they are accompanied by arms (arrowheads and chopping weapons). This group of hoards is unanimously considered to be votive in character. The hoards of the second group (from the 1st century BC to the 2nd–3rd centuries AD) are confined to the lower reaches of the Ob and Irtysh, as well as the Surgut Ob area (Istyatsk, Kazym and Gornoknyazevsk). They are characterised by the presence of bronze cauldrons or other packaging, items of long-distance import (Parthian or Bactrian silver medallions; helmets made in Central Asia; a large number of Sarmatian and even Chinese bronze mirrors, often with engraved local images). Hoards of that period, aimed at hiding presti-gious and valuable things, are seen as retrievable. Hoards belonging to the third group (3rd–8th centuries AD) can be referred to as weapon hoards (Parabel, Kholmogory, Ishim, etc.). They are localised mainly in the lower tributaries of the Ob in its middle course. They predominantly consisted of various weapons: arrowheads, spears, axes, sabres, broadswords, combat knives. In addition, bronze mirrors and plates having concentric ornaments, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic images were found in all complexes. Weapon hoards, interpreted as sacred arsenals, reflect the dominant priorities of that time (formation of the military elite; a special status of military practices) and growing military tensions caused by the struggle for control over the foraging territories and trade routes.
Key words: Ural, Western Siberia, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, votive hoards, armory hoards, trade hoards.
Ilyushina V.V., Zach V.A., Enshin D.N., Tigeeva E.V., Kisagulov A.V.
The complex of the Maray 4 fortified settlement in the forest-steppe of Ishim area (beginning of the Early Iron Age)
The article introduces new materials from the Maray 4 fortified settlement (beginning of the Early Iron Age) into scientific circulation. This settlement, located in the forest-steppe of the Ishim area (south-west of Western Siberia), had a ring defence system including a shallow ditch and a rampart. The planigraphic and stratigraphic analyses of a 327 m2 excavation area revealed the remnants of three structures: two above-ground structures and one structure slightly dug into in the mainland. The remnants of the burnt above-ground dwelling provided the basis for reconstructing its appearance, which is in good agreement with the ethnographic analogues of such structures. The collection includes approximately 172 vessels; clay, stone and bronze tools; as well as osteological material (208 specimens of animal bones). These materials were analysed using comparative-typological and statistical methods. Six radiocarbon dates of charcoal found in the occupation layer in residential and defensive structures helped establish the chronology of the complex — 7th–5th centuries BC. The reconstructed dwelling had a post-frame construction with vertically installed posts connected by beams at the top. The space between the beams was filled with half-logs, poles or planks. The roof and walls were additionally insulated with a layer of bark (including birch bark), grass and soil, which was obtained from pits surrounding the structure. The total area of the house was approximately 30 m2, which was enough to accommodate up to eight people (at a rate of 4 m2 per person). The study of the defensive works revealed a discontinuous shallow ditch from which the soil for the structure located on a small rampart must have been taken. In form and ornamentation, the ceramic collection comprising four main morphological groups of vessels bears resemblance to the Zhuravlevo traditions and ceramics similar to that of the Baitovo culture of the Early Iron Age. Judging by the age and species composition of the paleozoological materials, cattle breeding dominated the economic activity of the inhabitants, with hunting playing a minor role. In terms of household productions, the population engaged in spinning, processing of hides and wood, ware making, as well as bronze casting. The authors expressed two points of view on the cultural affiliation of the materials from the fortified settlement in question. According to one of them, the obtained material indicates the interaction of the local late-Zhuravlevo group and the newly-arrived groups of Baitovo culture from the Tobol area. According to the other, the complex of the Maray 4 settlement is considered to have carried on Zhuravlevo traditions, which resulted in the Early Iron Age complexes (different from the Baitovo complexes of the Tobol area) forming in the forest-steppe of the Ishim area.
Key words: forest steppe Ishim basin, the settlement Maray 4, the Early Iron Age, ceramics, production activity, economy, radiocarbon dating.
Production activity of the Maray 4 fortified settlement of the Early Iron Age in the Lower Ishim area: use-wear analysis
The present paper is aimed at studying a tool collection from the Maray 4 fortified settlement dating back to the beginning of the Early Iron Age. The settlement is located in the Lower Ishim area (Kazansky District , Tyumen Region). Its materials, which culturally belong to Zhuravlevo antiquities, date back to the 7th–5th cen-turies BC. The relevance of this work is determined by the lack of data, as well as little knowledge of the production activities of different archaeological cultures having lived on the territory in question at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. In this study, the author employs use-wear analysis, which involves examining the surface of tools and identifying their functions. For their verification, the author employed the results of experimental works on the use of tools from ware fragments in the processing of hides and wood, abrasive treatment of bronze and making pottery vessels. When studying the stone items, their technological characteristics were considered. In order to identify production sites, a functional and planigraphic analysis was used. A traceological analysis and micrographs of use-wear traces were produced using a MS-2 ZOOM microscope with a magnification range of 10–40× and a Canon EOS-1100 camera. The use-wear analysis of the tool collection from the Maray 4 settlement allowed the data on the integrated livestock paleo-economy of the Zhuravlevo population to be supplemented. Judging by the number of tools ceramic hide scrapers stands out. They could be applied in the processing of hides and skins or ceramic ware making. These tools are established to be related to the boundaries of structure 1, whereas stone items were concentrated near structure 2. Data on to which extent Zhuravlevo population from the ancient settlement of Maray 4 was engaged in bronze casting are scarce. The development of spinning and weaving is another significant feature of the economic and production activities of the population (final stage of the Bronze Age to Iron Age transition — beginning of the Early Iron Age), which is confirmed by the tool complex from the Maray 4 settlement. The rest of the industry is represented by occasional tools. The collection of tools from the Maray 4 settlement is more typical of the beginning of the Early Iron Age in the Tobol-Ishim and Ob-Irtysh areas, which is evidenced by the late Itkul, Baitovo and Bogochanovo materials, as well as the results of radiocarbon dating for the materials from the Maray 4 settlement. In addition, this collection of tools indicates that the population of the period under study, which occupied a vast territory, had a developed integrated economy.
Key words: Lower Ishim river areas, the beginning stage of the Iron Age, the Maray 4 site, instrument of labour, the use-wear analysis, functional-planigraphics analysis.
Dwellings of the Gorokhovo culture in the Trans-Urals
This article generalizes data on the previously studied dwellings of the Gorokhovo culture of the Early Iron Age 7th and 2th centuries BC (Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Tyumen regions), as well as gives their description and characteristics. Following the analysis of the remnants and the features of wall construction, the author distinguishes three types of buildings: walls erected using a post-frame, «zaplot» (blind pole-and-board construction) and log stacking techniques. A number of buildings from fortified and unfortified settlements were graphically reconstructed. Post-frame dwellings constituted buildings of a rectangular shape with walls made of vertical poles connected by beams at the top. The space between the frame elements was insulated with vertical poles, half-logs, grass and soil. Dwellings with walls erected using a «zaplot» technique repeated the construction of post-frame houses; however, the space between the frame elements was insulated with horizontal logs fixed between the frame posts. The log houses had a rectangular shape; the walls and roof could have been supported by vertical posts. The roof of the houses did not depend on the wall construction and was represented by gables and hipped roofs. Three groups of buildings were identified: large elite buildings of a rectangular shape with their walls frequently being made using a «zaplot» technique; medium-sized buildings of a rectangular shape having extensions and utility rooms; as well as light-frame houses with uneven outlines. The presence of elite and ordinary buildings, stationary dwellings and temporary ones, which were probably used during cattle grazing, suggests a social stratification of the society. Due to the absence of radiocarbon dates for the majority of settlement complexes, a question was raised about the degree to which the Gorokhovo tradition of house-building affected the Sargat architecture. A hypothesis has been put forward that the influence of the Sargat population on the Gorokhovo traditions consisted in the appearance of «zaplot» dwellings with long corridors. Such structures were common for the Sargat population in both fortified and unfortified settlements during the existence of this cultural formation. Further study and age determination of the Gorokhovo complexes will allow this issue to be resolved.
Key words: Trans-Urals, Early Iron Age, Gorokhovo culture, dwellings.
19th-century archaeozoological materials from the excavations of Ekaterinburg
The present article analyses the bones of slaughtered animals obtained from a 19th-century residential area of Ekaterinburg in order to reconstruct the meat diet, livestock housing conditions, as well as a number of aspects associated with the daily life of citizens at that time. Most of the archaeozoological complex dates back to different periods of the 19th century. Part of the material characterises the diet of city residents at the end of the 18th century. The excavations conducted at peripheral estates and their farm buildings uncovered approximately 1.5 thousand bones of cattle and caprids, which constituted the kitchen waste generated by the citizens. When processing the osteological material, the author employed both standard archaeological methods, as well as a relatively new method for Russian archaeology — the analysis of livestock bone pathologies. The bones of cattle and caprids were measured using standard methods as well. Special attention was paid to the analysis of draught-related pathologies and the bone modification changes. The article contains links to additional materials including all the obtained data: primary data; bone measurements of cattle and caprids; images of pathologies and phenotypic plasticity of bones. The study ascertained the dominant role of beef in the meat diet of Ekaterinburg residents in the 19th century. The analysis of pathologies did not reveal unsatisfactory housing conditions and hard treatment of animals. According to the analysis, osteochondrotic bone changes predominate in the domestic ungulates. Age-related deformations of leg joints in cattle constitute another large group of recorded changes. Articular surface deformities and exostoses detected in the cattle bones provides no basis for the unambiguous reconstruction of animals being used for work. The biometric analysis of cattle bones suggests the presence of oxen among livestock slaughtered for meat.
Key words: Ekaterinburg, 19th century, archaeozoology, paleopathology, articular depressions, lipping, Laesio circumscripta tali.
Metal in the Eneolithic complexes of the Trans-Urals
In this study, we analysed the first metal items and metalworking evidence found on the vast territory of the mountain-forest Trans-Urals and the forest-steppe of the Tobol area. The analysis included about 50 metal artefacts from 35 archaeological sites of Ayat, Lipchinsky, Surtandy, Sosnovy Ostrov, Shapkul, Andreevo, and Kysykul cultures (4th–3rd millennia BC). Spectral and typological analyses, along with the context of the obtained material, provided the basis for reconstructing how the first metal could appear among local hunters and fishermen. The chemical composition of raw material, which is characterised by an increased content of arsenic and lead, and the typology of products, including leaf-shaped knives, for the most part, correlate with the metal of the pit culture. Attempts to reproduce the melting procedure, reconstructed from the shards having copper drops stuck to them, were noted only for the carriers of the Lipchinsky and Surtandy cultures (Shuvakish 1, Argazi 7, Malyi Lipovy 10, Surtandy 6 and 8, etc.). In this case, closer ties of the Lipchinsky and Surtandy populations with the carriers of pit traditions might have played a certain role. The absence of casting moulds and metalworking waste suggests that Ural hunters and fishermen obtained finished items from the manufacturing centres of the steppe zone. Rare ancient experiments in melting metal can be considered as attempts to copy an unfamiliar technology. First copper products could not replace stone tools. In addition, metalworking technologies did not become widespread there and were not further developed. Fundamental changes would occur only at the turn of the 3rd–2nd millennia BC, when the population of the taiga zone was drawn into the network of the West Asian (Eurasian) metallurgical province.
Key words: Mountain-forest and forest-steppe Trans-Ural, eneolith, copper, metalworking.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Avetisyan P.S., Melikyan V.V., Arutyunyan T.E., Yengibaryan A.A., Hovhannisyan À.À.
Possible reasons for the incomplete closure of cranial sutures in individuals from Armenian monuments (Mastara and Vardbakh) of the 1st century BC — 3rd century AD
The article studies remains from the ancient monuments of Mastara and Vardbakh, located on the territory of the Aragatsotn and Shirak provinces of Armenia. In this work, the authors analyse possible reasons for the incomplete fusion of cranial sutures in two female individuals. The relevance of the work consists in it being carried out within the framework of integrative anthropology, incorporating two of its subdisciplines: physical anthropology and paleopathology. The authors studied the physical appearance of individuals from the point of view of paleoanthropology and determined the main indicators characterising their physical development. Paleopathology, in turn, revealed traces of diseases found in the individuals. Bone remains from the above-mentioned burials were stu-died using X-ray diagnostic methods. In both examined cases, the skull and pelvis, as well as the near-epiphyseal part of the femur, tibia and other bones exhibit numerous, mainly lytic, lesions. A pressure increase is observed in both skulls. Both individuals exhibit unintended cradle deformation, occipital superstructures, periostitis, dege-nerative-dystrophic lesions of the osteoarticular apparatus, exostoses and periapical abscess. The intravital status of general health in the individuals can be characterised as dysfunctional. The changes in the individual from the Mastara (30–39 years old) in its shape and size are typical of early myeloma. In addition, Harris lines on the tibiae were identified in this individual. Lytic defects in the individual from the Vardbakh burial ground (40–49 years old) indicate metastatic carcinoma. The discovered remains suggest that the incomplete closure of the cranial sutures in the studied individuals could be caused by a malignant brain tumour.
Key words: Armenia, 1st century BC — 3rd century AD, incomplete closure of cranial sutures, myeloma, metastatic carcinoma, mastoiditis.
Solodovnikov K.N., Bagashev A.N., Tur S.S., Gromov A.V., Nechvaloda A.I., Kravchenko G.G.
Neolithic-Eneolithic paleoanthropological sources from the Middle Irtysh area
The present article studies the craniofacial morphology of human skulls uncovered from Neolithic-Eneolithic burials (5–4 millennia BC) in the Middle Irtysh basin. The obtained skulls belong to four archaeological sites: Omsk site and Ust-Kurenga in the forest/forest-steppe zone of Russia, as well as Shiderty-3 and Zhelezinka in the steppe zone of North-East Kazakhstan. In order to study these materials, we performed craniometric analysis and an intergroup comparison drawing on the calculation of the Mahalanobis-Rao’s generalised distances (D2) along with using the craniological materials of the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Eneolithic periods from Central Eurasia. In addition, the intravital appearance of an individual from Zhelezinka was restored on the basis of the skull employing the method of M. Gerasimov. In general, the anthropological type of the Neolithic-Eneolithic population from the Middle Irtysh area exhibits intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid craniological characteristics. Of the synchronous groups, male individuals from the Middle Irtysh area share the greatest similarity with the population of the Altai foothill-plain zone. An earlier study revealed that, in terms of morphological characteristics, the only female skull from the Omsk site is most similar to Mesolithic-Neolithic craniological materials uncovered from the Shigir Peat Site (Urals). The Neolithic-Eneolithic population from the Middle Irtysh area is characterised by heterogeneous anthropological composition, which is predetermined by its belonging to different landscape zones. The structure of skulls obtained from the forest/forest-steppe zone of the Middle Irtysh area generally corresponds to that of populations associated with the Northern Eurasian Anthropological Formation, with the possibility of exhibiting considerable individual variability. The greatest morphological analogies can be drawn with the Neolithic-Eneolithic human skulls from the Baraba forest-steppe, as well as other forest-steppe regions of Western Siberia. In terms of craniofacial characteristics, paleoanthropological finds from the steppe strip of the Middle Irtysh area belong to the Southern Eurasian Anthropological Formation of the ancient Central Eurasian population. This allows us to demarcate anthropological communities (not differentiated from the perspective of traditional racial systematics), which share intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid features in the structure of the facial skull, with differences being detected mainly in the size and proportions of the cavitas cranium. In the forest-steppe of the Ob-Irtysh interfluve, the interaction between populations exhibiting craniological characteristics of Northern Eurasian and Southern Eurasian anthropological formations is noted. The anthropological type of Neolithic-Eneolithic population from the Middle Irtysh area did not affect the morphological appearance of the population belonging to the subsequent period — time of the Yamnaya and Afanasyevo cultures. The burials of this period in East and Central Kazakhstan were probably left during the migration of population groups from the steppe and forest-steppe regions of Eastern Europe to South Siberia and Central Asia. People buried there are distinguished by strongly developed Caucasoid craniological features and belong to the proto-Caucasoid anthropological type, which is typical for the populations of the Yamnaya and Afanasyevo cultures of Eastern Europe and Southern Siberia. Aside from the studied skulls from Shiderty-3 and Zhelezinka, no craniological materials from the periods preceding that of the Yamnaya and Afanasyevo cultures have been uncovered in the steppe zone of Kazakhstan. New paleoanthropological material is required for solving the issues pertaining to racial-genetic relationships between the populations of these regions in the Pre-Bronze Age. The study also revealed a discrepancy between the cultural and anthropological differentiation of the ancient Neolithic-Eneolithic population from the Middle Irtysh region, which archaeologically belongs to one cultural community from the Middle Irtysh area (Ekaterinovka), whereas anthropologically it is associated with to two large racial-genetic communities from the central regions of North Eurasia.
Key words: Neolithic, Eneolithic, Middle Irtysh, paleoanthropology, craniometry.
Description of extreme adaptation: Ñhuvash settlers of the 20th century in deep Siberian forests
The article is aimed at analysing ethnocultural adaptation that is close to the possible limit. It is proposed to single out extreme adaptation as a separate field of studies in cultural ecology. The term is to be understood as a forced rapid adaptation of an ethnic group to drastically changing environmental factors, occurring under the conditions of high stress for the community. The research is conducted as an ethnographic case study and its data were obtained via semi-structured interviews and archival document review. The study focuses on the history of three Chuvash peasant families who fled the political repression of the 1930s to the adjacent back country — the upper Demyanka River area (Uvatsky district of the Tyumen region, Russia). It was a remote and isolated taiga region covered with dense forests and vast swamps, a land of hunters and reindeer herders where farming was considered to be hard and unprofitable. The Chuvash families were typical farmers who had come to Western Siberia from the European part of Russia in 1900–1920s due to land shortages. The Chuvash, initially poorly adapted to the life in the taiga and inexperienced in forest foraging, managed to cope with the extreme adaptation to a new area over a short time. An important result of the adaptation consisted in the families creating a new local type of the subsistence system with priority being given to agriculture and livestock farming, while hunting and fishing were a complementary part of the economy. Their way of life proved to be very stable and reliable under the most difficult conditions. First of all, the Chuvash laboriously built a strong peasant base of their eco-nomy, in the fullest measure possible, despite all of the local difficulties and efforts required. In addition, the Chuvash increasingly adopted the foraging experience: initially from the neighbouring Russian and Polish taiga settlers, and soon directly from the most skilled peoples in this matter — the Khanty and Evenki. Moreover, while acquiring the skills, the Chuvash were persistent in mastering the subtleties of each trade (sometimes much better than other local settlers), as well as in rethinking and transforming them according to their own experiences and economic preferences.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, cultural ecology, Irtysh region, political repression, forced migration, refugees, peoples of the North.
Features of the Ob-Ugrian cenotaphs according to the ethnographic data of the late 19th — early 21st century
In this study, the author set out to determine the features of Ob-Ugrian cenotaphs of the 19th — early 21st century. Using comparative historical and typological methods, the author analysed the ethnographic literature of this period, as well as field materials obtained during the expeditions of 2005–2010 (Beryozovsky District, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra; Shuryshkarsky District, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area). Expeditionary methods of work included survey, photofixation and observation. As a result of field research conducted near one of the settlements of the Northern Khanty on the Synya River, an ura – a location of cenotaphs and houses for the dolls representing people who died tragically – was studied. An analysis of available materials revealed that, in the period under study, the Northern and Eastern Khanty, as well as Northern Mansi established a tradition of building cenotaphs in the following cases: 1) a person died as a result of a tragic accident (drowning, hypothermia, suicide, etc.); 2) a person died of natural causes (old age, illness, etc.) far from his homeland and was buried in a foreign land. The need to build a cenotaph in the above-mentioned cases was dictated by traditional ideas about human souls and their reincarnations. In general, cenotaphs are no different in appearance from ordinary burials. They also had traditional gravestones, next to which personal belongings of the deceased, inclu-ding vehicles, clothing, etc. were left. The grave and coffin, where people put all the necessary grave goods (clothing, ware, personal belongings), were made in the traditional way as well. The main feature of a cenotaph consists in the body being replaced by the clothes of the deceased (Northern Khanty and Mansi) or a clothed doll (Salym Khanty). In addition, it should be taken into account that formerly the cenotaphs were built away from the cemetery, on its outskirts or even near the place of death (drowning).
Key words: burial rite, cenotaph, the doll depicting the deceased, doll depicting the dead, Khanty, Mansi, burial facility, the grave, necropolis, grave house, shrine, sarcophagus, little house on the stump.
Bobrov I.V., Cherepanov M.S., Shisheliakina A.L.
Orthodox landscape of the Tyumen Region: location, number and demographic composition of urban prayer meetings
Description of regional Orthodox landscapes has been one of the crucial tasks of religious studies in Russia. Despite the growing number of publications on this issue, researchers make a point that this work should be continued in order to identify changes in the characteristics under consideration. The present article was written on the basis of field research conducted in Tyumen, Ishim and Yalutorovsk (Tyumen region, Russia) in 2015–2016 and covers the location, number and demographic composition of Orthodox prayer meetings. In this work, we provide data on the city of Tyumen (including information on churches that have been erected there since 2009), as well as present materials on Ishim and Yalutorovsk for the first time. In addition, we demonstrate changes in the Orthodox landscape of the regional centre using the results of research conducted in Tyumen from 2005 to 2009. In the course of field research, non-participant structured observation was used as the main method, with analysis of Orthodox mass media being used to refine the obtained data. The results show a positive dynamics in the number of faith practitioners in Tyumen. In this work, we described the demographic composition of believers in three cities of the region and determined factors affecting the distribution of believers among urban churches. The number of parishioners in Tyumen churches has increased by more than one and a half times at ferial Sunday liturgies; almost by two times on Palm Sundays; and by a quarter at the Easter services. This growth is associated with the distribution of the increased urban population among new churches built near the expanding residential areas of the regional centre. It should be noted that women of middle and advanced age still constitute the largest demographic groups at urban collective services. In comparison with Tyumen, the churches of Yalutorovsk and Ishim are attended by a higher percentage of elderly parishioners. The main factors affecting the church attendance include the status of a church in the Orthodox hierarchy, the church’s capacity and its location. Most well-attended churches are situated in the downtown, have a special status (cathedral church, Stauropegic church, a church on the territory of an eparchial monastery) and are more spacious.
Key words: Orthodox landscape of Russia, Orthodox Christians, Tyumen region, religious practices, structured observation.
Bestiary in the party discourse of 1940–1950
The present article covers issues associated with changes in the party language in the late Stalinist era and aims to determine the meaning expressed by the changed linguistic forms in the official communication of CPSU(B.) members in 1946–1953 within the current Perm Territory. In this work, the method of thick description was employed (C. Geertz). The author studied two types of materials found in the archives of regional party organisations: 1. documents prepared by the party authorities (official speeches, fables and feuilletons); 2. requests and complaints addressed to the authorities. The novelty of the study consists in introducing archival materials previously unknown to researchers; revealing the cultural aspect of reviving the fable in the Soviet press; identifying sociocultural functions of fable characters; defining the status of folklore imagery in the political communication of the Perm Territory residents. A historical and anthropological analysis of materials revealed that since the mid-1940s the party language incorporated the folk language full of animal and bird imagery. Apart from editorials and resolutions, the newspaper publications of political nature also included fables. The fable became an important literary genre, constituting an artificial analogue of rural folklore, adapted to the pressing tasks that the party faced: the formation of a mythological worldview among the general Soviet public, as well as the fight against the bourgeois remnants in the consciousness and behaviour of the Soviet people. In line with the literary tradition, the officially approved animals (bears, hares, foxes, etc.) personified vices that had to be eradicated: bureaucracy, conceit, cosmopolitanism, or lack of patriotism, utilitarian approach, egoism, heavy drinking, etc. The introduction of folklore images suggests growing archaisation of the Soviet culture associated with the new party recruits — individuals from collective farm villages and first-generation industrial workers. The archaisation of the language used by the authorities constituted a side effect of the government’s policy of cultural isolation. The studied materials indicate that the ample use of clear folklore imagery in the party language simplified communication between the upper and lower classes of the party in the late Stalinist era. The language of the authorities became more accessible to its recipients. In turn, citizens could use common forms of verbal behaviour when dealing with government institutions. At the same time, the partial replacement of the Bolshevik language, canonised in the Short Course of the History of the CPSU (B.), with fabulous imagery subsequently lead to the depoliticisation of the Soviet culture.
Key words: Ural, 1945–1953, nomenclature culture, party language, folklore images.
Senior citizens of the Perm Territory and fears associated with new technologies
The present article covers the formation and functioning of socio-cultural fears that have developed among pensioners from the provincial towns of the Perm Territory (Urals). Fears are considered as stable forms of understanding the current social reality. This reality becomes relevant to people whose habitual way of life (work-life balance) has abruptly changed. The author provides an analysis of various methodological approaches to studying fears in the Russian society. In particular, P. Shtompka considered fear to be the primary emotion accompanying cultural trauma. Reference to the concepts of cultural divide, contradiction of old and new meanings is of methodological importance for this study. The empirical study employed a qualitative approach, with semi-structured focused one-to-one interview being chosen as the research method. The empirical base of the study consists of 22 interviews with the senior citizens of Perm and Kungur (Perm Territory). The selection of informants was carried out in 2018–2019 using the snowball method to form the sample population. Using materials of the interview, consumer fears were grouped according to their causes: 1. credit practices and banking products; 2. growing role of modern technologies in everyday life and its consequences; 3. food. The author makes a suggestion about the causes of fears shared by the third generation. Senior citizens are afraid of new payment methods, payment terminals, queue management systems, mobile devices and household appliances. Fears associated with the use of new devices and technologies are complex. Senior citizens are afraid not only of new devices and technologies but also of the unreliability of information about them. The fears are rationalised with the help of the media, in particular, television, where the fears are supported by authority figures (scientists, doctors). Consumer fears stem from a fixed mindset and deep-rooted stereotypes in relation to everything new and alien. The fear of new social conditions and norms finds its continuation in a wide range of specific household and consumer fears.
Key words: consumer practices, social fear, people of the third age, cultural trauma, digital technologies, household appliances.
Zakh V.A., Volkov E.N.
The pottery complex of the Mergen 6 early metal settlement in the Ishim area
In ancient times, two regions with different ornamental traditions were formed on the Tobol-Ishim territory. In the Early Neolithic Epoch, the tradition of combed ornaments began to develop in the Tobol area, whereas, at the end of the developed Neolithic period, the tradition of pit-comb pottery began to take shape in the Ishim area and in more eastern regions. These traditions had existed almost without mixing until the third millennium BC. Subsequently, pit-comb pottery complexes spread over the wide territory of Western Siberia from the steppes of Kazakhstan to the Taz peninsula, as well as from the Urals to the Yenisei. Since that time, comb impressions combined with pit rows along the vessel body had been observed in the ceramics of the Early Metal and pre-Andronovo Bronze periods in the Tobol area. In the late Bronze Age, the pit-comb ornamental tradition gradually started to restore its former borders. Bayryk culture complexes indicate that the population carrying pit-comb pottery started to spread in the western direction, including in the Tobol area. These complexes were in many respects similar to the pottery and inventory of the Mergen 6 settlement from the Ishim area. Due to the well-preserved state of organic remains (bone tools, actual bones of large and small mammals, as well as remains of fish bones and scales) in the cultural layer of the settlement, the complex is one of the most informative among the sites of the Early Metal Period. The ware found in the settlement has a wide range of analogies in synchronous cultures from forest and steppe territories. Judging by the site location (at the head of the river Mergenka outflowing from lake Mergen), osteological materials and inventory, the settlement population had appropriating economy, possibly with a predominance of fishing (weir fishing). A close resemblance of the Mergen 6 settlement ware and Bayryk complexes from the Tobol area suggests that the latter were formed on a local basis with the presence and adaptation of newly-arrived groups from the Ishim area among the local population.
Key words: Western Siberia, Tobol-Ishim area, Ishim area, Mergen 6, ceramics, comb-pit ornamental tradition, inventory, farming, migration.
Ilyushina V.V., Skochina S.N., Kisagulov A.V.
ECONOMIC AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES OF LATE BRONZE AGE POPULATIONS (ON THE BASIS OF MATERIALS FROM THE BOCHANTSEVO-1 SETTLEMENT)
Field research conducted at the Bochantsevo-1 settlement lead to the discovery of a cultural layer containing pottery, bone remains, bone and clay inventory of the Late Bronze Age. In addition, spore-pollen data for this period were obtained. Analysis of the application technique, ornamental elements of the found fragments, along with some features of the form allowed the authors to link the findings to the antiquities of the Alakul and Fedorov cultures. Analysis of the spore-pollen data obtained from the Late Bronze Age layer and of the discovered sterile interlayer shows that Bochantsevo-1 inhabitants chose to settle in an open place, i.e. a grass meadow with birch outliers growing nearby. In all likelihood, such a landscape and vicinity to the lake were most attractive for the sedentary population engaged in breeding cattle near the house. The analysis of faunal remains aimed at determining species and their age indicates meat-and-dairy orientation of the settlement’s cattle breeding in the Late Bronze Age. The role of appropriating economy branches was insignificant. The study of the inventory reveals that bone was the main material for making necessary tools involved in various areas of economic and production activities. The discovery of throwing weapons, fishing sinker weights, as well as tools for cutting the prey meat indicates the population's engagement in hunting and fishing. At different stages of pottery production, bone spatulas were used. The tanning industry was also important, as evidenced by the discovery of bone tools used for piercing leather. The discovery of ceramic spindle whorls indicates the settlement inhabitants to have been also engaged in weaving. One of the activities was metal production, as evidenced by splashing droplets and a double-blade knife found at the settlement. Typological and morphological characteristics of the knife correlate with materials from earlier periods of the Bronze Age (Sintashta culture). At the same time, the specifics of the production technology used at the Bochantsevo-1 settlement is comparable both to the Petrine tradition of metalworking and to the Tobol-Ishim culture of the Late Bronze Age. As a result of comprehensive studies, the question remains whether the Alakul and Fedorovo groups lived simultaneously in the settlement. At the current stage of research, it is possible to speak of the cultural affiliation of the settlement and materials with Alakul and Fedorov groups.
Key words: forest-steppe Tobol river basin, the Late Bronze Age, Alakul culture, Fedorovo culture, economy, production activity.
POTTERY-MAKING TECHNOLOGY USED BY ALAKUL AND FEDOROVÎ GROUPS OF THE BOCHANTSEVO-1 SETTLEMENT
In the archaeology of
Northern Eurasia, the relationship between the Alakul and Fedorov cultures (Andronovo
cultural-historical community of the Late Bronze Age) remains an issue. In order
to resolve it, a detailed study of pottery complexes, namely, the technology of
pottery making used by these cultures is required. This work presents new data
on the technologies of pottery making used by the Alakul and Fedorovî
groups of the Bochantsevo-1 settlement as well as their comparison. Thirty
fragments from different vessels of the Fedorovî
and Alakul cultures were subjected to technical and technological analysis using
the approach developed by
Key words: forest-steppe Tobol area, the Late Bronze Age, Alakul culture, Fedorovo culture, ceramics, technical and technological analysis.
CHILDREN’S AND ADULT CROSS PENDANTS OF THE 17th — 19th CENTURIES IN SIBERIA
When conducting a chronological and planigraphic analysis of cross pendants discovered in Russian orthodox necropoleis belonging to the 17th–19th centuries, a researcher may encounter a situation of both adults and children of different age groups being buried in the same cemetery area, as well as within the same time period. However, these adults and children acquired their cross pendants at different moments. Therefore, to reconstruct the chronological development of such necropoleis in greater detail, it is required to know whether children’s graves contain any specific cross pendants and, if they do, at what age a children’s cross pendant was replaced with an adult one. This study was aimed at resolving the issue of correlation between the age of a buried person and the size of his/her cross pendant on the basis of archaeological material. The research base was represented by the collections of cross pendants formed during excavation works across the territory of the necropoleis of the Umrevinsky and Ilimsky Ostrogs, the cemetery of the Izyuk-I settlement, as well as by a collection of accidentally lost cross pendants from the Ob area near Novosibirsk. At the first stage, the dimensions of cross pendants were correlated with the age of the buried persons. It is determined that the width of a cross pendant depended on the age of a buried person, i.e. the older the buried person was, the wider his/her cross pendant turned out. This regularity has been observed in all the studied monuments to a various extent. The identified regularity testifies to the tradition in Siberia of replacing cross pendants when people reached a particular age; thus, a cross pendant was replaced once or twice at the age of 10–20 years. Such replacement of cross pendants might have been related to an accidental loss and a necessity to acquire a new cross pendant rather than to a tradition. The second research stage implied a planigraphic analysis of distribution of children’s graves with small-sized cross pendants within each necropolis. The analysis has shown the cemetery of the Izyuk-I village and the necropolis of the Ilimsky Ostrog to be characterized by a homogeneous distribution of small-sized cross pendants. Moreover, the necropolis of Umrevinsky Ostrog reflected an increase in the difference between the sizes of children’s and adult cross pendants in the 19th century. The sized-based comparison of cross pendants from the necropoleis and cross pendants accidentally lost during lifetime has demonstrated that, in the south of Western Siberia, people were buried with the same cross pendants they had been wearing during their lifetime.
Key words: staurography, children cross pendant, Izyuk-I, Umrevinsky Ostrog, Ilimsky Ostrog, Spassky necropolis of Irkutsk, Siberia.
SEITOVO 4: A NEW BURIAL GROUND OF THE TARA TATARS’ ANCESTORS OF THE 17th–18th CENTURIES IN THE MIDDLE IRTYSH AREA
Due to the work of archaeologists and ethnographers, the funeral ceremony of the population having inhabited the middle and lower stretch of the Tara river (southern taiga zone of Western Siberia) at the end of the 17th–18th centuries has been quite extensively studied. However, little has been known thus far about its early period (late 16th — early 17th century) and the ethno-cultural identity of the people who buried the dead there. The discovery of coins during excavations conducted at Seitovo 4 — a burial ground located on a right bank of the Irtysh river on the southern outskirts of the eponymous village in Tarsky district, Omsk region — allowed the burial dates to be established. The above-mentioned coins of the Russian Tsardom (Moscow ‘denga’ minted in 1538–1561) belonged to the time of monetary reform under the rule of Ivan the Terrible. The data analysis revealed some specific features of the burial ceremony: grouping the graves in one complex; moving the body to one of the grave walls (usually northern); displacing the bones of the deceased on one side towards the spine; special actions when filling the grave pit; firing the burial pit and the area around it, etc. In addition, rare and unique things were found, including a forked arrowhead made from a copper plate with shaft remains; an article made from a copper plate in the form of a flat arrowhead with a single barb and a hole in the middle; a rectangular double-edged firesteel. At the same time, the features typical of burial grounds of the 17th–18th centuries widespread in the region were present: one burial under a mound in pits recessed into the ground; construction of ditches around the pit; traditional inventory (arrowheads, iron knives, axes, earrings, signet rings etc.); positioning the deceased on their back, with head to the north-north-west, etc. This shows that the complex belonged to their circle, constituting the earliest part of the funeral rite of the Tara Tatars' ancestors during the specified period. The analysis of written sources (first half of the 17th — first half of the 18th century) reveals that only Tatars, mostly the Ayali group, lived there at that time. Thus, assuming that the buried belonged to the specified group, conclusions can be drawn about the individual features of the burial rite.
Key words: Western Siberia, Middle Irtysh area, the ancestors of the Tara Tatars, Seitovo IV burial ground, special features in the burials, 16–18th centuries.
Zimina O.Yu., Zherebyatyeva N.V., Idrisov I.R., Sizov O.S., Moskvina N.N., Afonin A.S., Ivanov S.N., Ryabogina N.E.
THE ANDREÅVSKOYE LAKE SYSTEM AT THE TURN OF THE BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGES: PALEO-LANDSCAPE MAPPING, BIOPRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC CAPACITY OF THE TERRITORY (TURA and PYSHMA interfluve, west siberia)
On the basis of complex paleogeographic studies, we have created a large-scale paleo-landscape map covering the territory of the Andreevskoye lake flow system, in-between the Tura and the Pyshma rivers (West Siberia), for the interval of 2850–2600 cal. BP. According to the mapping results, the areas of key vegetation types were determined. By selecting modern analogues, we calculated the ecological capacity of the territory, as well as its biological productivity potential for providing plant and animal resources. In the past, spatio-temporal changes in the share of the main plant communities were based on the degree of area drainage varying with different climatic conditions. As a result of palynological and geochemical studies, a trend towards increasing humidity and falling temperature was identified in the given chronological interval. In this regard, the map shows a large proportion of birch forests and damp meadows, whereas coniferous forests and swamps were less dominant in the landscapes as compared to present times. In 2850–2600 cal. BP, the territory of the Andreevskoye lake system was developed by the representatives of the Itkul culture. On the basis of data on the natural resources available in the territory, the bioproductivity potential for producing and appropriating economy was calculated. The calculations are based on historical and ethnographic analogies and take into account the fact that producing industries used only 20–22 % of the territory's resource base. Evidently, the greatest amount of food was provided by fishing rather than by hunting and producing industries. Fishing was of paramount importance, as evidenced by the location of settlements (mainly on the lake shores). Reconstructed data on the territory's resource supply, allowed us to determine a possible size of the Itkul population having lived in the territory of the Andreevskoye lake system. The calculations used the data on the energy value of various products, taking energy consumption of people involved in vigorous physical activity into account. In the given chronological interval of 2850–2600 cal. BP, local resources allowed for the possibility of simultaneous residence of about 280–373 people. The indicator of resource availability in the territory allows the paleodemographic calculations to be significantly adjusted using methods for estimating a dwelling area, since they determine the population density limit, provided the land is used simultaneously. The figures obtained for the number of Itkul population correspond only to the minimum values, calculated by taking the area and number of dwellings of this culture into account.
Key words: paleolandscape map, resources endowment, paleodemography, Transitional Time from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age, West Siberia.
Bolelov S.B., Kolganova G.Yu., Nickiforov M.G.
ASTRONOMICAL ORIENTATION OF ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS OF KHOREZM
The paper is aimed at studying the astronomical orientation of Khorezmic architectural monuments. By the term «astronomical orientation», the authors understand the alignment of the building elements with astronomically significant directions corresponding to the directions of the world, sunrise and/or sunset azimuths at solstices and azimuths of the rising/setting of the Moon at its northern and southern extremes. Analysis of the accuracy of monument plans showed that they could not be used to solve the issue of determining astronomical orientation. The main reason for this consists in the lack of unification in determining the position of the north. Verification showed that both magnetic north and true north could be picked on archaeological plans, and in some cases, one might suspect an incorrect recalculation from magnetic to true meridian. The unsuitability of earlier archaeological plans for the analysis of astronomical orientation severely limits the number of objects that can be used, since many of the monuments described in the last century works do not exist today. Therefore, in order to analyse astronomical orientation, it is necessary to perform new ground-based measurements. However, due to the impossibility of conducting new measurements during the field studies, we took the satellite imagery of Google Earth, which, along with the obvious advantage, leads to some restrictions. For example, a monument should be visible from space and have geometrical dimensions much larger than the pixilation of the image. As a result, for studying astronomical orientation, it was possible to select 37 objects, which have the shape of a convex polygon. The use of statistical analysis allowed us to establish the presence of two significant azimuths: alignment of the monument with the meridian line and with the sunrise azimuth at the winter solstice. The remaining astronomical azimuths are met in isolated cases, but we cannot confirm their presence due to a small number. It should be noted that some researchers have already paid attention to the practice of orienting structures along the meridian line, so the detection of this azimuth is not unexpected. However, compared to previous works, we have obtained accurate azimuth estimates, which are suitable for statistical analysis. In addition, the considered monuments belong to a single cultural tradition and are located within the same historical region. The cultural significance of the winter solstice day in Khorezm and neighbouring regions can be proved by Biruni’s information. Following his descriptions, the residents of Sogd and Khorezm celebrated the same holiday associated with the onset of the winter solstice.
Key words: Central Asia, azimuths, astronomical traditions in architecture, astronomy and culture.
TYPES OF MACES IN THE CULTURE OF EARLY MEDIEVAL PRUSSIANS
There are two known versions of maces in the culture of early medieval Prussians: staffs and krivula (crooked staffs). The data presented in this article has allowed the author to draw the following preliminary conclusions about the use of various forms of maces by the Prussians: (1) In the Early Middle Ages (presumably already at the beginning of the first century AD), the population of the southeastern Baltic used staffs/maces with different tops symbolizing the social status of its owner. (2) A mace, which had obviously no practical significance judging by its insignificant length, can be seen in the left hand of Prussian stone sculptures, depicting legendary princes Bruteno and Widewuto. In the sculpture’s right hand, there is a sacrificial drinking horn. Obviously, both a mace and a horn were attributes necessary for offering sacrifices. (3) Curved branches of the krivula trees, which belonged to priests of various ranks and specialties, were primarily of ceremonial significance. Judging by the preservation state of the Insterburg collection exhibits, such krivulas were used by the Prussians including in the Modern Era. (4) With a certain degree of caution, it can be assumed that in the pre-order time straight staffs/maces were among sacrificial attributes of the Prussian society representatives of various social ranks. Priests of different levels used crooked staffs (krivula) in the course of religious ceremonies.
Key words: the Prussians, period of the Early Middle Ages, attributes, social and cult values.
Bagashev A.N., Slepchenko S.M., Kardash O.V., Alekseeva E.A., Sleptsova A.V.
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE BUKHTA NAKHODKA 2 BURIAL (YAMAL-NENETS AUTONOMOUS AREA, YAMAL PENINSULA)
This article presents results of a comprehensive study of paleoanthropological materials from the Buchta Nakhodka 2 burial on the Yamal peninsula (Yamalsky district, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, Tyumen region, Russia). Morphological features of the skulls indicate their belonging to the Eastern-Mongoloid anthropological formation. However, in terms of the nasal bridge structure, they also belong to the Western Caucasoid population. The results of a study using the methods of multivariate statistics show that, despite a high individual variability characteristic of the modern species of Homo sapiens, the range of variability observed in the materials from the Buchta Nakhodka and Yumadoto burial grounds is within the scope of the intergroup variability typical of the North Samoyedic peoples. On this basis, a more representative sample of this ethnic group has been formed, which is taxonomically included in the Yamalo-Enisey group of populations of the West-Siberian anthropological formation. An interesting feature of the studied materials consists in the archaic structure of the lower premolars and the vestibular protuberance of the medial incisors, which are markers of an archaic character. Appearance of the population having lived in Yamal at that time is clearly shown via the facial reconstruction based on crania.
Key words: West Siberia, the Yamal peninsula, paleoanthropology, craniology, odontology, anthropological facial reconstruction, facial approximation.
FEATURES OF IMAGES REPRESENTING THE DECEASED OF THE NORTHERN KHANTY AND MANSI IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20th — EARLY 21st CENTURy
Long-standing traditions of the Northern Khanty and Mansi, which have been preserved to the present day, include making anthropomorphic dolls upon people’s death. A doll appears to be a vehicle for one of the spirits of the deceased person. It was made and dressed during the funeral ceremony. To date, the clothes of the dolls of the dead have not attracted research attention. Defining specifics of such clothing is important for studying the genesis of the images of the deceased, as well as those of guardian spirits. The article analyses the materials collected in the course of field research, as well as information from ethnographic literature of the period in question. A typological analysis of clothing from the images of the deceased allowed the authors to identify its dynamics and to determine its standard and variable features. The data were obtained in the course of fieldwork carried out in 2005–2010 in the territory of the Berezovsky district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (Lyapin river basin) and the Shuryshkarsky district of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area (basins of Malaya Ob and Synya riveres). Overall, 8 images of the deceased were studied in detail. The analysis has revealed that the clothing of dolls is represented by two complexes, i.e. male and female. These complexes are fairly uniform within the territory where they were used. The male complex consists of miniature topwear compliant with the types of men's traditional clothing. Male topwear of Northern Khanty and Mansi includes a malitsa (hooded coat) supplemented with a navershnitsa (tuniclike overcoat worn over a malitsa), a shirt and a belt. Female dolls of the deceased of the Northern Khanty and Mansi are dressed in a fur coat (as a rule made of deer fur), shirts and dress shirts. The style of outer clothing (malitsas and fur coats) is traditional and differs insignificantly from ordinary clothes. At the same time, the style of undergarments — male and female shirts — is mostly uniform and rather archaic. In ge-neral, the investigated clothing complexes are compliant, in terms of type of clothes worn and their style, with the ethnographic literature of the period under consideration. However, it should be noted that some types of clothing and jewellery, which were previously part of their wear, have ceased to be used. These are cloth robes, fur and cloth soviks (shirtlike hooded fur coat). In addition, modern clothes tend to appear in the images of the deceased. For female images, these are dresses. In case of male images, these are machine-made shirts, which are part of fabric offerings. Thus, it can be asserted that there has been a change in the clothing of dolls representing the deceased.
Key words: funeral rites, cult of ancestors, doll, itterma (image representing the deceased), traditional clothes, Northern Khanty, Northern Mansi, malitsa, sovik, false braids.
Ryazanova S.V., Iurganov F.A.
KOMI-PERMYAN MYTHOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL POLITICS OF MEMORY
The article is aimed at defining characteristic features of the modern Komi-Permyan myth existing in the Western Urals (Kama river area). The process of mythogenesis is analysed as part of regional policy of historical memory. This policy includes ideas about creating a collective-past image, some principles behind the education system functioning, as well as legislative regulation of the forms of its presentation. Prerequisites and reasons for the formation of a new national myth at different stages of the historical process are considered. The construction of contemporary national mythology is associated with the processes of national self-identification in the post-Soviet period. New images are based on narratives developing the ethnocultural idea of the Komi-Permyan ethnos and uniting different Komi-Permyan branches. The first step in creating a new myth is associated with the emergence of the Komi-Permyan national movement in the 1920s. The second one coincides with the processes of national self-identification following the decline of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. The image of a Komi-Permyan can be represented as consisting of two parts, including elements of a cultural hero as well as a number of geopolitical and sociocultural ideas of a mythological nature. The most popular mythological image to spread new myth is «chud’» who has been a famous character of local folklore throughout the entire period of West Ural history. Real persons and well-known historical figures, such as Stefan Velikopemcky and Ermak, have joined the Komi-Permyan pantheon of traditional characters. The legendary past is formed via appropriation and adaptation of the facts from the all-Russian history. The new policy of historical memory is based on attempts to present the Komi-Permyan cultural tradition as very ancient and affirm its great value for neighbouring ethnic groups. The Russian population and government are perceived as related to and influenced by the Komi-Permyan culture, whereas Russian science is said to be distorting the history of the Kama area. Characteristic features of the new Komi-Permyan myth include rejecting traditional mythological logic, as well as the timeserving nature of conclusions. The media, local politicians and regional cultural elite have been most active in communicating contemporary Komi-Permyan mythology. The new mythology of the Komi-Permyan ethnos can be characterized as having a constructivist and voluntarist character, as well as being very convenient for validating the uniqueness of the Komi-Permyans in the situation of their national decline.
Key words: myth, social mythology, cultural memory, ethnic consolidation, Komi-Permyans.
AN ETHNOECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO WEIR FISHING: A CASE STUDY FROM THE KONDA RIVER, WEST SIBERIA
In this paper, the phenomenon of weir fishing is considered as a way of the population’s adaptation to lake and river landscapes of the Konda lowland in West Siberia. Weirs have become one of the most reliable ways of subsistence in the boreal climate, as well as an efficient tool for managing biological resources. Using such devices, fishermen are able to control the migration of fish, thereby predicting the amount of catch. The process of building fish weirs was accompanied by land development, i.e., construction of canals and locks, clearing the bed, straightening waterways, etc. All these actions brought the ecosystem into a more stable and predictable condition. The result was an increase in water body productivity, which, in turn, led to a growth of the local community. The Konda river is characterized by alternating low-water and high-water years, which has a major effect on the number of fish and fishing conditions. In view of this, the development of peripheral water bodies with stable hydro conditions is a strategy reducing the risks of fish shortage in the main stream. In addition, the proximity of sources to the estuary (30–40 km in a straight line), characteristic of the tributaries of the Lower Konda, allowed the alternation of resources from different landscape zones and water bodies. Drawing on the census data of 1926, it is demonstrated that Khanty settlements were located not only along the Konda river, but also along small rivers at the outflow of the lake systems, being the best places for community fish weirs. Using satellite imagery and surveys of local fishermen, 111 fishing weir locations on the Lower Konda that have been in use in the past 50 years were established. This was the period of a maximum increase in the use of modernized stationary traps aimed at catching large volumes of fish for subsequent processing in factories. The Konda fish trap design is a segment of the river, blocked on both sides, up to 200 m in length, where fish accumulate. The main fishing period is December — January, when the fish leaves the lakes on a massive scale due to the lack of oxygen under the ice and enters the fish traps on the river. The paper identifies a consistent pattern of placing weirs at the source of upstream or flowing lakes within 600 m, which is the most effective position for placing traps. Seasonal fish weirs in tributary junctions and the floodplain of the Konda river ceased to exist in the middle of the 20th century due to timber-rafting and new fishing regulations. Collected ethnographic data (2017–2018) reveals the irreversible transition of the weir fishing from a subsistence activity to a market-based business. This transition began in the early 20th century and was accompanied by an extensive increase in the number of fish traps as well as a geographical expansion of fishing, which was necessary to meet market demand or, in the Soviet period of planned economy, to achieve the planned target. In the late 20th century, when Soviet production chains collapsed, the villagers had to switch to other work activities and easy-to-use fishing methods. Land development works were also curtailed. In the 2010s, with an increase in the general level of welfare, as well as with the growth of fuel costs and bureaucratic expenses, the number of fish weir sites in the Lower Konda decreased to 13–15. Renewal of fish weirs takes place every 5–6 years only on those rivers where fish can still bring a sizable income.
Key words: Konda river, West Siberia, fish weir, wood stake weir, fish trap, cultural ecology, wetland archaeology, spatial analyses.
CULTURE-SPECIFIC MECHANISMS OF MAINTAINING LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC
Our previous studies on the causal attributions of events occurring in the lives of Nenets teenagers from nomadic families have shown that, unlike non-indigenous teenagers of the same age from sedentary families, they do not exhibit self-serving attribution bias, i.e. the tendency to attribute more internal, stable and global causes to positive events as compared to negative ones. Since, in accordance with the Learned Helplessness Theory, self-serving bias is a protective psychological mechanism allowing people to maintain a sense of optimism under stress, it has been concluded that the lack of this mechanism in the Nenets makes them less resistant to stress, which results in an increased likelihood of stress-induced depressive states. This could explain the high level of suicides and alcohol consumption among them. However, an additional analysis of the empirical data has shown this conclusion to be premature. It has been found that the lack of the self-serving bias is mainly due to the extremely low stability and globality of causal attributions for both positive and negative events. It can be assumed that the reason for this lies in the holistic cognitive style of the Nenets. Indeed, numerous studies have shown that people with holistic cognitive styles tend to attribute causes of events to immediate situations and situational factors, rather than to general principles and sustainable attributes of the objects and people involved. Since such causal attributions have a low stability and globality, they are less likely to induce helplessness as a result of experiencing a sequence of negative events. Furthermore, even if a sense of helplessness arises, it does not automatically lead to hopelessness, that is to the individual's expectation of negative events and of the absence of positive events in the future. People who attribute the causes of events to concrete situations can maintain optimistic expectations even while believing that they personally cannot prevent negative events or make positive events happen, i.e. while experiencing helplessness. This in itself can provide individuals with protection from stress even if they lack the self-serving attributional bias. Thus, the Learned Helplessness Theory and the anti-stress psychological mechanism it postulates can be lacking cross-cultural validity: the self-serving attribution bias is not the only possible cultural mechanism against stress.
Key words: attribution style, cognitive style, self-serving attribution bias, Nenets, depression, alcoholism, suicide.
Rocheva A.L., Varshaver E.A., Ivanova N.S.
INTEGRATION OF SECOND GENERATION MIGRANTS FROM TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN THE TYUMEN REGION: SOCIAL, LINGUISTIC AND IDENTIFICATION ASPECTS
This article examines integration of second-generation migrants from Transcaucasia and Central Asia (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) in the Tyumen region, namely their social ties, characteristics of their romantic partners and spouses, language competences and ethnic identifications. The empirical basis for the research included 169 interviews with second-generation migrants and experts conducted in eight localities of the region. This fieldwork constitutes a part of a larger project on second-generation migrants in Russia. This project conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods is the first all-Russia endeavour to study second-generation migrants aged 18–35 years old. The term «second-generation migrants» refers to individuals, whose parents moved to Russia and who graduated from a Russian school, regardless of whether they were born in Russia or moved to Russia at pre-school or school age. The history of the settlement/development of the region in the Soviet period, when the State played a significant role in attracting labour force from different parts of the USSR, contributed to a high level of polyethnicity in the region. This is reflected in a high level of ethnic diversity of the social ties of second-generation migrants at different life stages. Starting from the school years, second-generation migrants in the region continue to communicate in mixed social circles. The share of co-ethnic friends and acquaintances varies but never predominates. Apart from educational institutions, there are two other contexts, which may contribute to changes in the ethnic composition of social circles: mosque and sports activities. Self-identification according to ethnic categories is common but, due to the ethnic diversity of the region, relevant not for all the informants. Romantic relations, which are much more characteristic of male second-generation migrants, are mostly with non-co-ethnic partners. Conversely, marriages are much more often co-ethnic, which reflects the attitudes of the informants’ parents, although the attitudes of the second-generation migrants in this regard vary. All the informants speak fluent Russian, while the level of their parent’s language(s) proficiency can vary.
A horse-skier of the Bronze Age: a reappraisal of the cultural and historical interpretation of the decorative finial on a dagger from Rostovka, Western Siberia (on the 90th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir I. Matyushchenko)
This paper proposes the cultural and historical interpretation of the cast figure, consisting of a horse and a skier, on the finial of a bronze knife or dagger from the necropolis near the village of Rostovka. Two interpretations of this composition are outlined in the first part of the work. The first one suggests that the composition represents an actual cultural phenomenon — a Bronze Age «Skijoring», a means of transportation where a skier is towed by, in this case, a horse. The second possible interpretation considers the composition almost exclusively as an illustration of myth and/or ritual and focuses on the search for the meanings reflected in the figures. The approach proposed in the paper assumes the existence of a known cultural practice, which is used as the basis of the myth-ritual plot embodied in the composition. The author’s version of the cultural and historical context of this prototype is presented in the second part of the work. The context of the artwork is the development of a forest-based culture, occupying the forest-steppe, mountain-taiga and southern-taiga belts of Siberia and maintaining its identity over a long period. The economic basis of this culture was appropriating forms, combined with horse breeding, designed to provide transport and satisfy food needs through hunting. A significant place in this culture is occupied by metallurgy and metalworking, initially bronze production, followed by iron production. Proof is given that the origins of this culture date back to the Bronze Age, and its formation is consistent with the development of cultures of horse-breeders and metallurgists, within the framework of the Seima-Turbino transcultural phenomenon. The Rostovka artist appears to capture a moment of experimentation with a new means of transportation, adapted to specific local climatic conditions. Scenes of equestrian-skiing racing have then been incorporated into a developing mythic story. Data on functionally and technologically similar methods of foot and horse towing, indirectly confirming the proposed concept are also presented in the work.
Key words: Rostovka burial ground, the horse and skier, Seima-Turbino transcultural phenomenon, forest culture complex, South of Siberia, traditional towing methods.
Zinyakov N.M., Tsembalyuk S.I.
Metal forge products at the Maray 1 hillfort
The article considers the problem of the origin of iron-processing production in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve during the Early Iron Age, which has yet to be fully studied. The absence of iron items in the monumental materials of the beginning of the Early Iron Age meant that questions concerning iron processing methods, sources of the metal and the time of the origin of the ferrous metallurgy in this territory were not raised. Until now, it was believed that all iron items found in Tobol-Ishim basin were imported. It is probable that the absence of finds of iron objects is related to the mode of occurrence under conditions of sandy soils. This means that their absence may be due to the fact that they have simply not survived to our present time. Analysis of forged products found at the Maray 1 site allows conclusions to be drawn about local iron and iron production. Metallographic studies of ferrous metal products show that the population of the Maray 1 settlement was at the initial stage of the development of iron. In this early smelting industry, a relatively soft bloom iron containing a significant amount of slag impurities was used as a raw material. Occasionally partially carburised iron was used. The smiths of this time were not yet familiar with the methods of manufacturing steel, but were familiar with techniques for working with metal in the forging process. Findings on the site of slags, iron bursts, drops and balls indicate the presence of domestic iron metallurgy among the Baitovo population. The process of metalworking and the manufacture of objects made of iron occurred directly on the territory of the settlement. The data obtained, in conjunction with the available materials on the presence of iron and iron processing industries among the population of the Sargatka culture of Tobol and Kulayka in the Lower Ob, led to a conclusion about the beginning of active development of iron production in Western Siberia in the Early Iron Age. The chronological framework of the study is 4th–2nd cc. BC.
Key words: Lower Ishim river, the Early Iron Age, iron products, metallographic analysis.
Piskareva Ya.Å., Sergusheva E.À., Dorofeeva N.À., Lyashchevskaya M.S., Sharyi-ool M.Î.
Economy of the Early Mediaeval population of Primorye (based on archaeological evidence for the Mohe culture)
This paper attempts to reconstruct the economy of the Early Mediaeval population of Primorye, based on an analysis of data obtained from archaeological sites of the Mohe culture. Sites of the Mohe culture in Primorye date from the 6th to the beginning of the 8th c. AD. With the emergence of the Bohai state in the western districts of Primorye, Bohai cultural elements gradually replace Mohe across the region and Mohe sites gradually disappear in the archaeological record. However, some features of the Mohe material culture continue to exist for some time. Paleogeographic evidence indicates a cooling of climate and decrease in rainfall in the 6th to 7th cc. AD and climate warming in the 8th c. There are limited but reliable archaeological evidences from Mohe sites for the existence of agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting, sea and river gathering and fishing, and plant gathering. However, it is not yet possible to rank these components of the economy by economic significance for the population. Our study shows an increase in agricultural activity from the early to the late stages of Mohe culture. The early sites do not demonstrate a significant role for agriculture, in contrast to the later sites, where there is clear evidence for an increase in the list of cultural plants and the volume of agricultural production. Changes in agricultural practice occurred rapidly and were triggered by historical events in the region, connected with the formation of Bohai State and the expansion of its borders. Changes also can be seen chronologically in the settlement patterns of the Mohe of Primorye. Early Mohe settled in places convenient for their traditional activities. At a later stage, sites which controlled territory and the waterway along the Razdolnaya river appear. Evidence for other components of the Mohe economy are limited and only confirm the presence of their in the Mohe subsistence systems in this region, but they are insufficient for more detailed reconstruction. It has been found that the Mohe of Primorye raised at least two types of domestic animals — pigs and horses. There is mostly indirect evidence for hunting (arrowheads, knives, tools for currying skins) from the Mohe sites. The absence of mammal and bird bones prevents any more certain reconstruction of Mohe hunting objects. A few shells of marine and freshwater molluscs were found on three sites. Bone remains of eight species of marine fishes were also found on one site. The gathering of wild plants is confirmed by the finds of seeds and fruits of seven plants species. Most of the plants were used for food and some for medical purposes.
Key words: Early Middle Ages, Mohe archaeological culture, settlement system, agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, hunting, gathering, Primorye.
Lighting of housing, administrative and temple complexes in the city of Tara, Omsk Oblast, Russia, in the 17–19th centuries
This study reveals the problem of lighting of buildings — domestic, administrative and religious — in the city of Tara during the 17–19th centuries. At night, especially in the winter, many economic activities took place indoors, making adequate lighting of interiors of dwellings a priority. In the evenings, women spun, wove, and processed the products of agriculture and foraging. Men carved wooden utensils, made footwear and engaged in other crafts. This article describes the window as one of the key structural elements of the dwelling and discusses the process of replacing mica windows with glass in the 18th and 19th centuries. It illustrates the range of lights and candlesticks recovered during archaeological excavations. The social significance of lighting devices for the population of a Russian Siberian city is shown. In the city of Tara provision of lighting fell into three categories. The system of lighting in Tarsky churches was the most difficult — large windows were made to maximise light, often at the expense of warmth, and special lamps and numerous icon holders to candles were used. However, these devices were used only on church holy days, and on weekdays there was only natural light in the churches. Significant funds were spent by the Tara administration on lighting state buildings — military and clerk's huts, an arsenal, a treasury, etc. Excavation findings show that candlesticks were used to hold candles. The wood splinter was the main source of light in houses of working people and petty bourgeoises, but findings of the combined illuminations with nests under candles indicate that on holy days residents used the corresponding holy day lighting. The archaeological findings associated with the lighting of housing, administrative and religious complexes, are some of the most indicative markers of innovations in the city in the fields of construction and architecture, living conditions and life. The study of this subject is also relevant to trade relations, because a considerable number of the objects associated with lighting are imported.
Key words: Western Siberia, the 17–19th centuries, city of Tara, city estate, windows, lighting fixtures.
Research carried out by S. Yurenev on the Mosque Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
This article describes S.N. Yurenev's archaeological findings in Bukhara city. The local archaeologist and geologist S.N. Yurenev started his archaeological research in 1952 with his study of the Mosque Kalyan (in Uzbek Masjidi Kalon — «Great Mosque») in Bukhara city, and has subsequently carried out further research on the Mosque Kalyan monument. In this study, S.N. Yurenev's interest in building history and construction technology is applied to the Mosque Kalyan. Nowadays S.N. Yurenev’s article has been active up to now in the archaeological expeditions around the Mosque Kalyan and its surroundings. In the research, S.N. Yurenev pointed out the Special scientific and restoration, production workshop which managed the excavations works and gave the instructions to the expedition's final reports which was handed over by the organisation. This article demonstrates the variety of methods used by S.N. Yurenev in his archaeological research. During the expedition the material culture from different periods was recovered and analysed by professional archaeologists. In addition, he collected and analysed ethnographic research material. S.N. Yurenev has not previously published his investigation results, being under the impression that his work was not up to modern archaeological standards. In this article S.N. Yurenev's archaeological research is presented for the first time.
Key words: archaeology, shurf, sondage, foundation, mosque, madrasah, Special scientific and restoration, production workshop, dome, excavations.
Concerning the functional purpose of so-called harpoons
Previous study has divided toothed bone tips into actual harpoons and serrated points, such as arrowheads, jails, darts and spears. Distinctive features of true harpoons are the means of clamping them to the shaft in the form of holes, recesses, grooves, reverse teeth or projections. There is no good evidence for the use of these so-called harpoons. According to many researchers, harpoons were used for hunting of big fish and aquatic animals such as beaver and otter. But ethnographic studies of Siberian peoples indicate that they hunted beaver and otter using traps, toils, bows and crossbows. The ethnographic data also indicates the continuation of ancient methods of catching fish such as stabbing with a spear and bow shutting. Some details of harpoon design raise many questions. Elongated nozzles, shallow recesses, low projections, insufficient diameter of the holes on the stems are all features which do not appear to correspond to a true harpoon. Archaeological assemblages include harpoons with stems wrapped in birch bark and coated with resin. This clearly indicates that these harpoons were permanently attached to the shaft. A study 30 years ago in the construction of harpoons concentrated attention on the «neck» — the lower part of the head between the lower tooth and the reverse tooth, projection or recesses. This neck feature is strong and is practically always present on serrated tips, which have traditionally been considered to be harpoons. Experiments with clamping these so-called harpoons showed that the «neck» section could be used for a tight attachment to the shaft. End availability opposite the tooth, projection, hole or recess helped with the attachment. So, these tools could have served as jail heads. Only serrated points with a hole or expressed opposite tooth could operate as true harpoons. Thus, we see that the role of harpoons in the economy of ancient populations has been greatly overestimated.
Key words: harpoon, jail, head of arrow, functional purpose, ethnographic data, experiment, the forest zone of Eastern Europe, Ural and Siberia.
Kufterin V.V., Dubova N.A.
Palaeodemography of Gonur: a review
This paper outlines results of a palaeodemographic study on the Late Bronze Age skeletal sample from Gonur Depe — an ancient proto-urban center in the Murghab oasis (Southern Turkmenistan, 2300–1500 ÂÑ). The analysed sample consists of 4060 individuals (2245 from the Main and Royal necropolises, 1732 from the ruins of the palace-temple ensemble, 5 from the so-called «cemetery of the temenos», 60 from Gonur-20 and 18 from Gonur-21). The analysis includes computation of the standard palaeodemographic parameters; life tables and demographic curves for the total sample and separately for males and females are presented. The total Gonur sample is characterised by a close to normal sex ratio (with a slight predominance of females relative to males) and corresponds to the minimum «standard» infant mortality. The average age of death for adult males is 34.5 years, for females is 34.2 years, and for the total population (including children) — 26.2 years. Demographic patterns for samples from the Gonur necropolis (2245 individuals) and from the ruins of palace-temple ensemble (relatively late burials, 1732 individuals) are different. At the same time, the authors emphasised that all the groups of tombs from various parts of this site belonged to the representatives of a single archaeological population. The results of an intergroup comparison (using Principal Component Analysis) allows us to conclude that the demographic patterns of the Gonur Depe sample are close to those of skeletal population from such proto-urban centers as Altyn Depe (Southern Turkmenistan) and Sapallitepe (Southern Uzbekistan), as well as to the sample from the Elunin culture (Teleutskyi Vzvoz-1 burial ground). It is concluded that the studied skeletal population, according to paleodemographic data, demonstrates a relatively high living standard and a successful population. Moreover, the obtained results are important, because Gonur Depe materials can be taken as «reference» in modelling the demographic structure of the past human societies (in particular, those of the Bronze Age).
Key words: paleodemography, Bronze Age, Gonur Depe, Turkmenistan, Central Asia.
Pestryakov A.P., Grigorieva O.M., Pelenitsyna Y.V.
Age variability in the measurements of morphological features of heads in the modern Azerbaijani population
This article addresses age variability in some Azerbaijani cephalometric features, based on study of the population of two closely related and neighbouring villages (Lower and Upper Askipara). They represent the Azerbaijani enclave in the territory of Armenia. The majority of this population is native to the area. Research took place in 1985 and studied approximately 40 % of the adult population (equally men and women) using the parameters of programmes of ethnic anthropology. Attention was paid only to the measurement characteristics that are relevant in relation to their correlation with the age of the studied group (there were 11 correlations). Six of them characterize the skull, which is forming in ontogenesis by ossification of connective tissue the bubble (nota textus bulla). The other five characteristics are formed as a result of cartilaginous tissue substitution. The analysis of the studied group leads to the following conclusions. Age variability of some measured features of the head is detected. Age-related variability of the measured characteristics of the arched part of the skull usually showed a reliable negative correlation in their values with age. It means that the older generation had smaller values than the younger ones had. The values of the facial bone structure did not show such a clear correlation with age, except the zygomatic and mandibular diameters. They usually showed a small reliable positive correlation with age. So, these features had a larger value in older age than in younger. These results were observed in both men and women of both villages, but more clearly expressed in the population of Lower Askipara (this village is larger than Upper Askipara). Of all the studied signs the highest and most stable negative correlation with age showed the greatest head width, cephalic index, the degree of sphericity and the relative height of the cranial vault (pointer lipsiense). For a short time (about 50 years) variability of the metric parameters of the head were investigated in a small, isolated population of Azerbaijanis showing the same temporal vector, which is characteristic of evolutionary changes (secular trend) in a significant part of the population of Eurasia: brachycephalidae, spherisation of the cranium and the increase of the cranial vault. To determine at what age there was the greatest variability of va-lues, the study divided the population of both villages (separately by sex) into three age groups: younger age — from 19 to 39 years (born after 1945), average age — from 40 to 54 years (born between 1930 and 1945), older age — 55 years or more (born before 1930). In both men and women, the selected age groups were close in number. When the studied sample was divided into three age groups, it was found that the greatest variability of values and their correlation with age were recorded in both men and women in the younger aged group: 19–39 years (born after 1945).
Key words: Azerbaijani population, brachycephalidae, spherization, Lower and Upper Askipara.
Collection of horseshoes in the holdings of Museum Complex named after I.Ya. Slovtsov
One of the earliest crafts practised in Russian urban centres was blacksmithing, necessary for the manufacture of tools for all types of material production. One of the most intrinsic functions of a blacksmith consisted in forging horseshoes. The horseshoe typology was proposed by A.N. Kirpichnikov. Type 1 includes horseshoes in the form of a semicircle with a toe caulk, which are characteristic only for Russia and existed from the middle of the 11th to the 17th centuries, while the second later type took the form of a three-quarter oval with two heel caulks with a large number of holes for nails and fullering. The collection of horseshoes in the Tyumen Local History Museum has 22 specimens: 12 of these are random finds or brought from historical expeditions around the Tyumen region, while the remaining 10 originate from archaeological excavations in Tyumen in 1988. In the first case, all horseshoes belong to the second type in the form of a three-quarter oval, having an overall length of 11–14 cm, a width of 11–13,5 cm, an inside width of 1,6–2,5 cm, thickness of the shank 0,5–1 cm and 6 holes in the nail groove. There are differences in the number of caulks and the presence of clips (7 of 9 horseshoes have three caulks having a comb-like shape (5) or with a rectangular area). Five of the horseshoes have clips to protect the front of the hoof. Four identical horseshoes, lighter than others, are made of shiny metal having entered the museum as a gift from a Tyumen Gypsy family. In archaeology, horseshoes are represented by fragments. The earliest specimen is represented by a sickle-shaped horseshoe with one caulk (type 1), dating back to the 17th century. The remaining 9 horseshoes are of type 2. Seven horseshoes with 2–3 caulks, 11–12,5 cm long, 1,7–2,5 cm wide shank, 0.5–1.2 cm thick shank, with heel caulks with a rectangular platform (4 pc.) and comb-like (3 pc.). On one horseshoe a rectangular third caulk is noted at the toe. Two horseshoes from the archaeological collection have clips. The predominance of horseshoes with caulks, which were used in winter, is noted. Analysis of the collection shows that the well-established forms of horseshoes, common throughout all of Russia, were used in Siberia.
Key words: archeology, accidental findings, donation, excavation, blacksmithing, horseshoes.
Features of production of clay ware dishes in Komi-Zyryan culture, North West Siberia from the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th century
The availability of clay, its natural characteristics (plasticity, formability, low melting strength) and the simpli-city of manufacturing techniques made it possible to satisfy domestic household needs for ceramic ware. For Komi-Zyryan peoples, pottery production from the second half of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries was characterised by the coexistence of two traditions: stucco and use of the potter's wheel. The moulded technique is characterised by building up from the base using two methods of joining the separately-made base and vessel walls. Archaic techniques of pottery manufacture survive in the method of shaping the bottom and walls of a vessel using a form-model and firing a pot in a fire. Pottery production was concentrated in the hands of women and was defined as a home industry. The use of a hand pottery wheel, which appeared at the turn of the 19th to 20th century, did not change the technique of manufacturing the vessel; it was used only to impart aesthetic characteristics. The appearance of the potter's foot circle in the 1930s led to the appearance of an exhaust method for modelling a pot, which was not widely used in home production. This new technology using the foot pottery wheel is defined as a male craft. Both technologies were characterised by firing in the Russian kiln; much less often, master craftsmen equipped special kilns for firing. When «hardening» the moulded vessel, a flour solution was used, which gave it a black colour. Instead of scalding while firing in a special kiln, pottery artisans used a lead slip. The range of pottery is represented by two large groups (cupped and pot-shaped), categorised by the ratio of the height of the pot to its diameter. Cup-shaped vessels are represented by pitchers and bowls, and pot-shaped vessels by cans with a cylindrical body and pots with a rounded body.
Key words: Komi (Zyryan), sculpted method of making pottery, handicraft production of pottery.
Interaction between humans and domestic deer on Chukotka in the modern period (anthropological study)
This article analyses the dynamics of interaction between human groups (camps or deer herding communities) and herds of domestic reindeer on Chukotka in the 20th and early 21st centuries. The author uses the evidence of material culture, considers the autonomous agency of material objects, the independent significance of practices and everyday life. An important methodological prerequisite is the analysis of the nature of power and its manifestations. The author addresses the relationship between architecture and domestic life (Ingold, 2000); considers the changing balance between centralised and localised authority (Mann, 1986). The author shows that in traditional reindeer herding a partner relationship between human and animals was established. Initially, the Chukchi were followed a policy that deer should continue as effectively wild and untamed. Shepherds did not aim for total control of the herd. Grazing patterns were almost entirely uncontrolled. Herders would leave the flock unattended for long periods. Men and deer were in an equal relationship since both were reliant on and limited by their physical capability. In the Soviet period the ideology of human power over natural phenomena and environment became prevalent. The leading ideology in relation to herders and deer became the establishment of centralised control. Chukotka reindeer herding became a part of the government’s agrarian policy. In Soviet collective farms a strong control over herders and deer was established. The aim of the Soviet authority was to make reindeer more domestic and human-dependent. Herders were instructed to constantly guard the deer herd. Reindeer were protected from predators and gadflies. The Chukchi were not always in agreement with these innovations. They continued to believe the deer is meant to be wild and move around freely. In the post-Soviet period the prevailing political and economic trend has been the transition to liberalization and democratization. The control of deer herding was now been delegated to regional authorities. This local authority has to conform to national policy, but control over herding activities has significantly decreased. Nowadays, Chukchi manage their deer using cross-country vehicles, snowmobiles and ATVs. The use of new technical devices in the tundra has had the effect of reducing human dominance over animals.
Key words: Chukotka, reindeer herding, interaction with animals, partnership, domination, power, hierarchy, autonomy, material objects, technology.
Istomin K.V., Habeck J.O.
Soils of the cryolithozone and the traditional land use of the indigenous populations of North-Eastern European Russia and Western Siberia: research problem statement
In this paper, ethnographic material on the Komi reindeer herders of eastern Bolshezemelskaya tundra and the Nenets reindeer herders of southern Gydan Peninsula is used to show how soil processes, which take place in the cryolithozone, can affect the life and economic practices of reindeer herding groups. It is demonstrated that such an impact can be direct as well as indirect. The direct impact consists, for example, in the influence of the permafrost on soil denaturing and, therefore, on the thixotropic properties of the soil. This affects the probability and the speed of soil turning into mud under the mechanical influence of reindeer trampling. Herders have to consider this probability and consider speeds of movement of the herd when they choose a camping place, plan the duration of their stay in this place and perform certain herding operations (e.g. rounding up the herd). The indirect impact continues through the permafrost’s role in the microlandscape formation as well as through its influence on vegetation. The both play an important role in determining reindeer behaviour and affect the way tundra can be navigated on a reindeer sledge. The manner and degree to which these impacts influence reindeer herding practices depend on the herding technology, which differs between the two ethnic groups. Another example of the indirect impact can be seen in the huge role thermokarst processes play in the formation and change of tundra aquasystems. The formation of thermokarst lakes, their draining and formation of dry lake reservoirs with their typical hyperproductivity of biomass poses both challenges and new possibilities for reindeer herding. The relationship between permafrost soil processes and reindeer herding practices should be considered in order to allow a more accurate assessment of the consequences ongoing climatic change can have for the life and economy of northern aboriginals. Therefore, a study of this relationship represents a valid scientific topic crossing the borders between biology, geology and cultural anthropology.
Traditional values of Siberian peasants within the framework of Russian modernisation in the 19th — early 20th century
A number of indicators of changing values of rural populations during the transition from a traditional society to an industrial one are examined through the lens of modernisation theory. These indicators include the deve-lopment of social health care initiatives of rural communities in Tobolsk Governorate in the late 19th — early 20th century, other new elements in everyday life of the peasants and the new methods of land evaluation they applied. Relying on archival and published sources, we reveal the participation of rural communities in the creation and funding of rural hospitals and feldsher’s clinics. The significant growth in the number of registered patients and the increase in the sale of non-prescription drugs in the villages show that the trust of the people in official health care provision was growing. Giving a suburban village as an example, we demonstrate the changes in the peasants’ everyday life, such as new occupations, changing patterns of consumption, new leisure activities and a shift in faith from Old Belief to the official church. We also describe new approaches to land evaluation used by the rural population. Thus, when selling land, the members of the peasant communities in the suburban settlements were evaluating it not according to the quality of the land, its fertility and the prospect of large crops, but according to a market price dictated by the development of transport systems, industry, trade and the city growth.
Key words: traditional worldview, social initiative, health care, feldsher’s station, sale of non-prescription drugs, daily life, Tobolsk Governorate, rural community.
Patterns of emigration among Ural Germans in 1929–1930 (based on local research)
In the 20th and early 21st century, the South Ural region, which is located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, was the focus of routes of cross-border migration. This migration was both voluntary and forced. Ethnic German peoples have played a prominent role in the ethnic history of the region over the past three centuries. Russian Germans are a clear example of a «people on the move» (in German «Volk auf dem Weg»). The history of this ethnic group is inextricably linked with migration and adaptation to the conditions in the host society. In this case, we can talk about a kind of migratory ebb and flow, when in certain historical periods the emigration of Germans from Russia increased. One of these pages in the history of Russian Germans is the period of collectivization. In this article, the story about the emigration attitudes of German colonists in the Troitskiy district of the Ural Region in the winter of 1929–1930 is reviewed. Material for the article is provided by documents of the state archive of the Chelyabinsk region. This case-study fits well into the general context of the history of Russian Germans during the period of collectivisation and substantively complements the history of the Germans of the Urals. The transformations that were carried out in the villages led to an increase in desire to emigrate among the German population. The author describes the situation that developed in the German colonies of the Troitskiy district. German colonists retained their traditional ways of life and mindsets, so they did not have the opportunity to take part in socialist reconstruction of the countryside. German peasants were perceived by the authorities as holding on to alien ideologies and being a favourable environment for hostile propaganda. The forced modernisation of the Stalinist period (especially collectivisation and the «cultural revolution») became a powerful factor that transformed the entire way of life of Russian Germans and their ethno-cultural identity.
Key words: building socialism, collectivization, national minorities in the USSR, Germans in the Urals, German colonies, migration behavior, the emigration movement of Russian Germans, the Troitskiy district, historical localism.
Rocheva À.L., Varshaver E.A., Ivanova N.S.
Integration of second-generation migrants from Transcaucasia and Central Asia in the Tyumen region: educational trajectories and employment
This study examines the integration of second-generation migrants from Central Asia and Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) in the Tyumen region, namely their educational and employment trajectories as well as socio-economic characteristics of their parents and the regional context of integration. The paper is based on the analysis of 169 interviews in eight localities of the region. This fieldwork is part of a larger project on second generation migrants in Russia which is conducted with mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) and is the first all-Russia endeavour to study second generation migrants who are young adults (18–35 years old). The authors use a broad definition of second-generation migrants, including those whose parents moved to Russia and who themselves graduated from a Russian school no matter whether they were born in Russia or moved to Russia as children. The paper discusses the history of settlement of the region in the Soviet period that laid grounds for the region’s multiethnic composition and migration flows, which conti-nued after the collapse of the USSR. The transformation of migration patterns from national to international mobility has not led to significant changes in the characteristics of the migrants who have given birth to the second-generation migrants. However, notwithstanding the period of migration, these parents of the second-generation migrants differ in terms of education, qualifications and other socio-economic characteristics as well as migration trends. The educational and employment trends of the second-generation migrants as well as other young people are closely connected with the local and regional context. First, the relatively high wealth of the region due to its leading role in the oil extraction industry, together with the widespread aspirations towards higher education result in a large percentage of second-generation migrants who pursue university degrees. Second, the regional labour market centred around the oil industry provides opportunities for the university graduates to be employed not only in the big cities but also in the small towns where they were raised, which leads to their return there.
«Assignment trips to the North» as an experience of «communitas»
The specific practice of assignment trips by teachers from large regional higher institutions to work in affiliated outposts operating in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the 1990s to the first half of the 2000s is investigated. Under the conditions of the «educational boom», expressed, in particular, in the large-scale «branching» of small northern cities, when almost all of them established networks of affiliated outposts, the «rotation-based» work of the faculty members became a mass phenomenon. «Assignment trip to the North» involved a rather radical, albeit temporary, change of lifestyle. It included three stages: 1) trip to the outpost; 2) «life on the outpost»; 3) return home. The passage by individuals through each of the stages can be correlated with the stages of the classic rite of passage highlighted by A. van Gennep (rites de passage). The first and third stages were associated with a long journey: the trip to the outpost corresponded to the separation phase (separation), during which the individual was detached from the social structure and certain cultural obligations of the «home» (family and «head university»), returning home — the recovery phase (reaggregation), when individuals regain the rights and obligations of a «structural» type, forcing them to structure their behaviour in accordance with usual norms and ethical standards. On the basis of in-depth interviews of rotational teachers, their personal work and leisure experience «at the outposts» is reconstructed, the central point of which was the experience of being releasing from normative behaviour into communitas (in the meaning of V. Turner), which is expressed, in particular, in the temporary shift of norms and ethical standards. It is concluded that the experience of communitas was a specifically northern phenomenon, since it did not manifest itself under the conditions of the work of the same rotational teachers in other, not northern, affiliated outposts. In other words, the North represents in this case a special world of justification (in the meaning of L. Boltanski and L. Thevenot), with its own logic of substantiation of behaviour that cannot be reduced to the logic of other worlds.
Key words: affiliated branch, Assignment trip in the North, communitas, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
Serikov Yu.Â., Konovalenko M.V., Balueva Y.V.
STONE INVENTORY DISCOVERED AT A MESOLITHIC SITE IN THE NORTH-WEST OF SIBERIA
In this article, we investigate a stone inventory from a newly-discovered Mesolithic site. This site is located by the Salym River on the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The collection of artefacts contains about 22 thousand findings, which characterize the entire cycle of stone processing from the splitting of cobbles to the production of flakes and implements. The splitting technology was aimed at making flakes from lithic cores, with 90 % of these cores being up to 3 cm in diameter. Secondary processing products (4.7 %) consist in scrapers, awls, chisels, cutters and reworked flakes. The flakes have a microlithic character, with 97.5 % of them being up to 1 cm in width. The analysis of different parts of the flakes shows that Mesolithic people preferred to use stone fragments (30.4 %) and flakes having a clipped dorsal surface (14.2 %). When creating tools, retouching was frequently used (in 72.6 % of cases). The ratio between the number of artefacts made from primary and secondary flakes equals 47.6 %. In terms of mineralogical composition, the site features over 40 types, with sandstone, shale, siliceous shale, chalcedony, flint and jasper most frequently used (in 87.4 % of cases). A distinctive feature of the site consists in its geometric microliths, archaic concave retouched burins, bifacial and pebbles depicting various zoomorphic shapes. In terms of technical and typological characteristics, the data obtained from the Bolshoi Salym 4 settlement is fully consistent with the excavation data from other Western Siberian sites. Since hundreds of Mesolithic sites, consisting of encampments, settlements, work sites, sanctuaries and graves, have been discovered in the Urals, it can be supposed that the inhabitation of the Western Siberia by Mesolithic population proceeded from the territory of the Urals towards Siberia. The inventory of stone artefacts at the Bolshoi Salym 4 Mesolithic site is the largest so far discovered in Western Siberia, thus having great importance for an understanding of how Mesolithic people came to settle the West Siberian Plain.
Key words: West Siberian plain, Mesolithic, raw materials crisis, mikrolitizatsiya, geometric microlite, curly pebble.
ORIGIN OF POTTERY IN WESTERN SIBERIA (TO THE DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM)
The problem of the origin of pottery to a large extent determines the choice of directions in the study of Åarly-Neolithic complexes, including the formation and development of Neolithic cultures, their periodization and chronology. We have repeatedly addressed these issues in our previous publications; however, newly-collected information on Åarly-Neolithic settlements in Baraba, along with the publication of radiocarbon dating results obtained during the study of ceramics from Volga-Ural Neolithic complexes, have prompted us to raise this topic anew. In this paper, we consider the following three aspects: the preservation of pottery traditions in various territories, the development of the West Siberian Neolithic and the chronological sequence of the Boborykino and Koshkino complexes (the last two aspects complement each other). In recent years, a large number of ages obtained by dating using organic remains in ceramic artefacts have been introduced; however, these are not always consistent with the values obtained using charcoal and bone dating, e.g. for the Yurtobor 3 complex in a Lower Tobol river settlement (coal: 7701 ± 120 BP (UPI 559); ceramics: 6064 ± 100 BP; carbon: 7110 ± 70 BP), for the Mergen 6 settlement (settl. 15, ceramics: 5870 ± 110 BP (Ki-17085)). The data differs by 500–1500 years on average, with the ages obtained using ceramic dating being younger. The abundance of data on ceramics seemed to confirm the standpoint about the two-linear development of the West Siberian Neolithic and a later chronological position of the Boborykino complexes with regard to the Koshkino and Kozlov complexes. However, a series of radiocarbon dating analyses using charcoal for the Boborykino-Koshkino materials from the Mergen 6 settlement (for which, 14 out of 17 artefacts fit in the 6361–6068 BC interval), as well as for the Boborykino Tashkovo 1 and Yurtobor 3 settlements (6660–6420 BC and 6390–6230 BC), allow the development of the Neolithic complexes to be treated as a gradual and consistent process, without a chronological gap between the Boborykino and Koshkino antiquities. Flat-bottomed and round-bottomed dishes found in the areas of the Ishim and Irtysh rivers and Baraba forest-steppe are similar in shape and ornamentation to those from the northern territories. These artefacts are likely to have been the products of the development of an already existing, introduced ceramic tradition. According to radiocarbon da-ting, this tradition seems to have appeared in the West Siberian territories around the 7th century BC.
Key words: Western Siberia, the Early Neolithic, pottery, autochthonous development, two lines of development, migration, ceramics, Boborykino, Koshkino complexes.
Kostomarov V.M., Novikov I.K.
THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE ZOLOTOE 1 SETTLEMENT — A NEWLY DISCOVERED LATE-BRONZE SITE IN THE TOBOL-ISHIM INTERFLUVE
This paper is aimed at presenting the preliminary results of a study carried out in the Zolotoe 1 settlement in 2018. This territory was inhabited twice in the late Bronze Age, first by the representatives of the Alakul culture and then by those of the Alekseevka-Sargary culture. The focus of this research was on the topographic features of the site. An additional objective consisted in the description and interpretation of newly discovered archaeological materials and buildings. The Zolotoe 1 settlement is located on the shores of Lake Zolotinskoe near the Zolotoe village, the Polovinsky district of the Kurgan region. This place attracted our research interest because of its specific location. In contrast to the currently known sites featuring similar artefacts, which are located along the high banks of the Tobol and Ishim rivers and, less frequently, in the floodplain, this settlement is situated along the shores of the lake system in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve. A depressed land area in the north-eastern part of the settlement located at a distance from the village was selected for the study. Prior to excavation, an electromagnetic scanning of the site surface was performed with the purpose of refining the parameters of the search area. It is established that the remains found in the site are likely to be associated with the Alakul period. These include the remains of a building (ostensibly, a shed, judging by the absence of a pit and the presence of a series of pillar holes) and those of a fireplace, (supposedly) wells, fragments of ceramics and tools. The latter are shown to be located towards the western and eastern parts of the discovered shed. The artefacts are similar to those discovered in other sites of the Alakul culture. The Alekseevsk-Sargarinsky building horizon is also represented by the remains of a ground construction, fireplace lenses, bronze items and the fragments of vessels. The characteristic ornamentation on the latter has enabled the attribution of this complex. Therefore, our study of the Zolotoe 1 settlement has provided additional information about the specifics of the settlement of the Alakul and Alekseevka-Sargary groups. It is established that the area of their economic activity included not only river lines, as has been previously thought, but also remote lake systems. The features of the discovered buildings may indicate the seasonal nature of the settlements. This assumption can be confirmed or refuted by a more detailed study of the collected material and further research in other parts of the site. The continuation of exploratory studies along the coastline of numerous lakes in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve seems to be a promising research task.
Key words: settlement, adaptation, Tobol-Ishim interfluve, settlement Zolotoe 1, landscape, Alakul culture, Alekseevka-Sargary culture.
Ryabogina N.E., Ivanov S.N., Nasonova E.D.
RESIDENTIAL LANDSCAPE: THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE LATE BRONZE SETTLEMENTS IN THE TOBOL REGION
This article addresses one of the most important issues in landscape archaeology, i.e. the landscape prefe-rences of ancient populations depending on the patterns of nature management that these peopled used. Since forest-steppe regions are characterized by a mosaic plant cover, the appearance of residential landscapes — the natural environment around ancient settlements — can be restored using paleo-economic population models. This work is aimed at analysing the characteristics of residential landscapes in the late Bronze Age on the example of three settlements in the Tobol region (south of Western Siberia), which were inhabited by the representatives of the Fedorovî, Pakhomovî and Cherkaskul cultures. To this end, the blocks of palynological data obtained from different archaeological contexts were compared with each other, well as with the background natural conditions reconstructed for the south of Western Siberia. The paper presents the detailed analysis of both pollen data and non-pollen palynomorphs collected from the soil sediments of the cultural layers, as well as the results of the natural environment reconstruction. The cultural layer of the Fedorovî settlement (Bochantsevo 1, up to the 16th century BC) is shown to contain predominantly meadow pollen, typical weeds of human habitats and the spores of coprophilous fungi. The residential landscape of this village consisted in an open place with meadow grass vegetation, without signs of steppe, with small birch forests nearby. A similar situation was reconstructed for the settlement of Cherkaskul culture (Khripunovskoe 1, 16–13th century BC); here, the household economy was based on the breeding of cattle, with people preferring to settle open forest-steppe areas. On the basis of pollen data analysis, a completely different residential landscape was reconstructed for the Pakhomov culture settlement (Zavodoukovsk 11, 13–11th century BC). This settlement was founded and functioned in the birch forest. Its inhabitants practiced not only cattle breeding, but also hunting and fishing. Numerous studies conducted on mixed Cherkaskul-Pakhomovo settlements across the territory of the Tobol region have allowed archaeologists to suggest the co-existence of these population groups in the same territory. Our findings show that these populations might have used different land zones within the same territory, since they chose different types of residential landscape. Differences in the economic types of these groups are likely to have influenced their landscape preferences: the Pakhomov settlements were confined to the valley birch forests, while the Cherkaskul settlements were initially localized in open spaces surrounded by lands suitable for grazing.
Key words: Bronze Age, Western Siberia, pollen analysis, NPP, living landscape, reconstruction.
INVENTORY COMPLEX OF THE ZHURAVLEVÎ CULTURE IN THE LOWER ISHIM RIVER AREAS (BASED ON THE 2012–14 RESEARCH AT THE BORKI 1 SITE)
This article presents the results of a study carried out to investigate the tools of the Zhuravlevî culture discovered in the Borki 1 settlement in 2012–14. This site is located on the territory of the Lower Ishim river. The economic activity of the Zhuravlevo population has not been studied enough, which determines the relevance of the work. The economic activity of the Zhuravlev population was investigated exclusively on the example of the Bogochanovî culture of the Early Iron Age. On the basis of stratigraphic and planigraphic observations, artefacts reliably correlated with the Zhuravlevo building horizon of the site were selected for analysis. The primary classification of the artefacts was conducted using the typological method. Subsequently, in order to determine the functional area of the artefacts, we applied use-wear analysis. Stone and bone tools were investigated by the technological method. The tool wear was determined using an MS-2 ZOOM microscope with a ×10–40 magnification. The functional classification of the tools made of various materials has provided additional information on the economic activity of the Zhuravlevo culture groups, confirming its diversified nature and determining the inventory of specific industries. The importance of bronze casting has been established, with almost complete absence of tools for refining castings. These findings, along with the results of the metallographic analysis of metals in the transitional period, indicate the predominant use of casting technologies without further refining operations. A significant amount of spinning tools, such as spindles and their typological analogues, has been indicated. This supports the idea, frequently advanced by researchers, that weaving is likely to have developed at the beginning of the Early Iron Age. In addition, it is by the Zhuravlevî materials that the replacement of bone tools with ceramic ones during the processing of hides is recorded. According to indirect data, the technology of processing stone and bone can be reconstructed. The number of stone tools, which were manufactured by lithic reduction or abrasive techniques, is insignificant. For bone carving, cutting and chopping metal tools were used, as well as various tools made of bone. Various treatment technologies, such as cutting, drilling, abrasive machining, are recorded. These techniques are traditional and characteristic of Bronze Age cultures (Transitional Period); however, the range of bone tools is limited and associated exclusively with the hunting industry. Therefore, the Zhuravlevo culture inventory features, on the one hand, the continuity of a number of Bronze Age technologies, and, on the other, the appearance of Early Iron Age features. In addition, it is obvious that the Ishim river lands were part of the nomadic traditions of the Early Iron Age, which is confirmed by a number of items that can be dated to 7th–6th centuries BC.
Key words: Lower Ishim river areas, ancient settlement Borki 1, Zhuravlevo antiquities, tools, typo-logy, technology, traceological analysis.
Ilyushina V.V., Rafikova T.N.
EARLY IRON AGE COMPLEX OF THE LASTOCHKINO GNEZDO 1 SETTLEMENT IN THE LOWER ISHIM RIVER BASIN
In this article, we present the results of a study carried out at the Early Iron Age site in the multi-layered settlement Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 in the Lower Ishim river basin. Following a series of fieldwork studies, it is revealed that this Early Iron Age settlement featured defence constructions in the form of a ditch and a rampart. The discovered hearth and the remains of vessels around it allowed us to suggest the presence of a ground structure built without a pit. The ceramic collection of the settlement is not numerous, comprising about 150 vessels. Four main morphological groups of artefacts have been distinguished. 44 vessels were subjected to technical and technological analysis. The study was carried out applying the historical and cultural methodological approach developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The study of the technological features of the vessels has confirmed the homogeneity of pottery traditions among the population of the settlement. Potters mainly used silt clay as the initial plastic raw material. Moulding masses were prepared using fireclay and organic additives. When designing vessels, potters used flaps as building elements. Surface treatment methods included smoothing, most frequently with wooden scrapers, knives or spatulas. Only a quarter of the vessels have traces of compaction. The ceramics was fired in hearths or fireplaces. Ornamentation is scarce: the main decorative technique used was imprinting with inclined lines. In some cases, impressed holes were the only decoration. Our findings show that the vessels, despite differences in morphology, were made by potters belonging to a single cultural group and were in use approximately at the same time. The comparison of the data on the specifics of the vessels from the Lastochkino Gnezdo 1 site with those from the Zhuravlevî complex found in the ancient settlement Borki 1, and with the collections from the Bogochanovî culture sites in the Irtysh river area has shown only a certain degree of their similarity. At the current level of research, it is possible to determine the cultural and chronological position of the materials under study as belonging to the Late Zhuravlevî culture.
Key words: Low Ishim river basin, settlement Lastochkino Gnezdo 1, the early phase of the Iron Age, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation.
THE CERAMIC COMPLEX OF THE MAYMÀ ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE
The Maymà archaeological culture was designated more than 25 years ago; however, no attempts have been undertaken since then to scrutinize this important cultural and chronological entity. Despite the accumulation of a large amount of ceramic complex material, which is known to be the most representative source, the vast majority of this material is yet to be analysed. In this work, the author investigates published data on ceramic complexes found at the Maymà archaeological culture site using standard qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. The conclusions obtained by qualitative analysis according to 5 parameters (shape of vessel, shape of bottom, shape of neck, any ornamental element, ornamental composition) were additionally tested by cluster analysis. Three groups of complexes, corresponding to the 3 developmental stages of the Maymà archaeological culture, were identified as Sailap, Gornoelban and Novozykovî on the basis of a correlation of the qualitative and quantitative data. Available dating information allowed the author to develop a relative chronology of the stages. It is shown that the earliest was Sailap, then Gornoelban, and finally Novozykovî. Absolute dating for the 3 stages is proposed as follows: Sailap — 1st century B.C. — 4th century A.D.; Gornoelban — 4th–6th centuries A.D.; Novozykovî — 6th–8th centuries A.D. A comparison of the characteristics of the ceramic complexes at the diffe-rent stages revealed several distinct evolutionary patterns. A comparison of the ceramic complex from the prece-ding period found in this region (Bystryankà archaeological culture) with the Maymà culture revealed no common features. This allowed a conclusion to be drawn that the population migrated to the territory of the middle section of the Biya river (where the complexes of the earliest Sailap stage are located) and subsequently spread over the entire region of the Maymà archaeological culture. A hypothesis is advanced concerning the later transformation of the Maymà archaeological culture as a result of its merger with the Odintsovo culture as evidenced in the artifacts of the Basandaikà archaeological culture.
Key words: ceramics, morphology, ornament, archaeological culture, stage, evolution, analysis.
Tigeeva E.V., Belonogova L.N.
MIRRORS OF THE SARGATka CULTURE IN THE TOBOL-ISHIM INTERFLUVE BASIN
In this article, we provide a morphological and typological description of mirrors of the Sargatka culture discovered in the area of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve. Similar artefacts were found in places across a significant part of Eurasia, with quantitative investigations demonstrating their preponderance in the Lower Volga basin and the Aral Sea area. 12 mirrors were analysed using the atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and spectral analysis methods. Data on metal processing techniques for 11 items were obtained by visual inspection and me-tallographic analysis. The results of atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence and metallography showed that both local, traditional and unique, rare technologies had been used in their production. Most mirrors are made of high-tin bronze alloys containing 20–30 % of tin, which imparts a golden colour and lustre to the artefacts. Working with high-tin alloys is known to require special skills, since their forging can be performed only within a narrow temperature range. Reheating and water quenching are the final operations, aimed at strengthening the product during its operation. Stable uniform techniques and temperature regimes seem to have been applied when producing the Sargatka mirrors. The use of water quenching is considered to be an innovation in this locality, which distinguishes the metalworking of the Early Iron Age from the preceding Bronze Age. This allowed us to propose that the processing techniques and the finished products could have been imported from two mirror production centres located in the areas of the Volga river basin and the Aral Sea. The similarity of the artefacts under study indicates that they could have been manufactured at a single production centre. The destination of this centre is hard to determine due to the identity of the artefacts both in terms of their composition and common production pattern, which implies the quenching of hot-forged mirrors in cold water. Taking into account the traditional contacts of the Sargatka tribes, who settled the Tobol-Ishim basin, with the population of the Volga region, as well as the geographical proximity of these territories, we tend to suppose that this centre was located on the territory of the Volga river basin. Thus, a Chinese mirror from the Chepkul 9 burial ground is likely to have been professionally manufactured using a blank wax model for casting. Han mirrors were one of the most important and popular Chinese articles exported to other cultures, including the Sargatka culture. The area of the Sargatka culture embraced the northern branch of the Great Silk Road.
Key words: Early Iron Age, Tobol-Ishim basin, metallography, ancient metal production, mirrors, Sargatka culture.
ARTEFACTS FROM THE TURBINELLA PYRUM SHELL FOUND AT 3rd–4th CENTURY SITES IN THE MIDDLE KAMA REGION
Starting from the 1950s, researchers have been collecting original artefacts — discs made of obviously non-local shells — in the Middle Kama region. In the 1990s, the source region for such molluscs was determined to be the coastline of India. Since then, over 170 such artefacts have been found in burial grounds. These objects were used in the 3rd–4th centuries mostly as cover plates attached to leather belts produced by local masters. Their use as globular pommels attached to imported swords was less common. The discs were made in India, which is well known for having had several shell-processing centres, from the shells of the Turbinella pyrum molluscs. Goods made of these shells had been imported from India throughout Eurasia since the 4th–3rd mill. BC (Mesopotamia). They were found in the 1st mill. BC mounds in the Himalayas and East Pamir foothills, near the northern foothills of the Kyrgyz mountain range and in the steppe archaeological sites dated the 1st half of the 1st mill. AD. The densest distribution of such artefacts has been recorded across 20 sites in the Middle Kama region, with the most significant cluster being the Tarasovo burial ground located in Udmurtia (71 pieces). This site, known to be the largest Finno-Ugric site in Eurasia (1880 graves), is related to the Tarasovo (Cheganda) culture of the Pyanoborye historical community and covers the interesting period of the end of the Early Iron Age and the Great Migration Period. In the Tarasovo burial ground, the discs were found in 47 graves of 50 people (42 female and 8 male). In 43 and 7 cases, the artefacts consisted of belt cover plates and part of gift sets, respectively. 30 belts had one cover plate only; 5 belts had 2 cover plates; 8 belts had 3 cover plates. Two cover plates were decorated with round imprints making rosettes. A similar ornament was recorded on artefacts found in India and in the Krasny Yar burial ground (Orenburg region). Along with cover plates, the Middle Kama region features pendants and beads made of shells. The beads were most probably imported during the 2nd century AD, while the pendants, whose datings coincide, are likely to have been produced by local craftsmen from imported discs. Discs were imported mainly in the 3rd–4th centuries (except for the last quarter), with the import ostensibly ending during the Huns’ invasion. In different periods, discs were spreading from India to Eurasia through the Silk Road. Thus, they came to the Middle Kama region from Central Asia and from the Aral Sea region by means of the Ural river, the Belaya river and its tributaries. There, local craftsmen applied them according to their aesthetic sense. Pommel discs for swords arrived to all regions together with blades. The period of their distribution covers the 1st–3rd centuries AD.
Key words: Eurasia, India, the Middle Kama region, shells of mollusks Turbinella pyrum, the Great Silk Road, production centers.
Gerasimova M.M., Frizen S.Yu., Vasiliev S.V.
CRANIOLOGICAL MATERIALS FROM MEDIEVAL GRAVE FIELDS IN KRASNODAR KRAI
In this paper, we present a study of craniological materials collected in the Psebeps 3, Kabardinka and Tserkovnaya shchel’ medieval grave fields (Krasnodar Krai, Russia). The Psebeps 3 grave field (10 male and 5 female skulls), belonging to the Adyghe people (Circassians), dates to the 14th–15th centuries. The Kabardinka grave field (11 male and 4 female skulls), also correlating with the Adyghes, dates to the 14th–15th centuries. The Tserkovnaya shchel’ grave field (3 male and 3 female skulls), dating to the 17th–18th centuries, was a burial site of the Adyghe tribes. All the skulls are characterized by the Caucasoid craniological complex and a significant typological diversity within this complex. On the basis of intragroup analysis, a graph was drawn that places the skulls from the Psebeps 3 and Kabardinka grave fields on its right and left sides, respectively. This discrepancy is likely to result from a difference in these series, although they both represent culturally related population groups. Following the results of the intergroup analysis of the male series, the graph depicts two clusters. The first cluster features the Pyatigorsk, Natukhai, Kazazovo 1, Moshchevaya Balka, Gamovskoe Ushchelie, Psebeps 3 and Tserkovnaya shchel’ groups. The second cluster includes the Black Sea, Shapsugs, Kazazovo 2 and Kabardinka groups. The Circassian group is located on the graph separately from the aforementioned groups. The graph representing the results of the intergroup analysis of the female series shows the Psebeps 3, Kazazovo 2, Tserkovnaya shchel’ and Natukhai groups to be located on the left, the Pyatigorsk, Shapsugs, Kabardian, Black Sea and Moshchevaya Balka groups to be in the centre, while the Circassian group is located separately. In the distribution of the series, the separate position of the Circassian group stands out; this is likely to be a result of Mongoloid admixture in the territory of the Adyghe settlements recorded in the territory of Circassia. The cluster bringing together the series from the Black Sea, Kazazovo 2, Kabardinka and Shapsug groups can also be quite logically explained by the fact that all these populations belong to the Adyghes. In the third cluster, the new materials are in good agreement with the facts demonstrating the transformation of the anthropological variation typical of the skulls from Moshchevaya Balka and Kazazovo 1 towards that typical of the skulls from the Pyatigorsk group. It is interesting that the Psebeps 3 series originating from the territory of traditional Natukhai settlements demonstrate a convergence with the third cluster containing the Natukhai series.
Key words: craniology, burial ground, Middle Ages, Krasnodar Krai, Adyghe.
Solodovnikov K.N., Kravchenko G.G., Rykun M.P.
MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ENEOLITHIC — EARLY BRONZE POPULATION AS A RESULT OF ADAPTATION TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE ALTAI HIGHLANDS
This paper is aimed at scrutinizing the dependence between the morphological features of the Eneolithic — Early Bronze population and the geographical and bioclimatic conditions in the Altai valleys and intermountain basins. Across the territory of the Altai highlands, we have identified several local-territorial groups of archaeological sites dating to the period under study. Most of them belong to the Afanasyevî culture, with the rest being represented by the Kurota, Aragol and Ulita cultural types that have been recently designated from the Afanasyevî culture. For each group, in accordance with their geographical localization, we have calculated geographical and bioclimatic parameters. The comparison of these parameters with the characteristics of the corresponding craniological series has allowed us to reveal the main trends of intergroup variability within the Eneolithic — Early Bronze Altai population. A considerable and statistically significant correlation is found between the morphological parameters, such as the height of the cranium, general sizes of a cranial cavity and the width of the face, and geographic and bioclimatic parameters characterizing the severity of the climate and the mountain height above sea level. In terms of other race-demarcating characteristics, no significant difference has been revealed between the territorial groups of the Altai Eneolithic — Early Bronze population characterized by the proto-European type. The identified variations correspond to the previously established differences between the total series of skulls of the Afanasyevî culture from the Altai highlands and the Minusinsk Hollow, as well as to two craniological types defined as the main anthropological components of the Afanasyevî culture population in Southern Siberia. The first of these types, prevailing among the Altai Afanasyevo culture population, is markedly hypermorphic and characterized by a higher and, in general, a larger skull. The second type, determining the craniological specifics of the unicultural population in the Minusinsk Hollow, is moderately hypermorphic and characterized by a smaller and, importantly, less high skull. Our findings suggest that these differences are associated in many respects with a general increase in the body size in populations having lived in the most bioclimatically unfavourable areas of the Altai highlands. This is evidenced by an increase in the longitudinal and girth dimensions of the long skeletal bones of the Altai Eneolithic — Early Bronze population having inhabited the mid-mountain and high-mountain Altai areas compared with the control samples from the low-mountain Altai regions and the Afanasyevo culture from the Minusinsk Hollow. Therefore, according to the calculated parameters, the population from the bioclimatically unfavourable Altai regions was characterized by a rather large weight and height among all the studied ancient Neolithic — Bronze Eurasian groups. Thus, our study confirms that the main mechanism of biological adaptation to the severe mountain environment of the Altai highlands among the Eneolithic — Early Bronze population was the enhancement of energy processes by means of increasing standard metabolism. As a result, the initially tall and large proto-European population was becoming even larger.
Key words: Afanasyevo culture, the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age, the Altai Mountains, paleoanthro-pology, craniometry, osteometry, bioclimate.
ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL DEFORMATION AMONG THE ABORIGINAL POPULATION OF PRE-COLUMBIAN CUBA
Artificial cranial deformation has been practiced by indigenous peoples at various times in different parts of the world. In pre-Columbian Cuba, it is believed to have been practiced by the pottery-making agricultural groups called Taino. These people, who spoke the Arawak language, started to inhabit the island around 800 AD. According to the dominant theory, the practice was imported to the region from the Orinoco river valley by the Saladoid pottery makers. However, some authors ascribe this role to the Huecoid groups. Since any written record of the practice is virtually absent, a study of known paleoanthropological materials can be of crucial importance. In this paper, we set out to compare two samples of pre-Columbian crania belonging to the pre-ceramic population, who did not apply the practice of deforming their newborns’ heads (Ciboney), with those belonging to the pottery making agriculturalists (Taino), who did use such a practice. The crania under study, originating from Cuba and the Dominican Republic, mainly feature the frontal occipital oblique type of deformation. The intra-group variation in the deformed group is found to be much higher. This suggests that, despite the presumably standard deforming procedure, individual variations were inevitable. Taking the variations into account, somewhat unusual shapes, which cannot be unequivocally labelled as frontal occipital oblique, should be treated as a result of this diversity. The specific features that differentiate the deformed samples from the non-deformed ones are found to be the length of the parietal bones, the curvature of the frontal bone and the width of the crania. However, we cannot conclude that the deformations are wholly responsible for these differences. Another result of the study consists in the differences found between the crania from Cuba and the Dominican Republic, which point to a possible variation in deformation techniques. However, this firm conclusion cannot be drawn until additional materials from other Antillean islands become available.
Key words: paleoanthropology, artificial cranial deformation, Antilles, Cuban anthropology, Taino, Ciboney.
Fedorov R.Yu., Abolina L.A.
MATERIAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIAN MIGRANTS in the BRATSK DISTRICT: IDENTITY MARKERS
At the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from Belarus, Ukraine and the Pskov province founded a number of settlements in the territory of the Central Angara region. Migrants brought with them the specific features of their traditional culture and economic activity, which were different from those typical for the local Russian population. The empirical basis for the research was formed by the materials of an ethnographic expedition conducted in 2017 in the territory of the Bratsk district (Irkutsk region, Russia). The research was aimed at identifying various markers of the ethnocultural identity of Belarusian peasant migrants in their material culture and at investigating the interactions of Belarusians with their ethnic environment. It is found that the ethnic identity of Belarusian migrant descendants is currently characterized by a high level of variability across different families. Certain representatives of the senior generation consider themselves as Belarusians. At the same time, the majority of informants emphasize in their oral stories that only their ancestors were Belarusians. The culture of food among the first Belarusian migrants had a number of distinct features. Thus, in comparison with Russian settlers, Belarusians tended to consume more vegetables, rye bread and pork. The first generation of the Belarusian migrants preferred to make clothes according to their ethnic traditions; however, the subsequent generations of migrants borrowed many clothing items from the local population, which were more practical for the local climatic conditions. A visual survey of dwellings and other buildings indicates that the national architecture of the Belarusian migrants still have a number of features introduced from their homeland. At the same time, these features have undergone certain transformations over the course of the 20th century, as a result of adaptation to a more severe climate and introduction of improved construction technologies. In comparison with the immovable objects of traditional material culture, the transformation of such cultural manifestations as cuisine and clothing is shown to be a more prolonged process.
Key words: Belarusians, Bratsk district, peasant resettlements, ethnocultural identity, subsistence, material culture.
Liskevich N.A., Kopyltsova I.Yu., Porshunova L.S.
THE EFFECT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON THE PRACTICE OF REINDEER HERDERS IN THE SUB-POLAR URALS
In this paper, we aim to determine the role of weather conditions in the annual industrial cycle of reindeer her-ders inhabiting the Sub-polar Urals. To this end, we analyse the knowledge accumulated by the local population about natural conditions significant for their production practices and weather forecasting. Main research sources consisted in the materials of field ethnographic studies conducted in 2018 across the territory of the rural settlement Saranpaul in the Berezovsky district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Yugra). The data was collected using the method of semi-formalized interview with the residents of Saranpaul and the Shchekurya village. Among the informants were ancestral reindeer herders, specialists and heads of reindeer farms. Following the treatment and analysis of the obtained data, we have revealed seasonal difficulties concerned with grazing management, as well as changes in the dates and routes of herd migration. The practical knowledge and skills of reindeer herders are shown to include the ability of operational and long-term observation of the weather, experience in forecasting and evaluating changes in hydrometeorological conditions, the ability to determine the impact of climatic conditions on both the food supply, and the behaviour and health of deer. The experience of observing climatic conditions shows that the climate is becoming milder and that the number of anomalous weather phenomena is increasing. As a result of climate change and a number of other external factors, reindeer herders in the territory under study have been forced to change the timing and routes of herd migration. Thus, the winter grazing lands in the Sosva river valley have ceased to be used, and deer is being gazed in the mountains all year round.
Key words: Komi, Mansi, Nenets, Saranpaul reindeer company, signs of weather.
Konev A.Yu., Poplavskiy R.O.
THE GIFT IN THE POLICY AND PRACTICE OF SIBERIAN NON-ORTHODOX PEOPLE CHRISTIANISATION (BASED ON MATERIALS FOR WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 16th — 18th CENTURY)
In almost all societies, the rites of passage are accompanied by the ritual of gift giving. Baptism is one of the key transition rites in the Christian tradition. At the first stages of the Russian conquest of Siberia, the conversion of heterodox believers from the indigenous population into the Orthodox faith involved two intersecting processes, with the first being aimed at religious conversion itself and the second — at making the indigenous population to be further rooted in the Russian allegiance. In this article, we set out to approach these processes using the gift theory pioneered by M. Mauss and elaborated by contemporary economists and social anthropologists. Since M. Mauss developed his theory using the example of stateless societies, our research was based on findings achieved by N.V. Ssorin-Chaikov. His research into the phenomenon of gift relations between the state and its citizens is mainly based the Hobbesian concept. We found out that, until the first decades of the 18th century, the process of conversion into the Orthodox Church not only concerned the religious aspect, but also played an important role in turning a yesterday’s «non-Orthodox» into a fully valid subject of the Russian Tsar. By allowing a non-Orthodox believer to be baptized, the state sought to establish or strengthen its sovereignty over a new convert. As early as at the proclamation stage, new converts accepted a free gift from the state — a «new time», and, a new quality of allegiance, which implied their loyal service. In return for the Christianisation, the state gifted new subjects with money and new clothes. In the second half of the 18th century, the gifts were substituted by privileges in tribute payment. The baptized representatives of the Siberian native elite could gain acceptance and prolong their status of «volost strongmen». The quality and amount of gifts presented by secular authorities and godparents were intended to mark the status of both the donator and the gifted, building up a system of hierarchical relations and incorporating newly baptized people into a particular social group.
Key words: christianization, gift theory, non-Orthodox («inovertsy»), Siberia, conversion, allegiance.
LEGAL STATUS OF MUSLIM CLERGY IN THE TOBOLSK PROVINCE AT THE END OF 18th — BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY
The establishment of the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly at the end of the 18th century marked a new stage in the relationship between the state and the Islamic community in the Russian Empire. The state took ano-ther step towards the implementation of such a key principle in its confessional policy, as the state control over all religious institutions in the country. During the period under study, the government regulated the procedure for the occupation of Muslim religious positions by having delegated the right of conducting clergy exams to the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly. However, in the first third of the 19th century, a part of the Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province fulfilled their duties without passing such exams, acting on the basis of the customary law norms. In later periods, only single cases of the violation of the official procedure for the occupation of Muslim clergy positions were recorded. During the 19th — early 20th centuries, the government tightened the requirements for candidates for the positions of Muslim clerics and the procedure for their appointment by introducing restrictions in terms of age, education, knowledge of the Russian language, etc. The involvement of Islamic institutions in the system of administrative management in the Russian Empire was also carried out by delegating some state functions, such as civil registration, notary service and court procedures, to the Islamic clergy. At the same time, Islamic «spiritual officials» who served in the parishes did not receive any state allowance and were not exempted from paying their duties. They were allowed to get a tax benefit at the initiative of their communities; however, parishioners were frequently unable to take on the maintenance of their clergy due to a poor economic situation in the Tobolsk province. The Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province, similar to all Muslims, were exempted from military service. This provision gave them equal rights with other members of the parish, although distinguishing them from their colleagues in the Orenburg district. For the latter, exemption from the state military service was a privilege. In the case of committing offenses, the Muslim clergy were subject to penalties and were to face Islamic or secular trial. In 1850, they received exemption from corporal punishment. By the nature of their professional activities, the Muslim clergy in the Tobolsk province constituted a specific social group endowed with certain privileges from the state.
Key words: Islam, Tobolsk province, Muslim clergy, Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly, legal status, Tatars, Bokharan.
PROBLEMS OF TRAINING TEACHERS FOR NATIONAL SCHOOLS IN THE TRANS-URALS IN 1930s–1950s (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE TOBOLSKY TATAR PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGE)
The article discusses the activities of the Tatar Pedagogical College, which was functioning in the city of Tobolsk in the 1934–1955 period. It was the only educational institution in the Urals, whose activity was aimed at training pedagogical personnel for Tatar primary and secondary schools. For the first time, based on materials from the archives of the city of Tobolsk and field research, an attempt was made to restore the picture of the organization of the educational process in the school. It is revealed that the school periodically encountered such problems as the shortage of teaching staff, insufficient provision of educational and methodological literature and inept leadership on the part of higher authorities. Despite all the difficulties, the school graduated qualified teachers every year. It is noted that the teaching of basic subjects was conducted in the school in the Tatar literary language, which was not native to the majority of students. The educational reforms in the USSR led to the gra-dual ousting of the Tatar language and culture from the content of general education, therefore in 1955 the Tatar Pedagogical College in Tobolsk was closed.
Key words: Tatar Pedagogical College, Tobolsk, elementary education, incomplete secondary schools, curricula, pedagogical practice, employment.
THE MUSLIM LANDSCAPE OF THE URBAN DISTRICT OF TYUMEN: PLACES, SIZE AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC COMPOSITION OF PRAYER MEETINGS
Ostrovskaya E.A., Alexeeva E.V.
DIGITAL DIMENSION OF CONFESSION: RESULTS OF STRUCTURED FIELD OBSERVATION
This article investigates the digital dimension of confession using the methods of structured observation and content analysis. When investigating religious practices, contemporary sociologists and anthropologists undertake their inquiry in an essentially changed social and cultural reality. The specifics of this reality can only be understood provided that the whole range of communicative spaces of religious interactions is taken into account. Field observations of religious communities necessarily involve two dimensions of analysis: face-to-face and virtual forms of interaction. Virtual analysis implies the online monitoring of structural observation units. Synchronization of online and offline analysis dimensions allows the diversity of the interaction contexts under study to be revealed. In addition, it enables a researcher to grasp the communication that is taking place between the actors in its completeness, which is always a hard task. In this paper, for the first time, confession is investigated by analysing communication within Internet communities organized by Orthodox temples in the city of Ekaterinburg. Research data was collected using the methods of structured observation (on the complete enumeration basis) and content analysis. The research was carried out in the March 2018 — July 2018 period. For the analytical purposes, we defined confession as a social interaction presented in structured units. These units included the priest, congregation, time of confession, space, confession as a ritual and confession as a sacrament. The results of the online structured observation of these units were presented in the form of tables. A unique methodological feature of this research consists in the application of the method of structured observation to an object in its digital self-presentation. The studied digital resources included the websites of Ekaterinburg Orthodox temples, YouTube channels and themed vk.com pages of believer communities. Using content analysis, we have identified which structural units of confession most frequently appear in virtual themed communication threads in Ekaterinburg.
Key words: structured observation, structural units of observation, content analysis, thick description, religious communication, Orthodox digital landscape of Yekaterinburg.
Enshin D.N., Skochina S.N.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE EARLY NEOLITHIC POPULATION HAVING RESIDED AROUND LAKE MERGEN AS A STRATEGY OF ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE MERGEN 6 SETTLEMENT)
This paper sets out to analyse the economic activity of the inhabitants of an Early Neolithic settlement on the north-eastern coast of Lake Mergen (Lower Ishim River, south of Western Siberia) with the purpose of determining specific strategies of their adaptation to natural conditions (based on the materials of the Mergen 6 settlement). The initial data for the analysis were taken from studies characterizing the climate at the beginning of the Holocene, the paleolandscape characteristics of the territory, the geomorphological position of the settlement, the composition and conditions for the formation of the archaeozoological collection and hunting/fishing gear sets. A comprehensive analysis of these sources made it possible to develop an economic model describing the functioning of the settlement. The main features of the settlement functioning model involve the location of the settlement at the intersection of the so-called «feeding landscapes» (forest/steppe at the macro-level, lake/river at the micro-level); a probable year-round, stationary character of the settlement; the equivalence between two main economic sectors (hunting and fishing); reliance in the economic activity on ungulate hunting and fishing; a supposedly seasonal character of hunting and fishing certain fauna species. In our opinion, this model suitably reflects adaptation strategies used by the ancient population, whose main goal was to ensure the sustainability and productivity of their economy. In addition, the conducted historiography analysis has shown that the aforementioned elements of the model were common for all ancient societies with the appropriating type of economy that resided in Eurasian forest and forest-steppe territories in the Mesolithic-Neolithic periods.
Key words: Early Neolithic, economic activity, adaptation strategy, hunting, fishing, settlement Mergen 6.
Papin D.V., Stepanova N.F., Fedoruk A.S.
LATE BRONZE AGE CERAMICS FROM A STEPPE REGION BETWEEN THE OB AND IRTYSH RIVERS AS A SOURCE FOR RECONSTRUCTING ETHNOCULTURAL INTERACTION PROCESSES
Archaeological cultures formed at the end of the Bronze Age in the steppe area between the Ob and Irtysh rivers are characterized by a considerable level of variability. Under conditions, when stratigraphic observations fail to reliably differentiate archaeological materials, pottery can serve as an important cultural diagnostic indicator. The Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements having situated in a steppe region between the Ob and Irtysh rivers have long attracted the attention of researchers, because they feature all the archaeological cultures present in the region. Thus, during many years of studying various archaeological structures, the authors of the present work have gathered a significant collection of ceramics and other artefacts in this area. In this research, ceramic fragments collected in the Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements were analysed in terms of the forms of vessels, ornamental patterns and the methods used for ornamentation. The morphology and ornamentation of vessels was analysed using V.F. Gening’s method. In addition, the historical-cultural approach developed by A.A. Bob-rinsky was applied. The technical and technological analysis allowed the skills of ceramics production to be taken into account. As a result, all the ceramics fragments under investigation have been broadly distinguished into eight historical and cultural groups and their transitional forms: Sargary-Alekseevka ceramics, Dongal ceramics, Irmen ceramics, Irmen-Dongal ceramics, hybrid ceramics (Sargary-Dandybay), glazed pots with flutes on the neck, Dandybay ceramics, pottery made on a potter's wheel. A technical and technological analysis was performed on samples from 240 Late Bronze Age vessels, with 154 and 86 vessels being taken from Rublevo 6 and Zharkovo 3 settlements, respectively. For each settlement, a comparative analysis of raw materials and moulding compositions was carried out between the groups. It is found that ceramics from all the groups and both sites feature general and individual characteristics. It is established that both settlements shared a common tradition of adding chamotte (grog) to the moulding composition. The tradition of using grus was not local, but rather had been brought from outside. As a result of the research, it is found that societies having resided in the Altai steppe in the Late Bronze Age were influenced by the Sargary-Alekseevka and Irmen cultures. Thus, the Sargary-Alekseevka population brought the tradition of using grus in pottery making. At the final stage of the Bronze Age, representatives of the Dongal culture arrived to this land, thus stimulating the process of ethnocultural interaction between the Irmenskaya, Sargary-Alekseevka and Dongal cultures.
Key words: steppe Ob-Irtysh interfluve, Altai, ceramics, technical and technological analysis, the Late Bronze Age.
TO THE QUESTION OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES USED BY PAKHOMOVO PEOPLE IN THE TRANS-URAL REGION
Research into the diverse aspects of the life of ancient people is known to involve a number of difficulties, such as the lack of data, limited selections of artefacts, etc. Recently, combined approaches and methods successfully applied in various scientific disciplines have attracted much attention. One of the most promising approaches is the use of modelling methods that are based on both simple and multilevel mathematical algorithms. Unfortunately, the specifics of Bronze Age archaeological sources does not allow a comprehensive application of such techniques for the reconstruction or assessment of historical processes in the Trans-Ural region. However, the application of GIS techniques proves beneficial for obtaining more objective information, verifying working hypotheses and validating obtained results. In this work, we investigate the specifics of the Pakhomovo culture, both in general and on the level of some settlements, by comparing various data sets on their economic activity, environmental management and the choice of adaptation strategies. A correlation analysis between various archaeological sources has allowed us to reveal a number of logical inconsistencies, to explain or to partly prove the validity or incorrectness of certain conclusions. Using specific GIS methods, the results of paleogeography studies and paleozoological data, we have defined a hypothetical border between the economic areas of some settlements, described specifics of their economic approaches and presented some arguments on re-settlement history. In order to assess the level of spatial development in these settlements, their logistics opportunities and resource potential, we also applied techniques used in spatial archaeology and territory analysis. As a result, the hypothesis about the effect of surrounding landscapes and economy patterns on the choice of spatial development strategies has been confirmed. It is concluded that the Pakhomovo population adopted a number of cultural traditions from the Andronovo community, thus choosing the same territories and developmental approaches.
Key words: Pakhomovo culture, Tobol River, Ishim River, economy, spatial analysis, typology of the archaeological sites, strategy.
ZHURAVLEVO CERAMICS ASSEMBLAGE OF THE EARLY IRON AGE FROM THE BORKI 1 SETTLEMENT (ACCORDING TO THE 2013–2014 STUDY)
This article presents the results of a technical and technological analysis carried out to investigate Zhuravlevo-type ceramics collected from the Borki 1 settlement located in the Ishim river basin (W. Siberia). Ceramics samples were analysed using the historical and cultural approach and methods developed by A.A. Bobrinsky. The conducted research has revealed the heterogeneity of traditions among potters in the Zhuravlevo culture in selecting raw materials, who primarily used clay sand and silt clay. The analysis of the moulding compositions has shown that chamotte and organic additives were frequently used; however, in some cases, chamotte was not added. When constructing vessels, patches were used as building elements. The surface treatment of ceramics was largely performed by smoothing objects with spatulas, wooden scrapers or knives. Only a quarter of the vessels under study have the signs of sealing or polishing. The vessels were fired in simple hearths. Vessels were decorated using smooth stamps, or, less frequently, comb stamps. Various ornament elements made by surface treatment tools — wooden spatulas or knives — were rather customary. The ceramics of the Zhuravlevo type is characterised by «pearl» belts, or, less frequently, holes. Ornamental motifs most commonly included inclined, vertical or arranged in a staggered order stamp prints or angle, grid, horizontal herringbone or vertical zigzag patterns. The comparison of the manufacturing style of Zhuravlevo vessels with that found in the assemblage of Krasnozerska culture (Ishim basin) shows the similarity of pottery traditions in these population groups. At the same time, the results of our study evidence to the appearance of features inherent in the Early Iron Age pottery in terms of both the technology of manufacturing vessels and their ornamentation. The conducted research suggests a continuity between the Krasnozerka and Zhuravlevo cultural traditions in the Ishim basin.
Key words: Siberia, Low Ishim basin, Borki 1 settlement, Zhuravlevo type of ceramics, technical-and-technological analysis, ornamentation.
THE EXCAVAION OF A MARKET PLACE IN TOBOLSK
This article presents the results of the excavation works of a marketplace that was laid in the historical part of the lower village of Tobolsk, near the Kurdyumka river. The conducted archaeological research has established two building periods in this part of the city. The first building period is represented by powerful, well-stratified sediments containing the remains of the wooden trading rows of the marketplace that functioned in the 18th–19th centuries. The second period, which remains were found in the lower occupation layer, is represented by the fragments of residential buildings dated late 17th — early 18th century. The materials collected in the excavation site feature typical mass artefacts (tableware made of clay, porcelain, faience, glass, and a wide assortment of iron products and leather shoes), as well as some rare findings (chess figures, smoking pipes, crosses, rings, buttons, seals, bullets, clay and wooden toys, bone combs, etc.). The assemblage comprises coins and seals in large quantities, which were reliably attached to certain occupation layer strata. The provided characteristics of trade shops and goods having been sold therein have expanded the views of historians on trade relations in one of the first Russian towns in Siberia. According to the archaeological data, the products of Russian producers, including local ones, intended for wide population strata, greatly prevailed in the market of the lower village during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Key words: Tobolsk, the bottom posad, market square XVIII–XIX centuries, retail shops, residential buildings of the late XVII — early XVIII century, artifacts.
TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE MAP OF 1806: A SOURCE FOR SEARCHING ERMAK’S GRAVE OR FALSIFICATION OF ITS AUTHOR?
This article is aimed at investigating the 1806 Map of Tobolsk Governorate, which has been presented to a wider research community relatively recently. This is a unique source indicating the exact location of the grave of Ermak (the first Russian conqueror of Siberia). On the «Plan of a location near the Irtysh river, the Vagay river and other lakes and rivers...», a provincial land surveyor V. Filimonov put a sign indicating a dry Siberian pine 10 yards from the tomb of Ermak. In an extensive text on the map, Filimonov in his own words outlined the details of G.F. Miller’s data referring to the last battle of Ermak and the details of his burial. This text was supplemented by information obtained from the local Tatar population. At the same time, as a conscientious researcher, he clearly delineated the narration of G.F. Miller’s works from the gathered data. In recent articles, I.V. Belich has made an assumption that V. Filimonov forged the historic source by changing Miller’s text and unreasonably mapped the location of Ermak’s grave near Begishevî Yurts. However, a careful analysis of the explanatory text to the map has not confirmed this assumption. In addition, there is no proof for suppositions about Filimonov’s grabbing habit and the disclosure of the forgery back in the 19th century. Archaeological excavations conducted on the site of the alleged grave of Ermak have failed to confirm the statement that local residents just pointed to V. Filimonov at a medieval burial ground or the location of a revered tree. At the same time, the map analysis shows that it was drawn by a professional, who indicated Ermak’s burial place based on the information having been obtained from local residents. As any other historical source, this map undeniably requires a comprehensive re-examination and criticism. However, this should be a scientific criticism, rather than mere accusations against its author.
Key words: Map of Tobolsk Governorate of 1806, land surveyor V. Filimonov, Ermak’s grave, S.U. Remezov, G.F. Miller, Siberian Tartars.
12th–19th CENTURY CRANIOLOGICAL REMNANTS FROM THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS REGION
This paper presents the analysis of a craniological series from the Republic of Ingushetia (Lezhg, Jegikal villages), South Ossetia (Verhnij Rokk, Verhnej Erman, Srednij Erman villages) and the Chechen Republic (Staraja Sunzha village) conducted using modern morphologic methods. The research is based on craniological materials from the MAE RAS (Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences) collections that were gathered and described by V.V. Bunak in 1953. At that time, V.V. Bunak examined the material from the standpoint of the typological approach, giving great importance to the relative value of the cranial index. Therefore, it seems relevant to study the material within the framework of the population approach using modern me-thods. The aim of this paper is to classify the morphological characteristics of the Caucasian anthropological type using samples from two neighbouring groups (Ossetian and Ingush ones), which are analysed by two different methodologies. At the first stage, skulls were measured by a standard craniometric program. Subsequently, the obtained data was analysed by classical statistical methods (Mann — Whitney U test, Principal component analysis, Canonical discriminant analysis). At the second stage, the methods of geometric morphometry were applied for comparing the Procrustean distances by the principal component method (intragroup analysis) and the canonical discriminant analysis (intergroup analysis). The results of the geometric morphometry analysis have allowed us to trace the non-linear variation of the facial part of the skulls. The results obtained at both analytical stages have shown a good agreement. It is concluded that female groups are morphologically close to each other. Male groups show similarities between the Ingush and Ossetian materials. The craniological series from Staraya Sunzha is shown to be unique. Therefore, the majority of the craniological types identified by V.V. Bunak have not been confirmed by modern analytical methods, with the only exception being the male group from Staraya Sunzha.
Key words: Physical anthropology, craniology, Caucasus, geometric morphometrics, burial vault.
Khodzhayov T.K., Khodzhayova G.K.
THE ETHNOGRAPHIC REGION OF MIANKAL AS PART OF THE BIG SOGD
This article characterizes extensive craniological and osteological materials from Miankal, the site located in the Samarkand region, the central part of the Big Sogd. A review of anthropological and archaeological data on the population having resided in the aforementioned province is given for a lengthy historical period from antiquity, through the Late Middle Ages and up to the present time. The majority of the collections are presented for the first time in their full size. The article reviews the epochal dynamics of main craniological characteristics and indicators. A comparative analysis of the Miankal series with all other Big Sogd series is performed in terms of important morphological and paleodemographic indicators. The main morphological complexes having existed in ancient, Middle Age and close to the present time populations are described. A certain morphological peculiarity of the Miankal groups is shown. These groups are described in terms of intergroup differences and in comparison with the other Sogd population. The relationship vectors of the Miankal populations with those of the Central (Samarkand), Western (Bukhara) and Southern (Kaskadarya) Sogd are demonstrated for different historical periods. A suggestion is made that Miankal, being part of the Central Sogd, was also populated by groups from the Western and Southern Sogd, as well as from other historical and cultural geographical regions, such as the Central Kyzylkum, the Sarikamish region, the lower Syrdarya. In addition, according to archaeologists, this region might have been populated by immigrants from Kangju.
Key words: Miankal, Sogd, Samarkand, Bukhara; paleolith, mesolith, neolith, the Bronze Age, anti-quity, Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages è Late Middle Ages; paleoanthropology, craniology, osteology, paleodemography; craniometric characteristics, morphological complexes, race of the Middle Asian (Central Asian) interfluvial Area, Eastern Mediterranean race, Southern Siberian race; archaeological cultures.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Engibaryan A.A., Hovhannisyan À.À., Hobosyan S.G.
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE 14TH–16TH CENTURY ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS FROM THE ZARNI ER CAVE (ARMENIA)
Newly excavated materials from the Zarni Er cave (village of Hakhpat) have allowed the anthropological composition of the Late Middle Age (XIV–XVI centuries) inhabitants of Armenia to be characterized for the first time. Two burials were discovered in the Zarni Er cave. In Burial 1, the skeletal remains of two individuals were recovered. They belonged to a subadult, whose age-at-death is estimated to be between 5–6 years, and to a middle-adult male. In Burial 2, the skeletal remains of two more individuals were discovered: those of a young adult female and of an adult male. The burials were found adjacent to a medieval wine press. On the basis of anthropological and paleopathological data, the physical features and disease pathology of the bones were analysed. The traces of unintentional head (occipital) deformation were found on the skulls, which is supposed to be associated with social-domestic conditions. Some crania are found to display traumatic lesions, with most such fractures being located on the front of the head and its sides (on the frontal and parietal bones). In addition, several well-healed fractures were observed, including facial and rib ones. A left fibula found in Burial 1 showed a healed fracture at its distal end. The degree of the muscular relief development points to a considerable physical activity associated with labour. Some signs of enthesopathy, which disorder had previously been noted in horse riders, were discovered at the proximal end of the individuals’ femora. In two skeletons, the femora featured strongly developed lineas aspera in conjunction with the pronounced areas of the insertion of all three gluteal muscles, in particular of the gluteus minimus and gluteus medius on the greater trochanter. Harris lines, or growth arrest lines, are clearly seen on the Õ-ray images of the tibial bone diaphyses. Some skeletal and dental markers, such as the frequencies of alveolar bone disease, cribra orbitalia, periostitis and Schmorl’s nodes, might be indicative of relatively poor living conditions (inadequate diet, occurrence of subadult anaemia and infectious diseases, extremely hard physical labour) in the Lori province, most probably due to a dramatic worsening of the political situation in Armenia at that time. The remains are believed to be those of the adherents of an anti-feudal, heretical Christian sect — Tondrakians — that flourished in the medieval Armenia. It is likely that the Tondrakian followers took refuge from persecution in the Zarni Er cave. The Tondrakian movement primarily had a social character and was used as a tool for class warfare. Many regions of Armenia were undergoing peasant uprisings, which first began in the form of open social protests, eventually adopting religious aspects.
Key words: Armenia, Middle Ages, Cave Zarni Er, craniology, odondology, osteology, paleopatho-logy, Tondrakians (Christian sect).
OFFERING RITUALS AMONG POQOMCHI’-MAYA
This paper provides an ethnographic description of traditional ceremonies, during which the Poqomchi’ people (Mayan language family, Guatemala) make offerings to supernatural spirits and natural forces. Poqomchi’ rituals have not received sufficient research attention yet; this accounts for the relevance of the topic. These ceremonies are analysed against a general background of Mayan ritual practices. Special attention is paid to the process of altar preparation and to the peculiarities of the ritual language within which Poqomchi’ spiritual guides make requests to their divine authorities. The study considers burning rituals during which the Poqomchi’ ritual specialists collect the offerings and place them on the altar in a specific way. Then they light it with fire so that the flames transfer the offerings to the world of supernatural spirits and forces. While the fire is burning, ritual specialists invoke the deities, inviting them to the ceremonial place and bringing to their notice the petitions of the humans. A special discursive genre, different from an everyday language, is used for this ritual communication between the two worlds. The paper also describes some basic notions and concepts of Mayan spirituality, such as the 260-day ritual calendar, nahual, copal resin, daykeeper (or shaman), colour symbolism and interpretation of colours in terms of the four cardinal directions, among others. The most of them are shared with other ethnic and language communities in the Guatemalan Highlands. It is shown that some of the properties of the Poqomchi’ ritual language, such as the abundant use of semantic and syntactic parallelism (couplets) and different kinds of borrowings from Spanish as manifestation of religious syncretism, have been observed in other Mayan languages and in the Mesoamerican area in general. Other linguistic properties, such as the use of future or potential verb forms in the optative sense, seem to be more language-specific. The article is based on the fieldwork data obtained by the author in 2017 (with the financial support from the Firebird Foundation for Anthropological Research). The working corpus comprises three offering ceremonies, recorded in different places of the Poqomchi’-speaking area (Santa Cruz Verapaz, Tactic and Pajuil) and with different spiritual guides performing.
Key words: Poqomchi’, Maya, ritual language, offering ceremonies, Guatemala.
A SELKUP SHAMAN'S ATTRIBUTE WITH A MAMMOTH IMAGE
The article describes an attribute of a Selkup shaman — a trimmed garment, which is kept in a private collection in Salekhard (the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The shamanic garment was purchased from the relatives of I.S. Bezrukikh, a famous shaman, who had lived in the village of Farkovo, Turukhansk district, Krasnoyarsk Territory. The trimming on the garment is made of fabric pieces, bead strings and some iron figures tied with laces. The total length of the trimming is 80 cm. Three bird beaks (possibly of wild ducks) and seven pieces of skin are sewn on a red ribbon. Figures of two animals — a mammoth with a long tusk and a moose with an elongated muzzle — are sewn on a white ribbon. The mammoth tusk and the moose mouth are connected. The trimming is made of things produced at different times and combined in one unit presumably in the 1970s. The iron figures and a copper ring are the earliest items, which can be dated the second half or the end of the 19th century. The animal figures (a mammoth and a moose) sewn on a ribbon must have been produced in the 1950s or 1960s. The article describes main Selkup beliefs related to mammoths using data from publications by E.D. Prokofieva and G.I. Pelikh, as well as from unpublished materials reporting the 1970 and 1979 expeditions to the Selkups. According to E.D. Prokofieva, a mammoth was believed to protect the entrance to the underground world, to the «land of the dead». Sometimes the image of an underground mammoth would merge with that of a bear (a mammoth-bear), or even with a pike (a mammoth-pike). The Narym Selkups distinguished two kinds of mammoths: sourp-kozar (a beast mammoth) and kvoli-kozar (a fish mammoth). The former looked like a moose, who would turn into a mammoth as soon as it got old, with tusks starting to grow instead of its horns in the process of transformation. The latter resembled a huge pike. As far as the two images sewn on a ribbon are concerned, they are supposed to depict either the transformation of a moose into a mammoth after its death, or a kind of confrontation between a moose and a mammoth. Iron figures that are present on most of the known Selkup shamanic costumes most likely belong to the category of myrak, a spirit enclosed in an iron object. It is known that an iron figure of a swan used to be sacrificed to the spirit when a family member was ill or when some other misfortunes had occurred, with the purpose of conciliating the spirit. Unfortunately, we lack information about the role played by the images of a mammoth, a moose, birds and other animals in the beliefs of I.S. Bezrukikh. In any case, the investigated artefact is a unique cult attribute of a Selkup shaman, which demonstrates an extremely rare plot of including an underground creature — the mammoth — into the religious ritual practices of a small northern people.
Key words: shaman, mammoth, moose, religion, cult, peoples of North-West Siberia.
KITCHEN UTENSILS USED BY THE BASHKIRS IN THE INZER BASIN IN THE LATE 19TH — EARLY 21ST CENTURy
This paper is aimed at investigating the area of distribution, production and use of kitchen utensils used by the Bashkirs, in particular by those peoples having resided or residing around the Inzersky basin (situated in the present territory of the Beloretsky district, the Republic of Bashkortostan), from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st centuries. The sources for the study comprised archival and fieldwork materials collected by the author. A series of expeditions were conducted in 2010–2011 and 2016–2017 across the settlements of Gabdiukovo, Zuyakovo, Assi, Novokhasanovo, Usmangali, Inzer, Azikeevo, Aznalkino, Khusainovo, Sermenovo, Utkalevo, Uzyannbash, Shigaevo (Beloretsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan). The author studied collections assembled by the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography of the R.G. Kuzeev Institute for Ethnological Studies (the Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and by various school and local history museums in the region. In addition, the archival materials of the National Museum of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Ufa) were examined. In the Bashkir population, who led a nomadic and semi-nomadic lifestyle for a long time, household utensils were largely made of leather and wood. With the transition to a settled way of life, leather dishes lost their popularity among the Bashkirs. At the end of the 19th century, the population began to widely use wooden utensils, which would be manufactured not only for their own needs, but also for sale in other Bashkortostan regions. Kitchen utensils used to be made from various tree parts — trunks, limbs, branches, birchbark, bast fibre, roots, etc. Virtually all tree species growing in the region were used as a working material. Due to the peculiarities of the production method, three types of wooden dishes that were in use among the Bashkirs having resided around the Inzersky Basin can be distinguished: carved from a whole tree piece, with an inserted bottom and riveted. Vessels differed in shape, size and purpose. Huge one-piece tubs were used for storing flour and grain, while smaller bowls were considered suitable for melted fat, corned beef and other supplies. In tall and narrow vessels, oil, honey, sour cream and loose products were transported. Vats and tubs were used for kneading dough, shaking kumis, storing milk, beating butter and preparing yogurt. Wood was also a material for making trays for flour, troughs for cutting meat, buckets for biscuits, rolling pins, spatulas for dough and bread, buckets for water and other items necessary for cooking. Birchbark utensils were used for harvesting berries, as well as for storing salt, flour and cereals. As a result of technical progress and the development of trade and economic relations, the items of traditional domestic production started to lose their significance. However, such their qualities as durability, accessibility, environmental friendliness and cost-effectiveness have contributed to their long-term preservation in the everyday life of Bashkir people. Even today, the Bashkirs living in the Beloretsky region remember and use many methods of wood processing, including making wooden utensils. Unfortunately, this mainly refers to the older generation: the young know little about traditional wooden utensils and rarely use them in everyday life.
Key words: Bashkirs, Inzer Basin, Beloretsky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan, wooden utensils, kitchen utensils.
FROM THE TRIBAL «STONES» OF ALTAI PEOPLE TO THE MEMORABLE SIGNS OF THE ALTAI REPUBLIC
This article is written on the basis of fieldwork materials collected by the ethnographic methods of observation and conversation with informants from the southern Altai-Telengits and Altai-kizhi population groups. The aim of the research was to reveal a connection between the new tradition of installing generic «stones» typical for the Altai-kizhi, continued in the practice of hoisting stelae in honour of the tribal leaders of the past in the Telengits, and embodied in the creation of monuments and bas-reliefs dedicated to the memory of the Altai Republic founders. This relationship is shown to be determined by the multi-level identification of the Altai characterized by tribal, territorial and ethnic specifics. Under the conditions, when Altai people have to co-exist with Russians who currently represent the population majority, the installation of tribal «stones» and memorable stelae seems to be important for maintaining the Altai cultural continuity. The revival of old traditions and the creation of new ones is initiated by the older generation as memory bearers of the past. Among them are zaisans elected from family men and the Zaisanat Council, whose function is to deal with the village and regional administration, as well as with regional authorities on various issues, such as the protection of the Altai sacred places. The territorial identification is carried out by marking the area (frequently the roundabouts of sacred mountains), where the majority of the seok reside and where the family meetings take place. Using the examples of monuments that have been erected to the memory of G.I. Gurkin and V.I. Chaptynov in Gorno-Altaisk, this article investigates the transformation of the role of the leader among the Altai. These people are famous for realizing the idea of creating the Altai Republic. These monuments reflect the ethnic level of the Altai identification, because they are meant to recognize the contribution of Altai people into the ethno-political development of the Region — from the autonomous Oirot region to the Altai Republic.
Key words: Altaians, republic, syok-tribe, zaisanat, ancestral stone signs, patrimonial consciousness, image, levels of identification.
MANIFESTATIONS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE IN THE OB UGRIANS CULTURE AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH–20TH CENTURIES
The problem of adaptation of societies to global changes is known to be one of the most challenging for research in humanities. Processes involved with the breakdown of traditional society and transition to market relations are affecting all ethnic groups, with those in the periphery suffering the most. The purpose of the article is to analyse the form of socio-cultural change in the Ob Ugrian culture that occurred during the last period of Imperial Russia. The work is based on materials collected in the Yugra region, historical psychology methods and intercultural communication theories. It is shown that the inhabitants of the Northern part of the Tobolsk Governorate chose different scenarios when the previous stability had been undermined. Initially, the associated mental discomfort urged some representatives of the indigenous population to demonstrate antisocial behaviour. However, at later adaptation stages, the people’s self-esteem and desire to defend own interests and rights was gradually restored. The behaviour of the indigenous population was realized through a spontaneous generation of protective adaptive mechanisms under the continuously growing external influence. These mechanisms were manifested in the denial or, conversely, in the uncritical perception of alien values, in the partial assimilation of economic skills and the attributes of a new life, in the assimilation of literacy and language, in mixed marriages, in the development of rental relations, in the transition to entrepreneurship, in the property differentiation. The described contradictory processes of socio-cultural change and acculturation (separation, marginalization, assimilation, integration) were spreading across the entire Yugra region: from the South-West to the North-East, from towns to taiga wilderness. They affected both sovereign men and dependent women, short-term contacts and permanent interethnic interaction. By the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, the dominant acculturation version of the Ob Ugrians had been their integration with Russian culture. However, the final assimilation has not been achieved so far, as well as a complete emancipation of the indigenous societies from Russian merchants, native entrepreneurs and other intermediaries with the outside world.
Key words: adaptation, acculturation, assimilation, changes, integration, marginalization, Ob Ugrians, entrepreneurship, market, separation.
TRANSFORMATION: MODERN MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LIFE OF THE TUNDRA
NENETS REINDEER HERDERS
The paper presents an overview of the new elements that have come into the life of the Tundra Nenets of Northwest Siberia in recent decades, and their prospective impact on the traditional reindeer husbandry. The emphasis is on those innovations or their aspects that have not yet been reflected in modern studies. These are, in particular, such points as reindeer herding, dwelling, transport, means of communication, toys and entertainment. The culture of the Nenets nomads is characterized by a special dynamism and an active driving approach — they not only easily adopt technological innovations coming from the outside world, but are also constantly ready to search and try things out to improve the quality of their living. In recent years, this process has become particularly fast and intensified. It is concluded that the presence, spreading and functioning of these innovations in the life of the Tundra Nenets often becomes an effective catalyst for large and accelerated changes, the consequences of which can become destructive for the Tundra Nenets reindeer husbandry as a traditional economic and cultural base. The topic under consideration is part of a larger issue of adapting the Tundra Nenets to the modern circumstances of active industrial development in the YNAO. There are several alarming symptoms that are caused by these modern innovations. The first symptom is a rapid reduction of the sacred sphere in the objective world of the Tundra Nenets. The second one is the increasing disruption of internal social ties, manifested in the cutback of direct personal contacts between people and in the deterioration in the quality of the traditional knowledge transfer to younger generations. The third is the trend of a cardinal change in the traditional mode of reindeer pasture management, where one plausible option for development now is the cessation of the practice of year-round nomadic movements led by family groups. And the fourth is the increasing economic and psychological dependence of the indigenous population on external resources and services.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, nomads, technological innovation, cultural sustainability, indigenous knowledge.
EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE OF THE YAMAL NENETS IN THE 20th — 21st CENTURy
This article analyses data collected by the 1959 All-Union Census and the 2002 and 2010 All-Russian Censuses on the education and employment levels of the Nenets having lived and living in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, the Northern part of Western Siberia. We use statistical analysis methods, such as statistical observation, the summary and grouping of materials, the calculation of absolute and relative values in order to characterize the level of respondents’ education, as well as differences between the age groups of men and women. The gender approach is also used to analyse the structure of employment. We draw attention to diffe-rences in education and employment levels among the Nenets residing in urban and rural areas. An analysis of the census data has allowed us not only to confirm and clarify some of the sociological survey conclusions, but also to obtain new results. Due to the efforts of the state, illiteracy among the Nenets was almost completely eliminated in 50 years. Such a coercive approach has led to a gap in the educational levels between urban and rural groups, thus resulting in a peculiar division of labour between them. It is shown that city dwellers can find jobs in the spheres of education, public health, public administration, etc.; however, the rural economic branches, such as reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting, are still the only sources of work for rural dwellers. According to the mass statistics data on urban Nenets, there is no significant difference between the educational levels of pa-rents and children. It is highly alarming that middle-aged people and older generations among the Nenets seem to be more educated than the youth. Another worrying trend is the growing gender gap in the education between men and women. It might be predicted that such trends would result in an increase in the number of interethnic marriages, migration of Nenets women to urban areas and a subsequent decrease in the number of female Nenets in the tundra areas. In general, our results indicate a significant change in educational levels among the Nenets, which occurred in the second half of the 20th century. This population is shown to possess a substantial educational potential, which could potentially be realized in various economic sectors. Nonetheless, the data on the distribution of the main sources of subsistence for the Nenets shows that this potential remains largely unfulfilled. The Nenets cannot compete successfully with Russians in the labour market. A possible solution to this problem is reliance on the resources of their traditional households, where the Nenets have no competitors.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, All-Russia censuses, All-USSR censuses, educational level, population distribution by sex, age and educational level, economic activity, population employment, sources of livelihood.
«YAPTIK-CITY»: A NORTHERN COMMUNITY IN SEARCH OF IDENTITY
The paper analyses the collective cultural representations (identities) of local communities, as well as the methods of framing and narrative coding of the social world in Northern rural communities. The research is based on the author's fieldwork conducted in the Yamalsky District of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in July — August, 2017 and April, 2018. The basic theoretical approach employed is an ethnographic version of the Theory of Local Texts. A model of the sign-textual environment of the Northern rural community (sender — form of speech — addressee) is proposed, which specifies communication levels and respective identity formulas. This model has allowed the manifestations of official and lower identity politics to be determined. With regard to the dynamic aspect, the sign-textual environment of a Northern rural community presents itself as a constantly unfolding polylogue between «producers» of meanings who have different, varying in power, interests and positions. Each position correlates with a certain form of expression (official billboard, artistic street art, graffiti) and narrative strategy. Visualization of local identity formulas, the professional brand of a community and the formation and development of a presentation «clip» (graphic promotional merchandise) characteristic of Northern communities enriches their cultural landscapes and opens new channels for self-identification and self-expression to its members. In the second part of the research, the paper presents a case study, which is aimed at analysing an actual case of producing a local text in a typical Northern community «under the patronage», the Novy Port settlement. The paper reveals interaction mechanisms between the main subjects of local text production: «Chief» companies, Administrations, painters and local citizens. At the end of the paper, it is concluded that the collective cultural representation of a place results from a situational compromise between «producers of meanings». In other words, the identity of a Northern community is not merely something given that demands expression, but rather a «negotiated» construction recorded here and now. In a wider time perspective, it is only one of possible methods for the framing and narrative coding of social experience and social world by individuals connected to this place.
Key words: local text, identity, Yamal, northern community, street art, graffiti.
Zakh V.A., Zimina O.Yu.
ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ANDREVEVSKAYA AND THE LIPCHINSKAYA CULTURES IN THE LOWER TOBOL RIVER BASIN (basåd on the materials of Velizhany 1 settlement)
The transition period from the Stone Age to the Metal Era was an important stage, as it is characterized by the spread of new technologies and industries. However, only minor changes occurred in the life of the West Siberian population. They affected only some areas of the life support system. The population continued to use mainly tools made of stone. Few tools of copper, and later of bronze, appeared only at the end of the III millennium BC. That time, which coincide with the beginning of the subboreal period with unstable climate and landscapes, is characterized by significant population movements. The comb-and-pit ornamental tradition was spreading in Western Siberia during that period, and it filtered into the territory of the Lower Tobol River basin. We suppose that the groups of population with the pit-comb ceramics penetrated to the north-west of Western Siberia close to that period, and after that they appeared in Tobol basin. Probably, they came from the north-western regions of Eastern Europe (Karelia). Groups of bearers of the false-cord ornamentation of ceramics (Lipchinskaya culture) also appeared in the Lower Tobol River basin coming from the highland and forest Trans-Urals. Probably, the initial stage of interaction between the population of the Andreevskaya and the Lipchinskaya cultures is represented by the materials of Velizhany 1 settlement in the Lower Tobol River basin. These materials show a fusion of ethno-cultural massifs with an exchange of technologies, in particular, metal production. The Mysaevsky complexes with the pit-textile ornamentation of ceramic, spread mainly in the Ishim River basin, are a continuation of the sociocultural adaptation of the population and the rapprochement of Andreevskaya and Lipchinskaya cultural massifs. They demonstrate a combination of Andreevskaya and Lipchinnskaya ornamental motifs.
Key words: Trans-Urals, the Lower Tobol River basin, Velizhany 1, Andreevskaya culture, Lipchinskaya culture, pit-comb complex, false-cord complex, interaction, adaptation of cultural traditions.
Kupriyanova E.V., Taskaev S.V.
A dAGGER from stepnoye VII cemetery as AN indicator of intercultural contacts in metalworking IN the bronze age of THE southern trans-urals
The aim of the article is to describe the results of multidisciplinary analyses of a unique bronze dragger from the bicultural cemetery of Stepnoye VII in the Southern Trans-Urals. This item was found in an Alacul’ burial which was attached to a Petrovka burial complex. There were graves of two sub-adult individuals in richly ornamented costumes with a pair of horses sacrifice and expensive grave goods in the burial. The burial built in the Petrovka burial complex demonstrates the Alacul’ population’s desire to show their belonging to the Petrovka cultural tradition. The dagger is a bronze weapon with a cut pseudo-molded-on metal handle. The suffice optical microscopy has allowed to determine the dagger production technology — lost loam mold process without further perfection. Second use traces of the object are practically absent. The dagger was made by a high-level professional especially for a certain sacrificial ritual. The material elemental analysis was identified by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) method, also roentgenostructural analysis and X-ray phase analysis were used. The dagger was made out of medium tin bronze alloy. Stannery (tin metal) concentration in the alloy amounts to 7,9–10 %, copper amounts to 88,6–90,9 %. Other elements admixtures are negligible — 1 % and less. The dagger metal chemistry is similar to a set of tools from the graves of the Petrovka cemetery of Stepnoye VII, some of them are analogues with the goods from the Seima-Turbino (circle of) burial sites, according to their typology. Two items are close analogues of the dagger according to its look: the daggers from the Gladunino hoard (Kurgan oblast) and from Shaitanskoye Ozero II site (Sverdlovsk oblast). However, a comparison of the look and production technology of the Stepnoye IV dagger with its close analogues shows higher professionalism it was made with. Obviously, there was a vast contact zone which connected different metallurgical production centres during the Bronze Age. The Stepnoye region belongs to the boarder-zone of the forest-steppe world and the steppe inhabitants, and it had been a contact zone among tribes with different economic systems at all times. The people who lived in the boundary zone (Petrovka tribes that built the sites at Stepnoye village, in particular), were the mediators of an exchange in metalwork technology between the southern and northern areas and, probably, they mediated tin alloys supply from the Northen Ural mines. From all appearances, the dagger from the complex 8 of the cemetery of Stepnoye VII was made by the local masters. The model embodied in this dagger having wide parallels does not speak for import of items, rather for import of ideas and images, common environment and relations between northern circumference metal-makers from Petrovka-Sintashta world and Seima-Turbino transcultural phenomenon representatives.
Key words: Bronze Age, Southern Trans-Urals, metallurgy, dirk, Petrovka culture, Alakul’ culture.
Kukushkin I.A., Dmitriev E.A.
EARLY ALAKUL ANTIQUITIES OF TANABAI BURIAL GROUND (based on the materials of the mound 4)
The article introduces into scientific circulation the results of the researches of Tanabai burial ground obtained by the expedition of Saryarka Archaeological Institute at Buketov Karaganda State University. The mound 4, with a diameter of 14 m, height up to 0,4 m, was chosen as the object of the work in 2014. Five altars related to post-mortuary rituals were revealed during the removal of the embankment. An oval fence was found at the under-mound site, with a size of 13×9 m, consisting of vertically installed granite slabs. 13 burial chambers, located in two groups, were found in the inner space, at the level of the mainland. The bulks of the graves were made in stone boxes, less frequently in graves. The orientation of the graves is diverse: north-east — south-west, north-west — south-east, and north — south. The undisturbed tombs 4, 11, 13, 14 are most informative. It is determined that the deceased were laid in a crocheted position, mainly on the left side, head to the western sector. A burial of a warrior or a hunter was found in the tomb 13, at the feet of which a set of bone and metal arrowheads, probably placed in a quiver, was discovered. Metal bracelets with spiral ends, paste and metal beads, pendants of animal fangs are observable in female burials. The resulting ceramic complex and inventory according to formal typological characteristics refers to the early stage of the Alakul culture. The absence of an empty zone along the neck of the vessels is a long-known specific Central-Kazakhstan feature, which may be explained by a further transformation of the Petrov culture of the region into the Alakul culture, preserving the ornament along the neck. In the matter of dating the investigated burials, in view of the almost complete absence of radiocarbon dates, it can be stated that they are chronologically somewhat later than the early materials of the Central Kazakhstan Bronze Age (Petrov culture), according to recent natural science studies. Most likely, our materials can be dated back to the end of the first quarter of the 2nd millennium BC.
Key words: Central Kazakhstan, the Bronze Age, the Alakul culture, burial ground.
A.D. Degtyareva, S.V. Kuzminykh
MODELS OF COLOR METAL PRODUCTION IN THE URALS IN THE EARLY IRON AGE
There were various models of metal production among the population of the Itkul and the Savromat archaeological cultures during the Early Iron Age in the Central and South Urals. The Itkul culture is a culture of miners and metallurgists. Its basic fraction — the Itkul or Trans-Ural center of metallurgy — was initially focused on mi-ning and metal production. The main collections of Itkul copper and bronze products were found at the objects related to production activity (settlements and hillforts of metallurgists) and cult practice (sanctuaries). Itkul tribes had a clearly expressed metallurgical specialization in production, ore processing (generally malachite) in huge scales, melting of oxidized copper and production of a wide range of products with a subsequent active participation in trade and exchange transactions. The metal of early nomads of the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan comes from funeral complexes, where representatives of military and priestly estates were often buried, with unique and sacral significant products. Relatively progressive models of production with accurately traced correlation of product type — chemical composition of a metal — technology were developed in West Kazakhstan-Southern Ural center of metal production of the Savromat archaeological culture. All sacrally significant objects are made of tin and tin-arsenic bronze. At the same time, share of tin impurities was often unfairly high, up to 31%, which resulted in fragility of metal even after it was subject to a special heat treatment. Casting on lost wax models, casting in unilateral, two-or three-leaved forms (often metal) with plug-in inserts remained the dominant scheme of receiving products. The authors describe the main vectors of historical and metallurgical contacts of the Savromat tribes with production centers of Ore Altai and Central Kazakhstan, from where tin and tin-arsenic alloys arrived. Their northern neighbors, miners and metallurgists of the Itkul culture, were the main suppliers of copper to the early nomads of the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan.
Key words: Urals, Early Iron Age, Savromat culture, Itkul culture, metal production models, non-ferrous metal, manufacturing techniques.
RESEARCH AND SOME ISSUES OF INTERPRETATION OF FRAGMENTS OF TEXTILES FROM THE MOUND 15 OF THE NECROPOLIS OF NOVOTROITSKOYE-1
Purpose: The purpose of the present work is to introduce into scientific circulation the results of technical and technological analysis of tissue samples found during excavation of Novotroitskoye-1 burial ground and to discuss some issues related to their interpretation. The paper deals with the fragments of pants, and hems of the items from a tomb of one of the Mound 15 of the necropolis of Novotroitskoye-1, discovered during the excavations by A.P. Umansky, in Talmensky district of the Altai territory. Currently, these findings are stored in the Historical Museum of the Altai State Pedagogical University (funds numbers: 39, 40, 44).
Results: the study found out that the raw material basis of the fabric is wool. The threads are twisted. Their colours are various shades of brown. The threads of the supposed «basics» and «duck» are indistinguishable, their thickness in the samples is almost the same. Total slack strands in the leaf tissue must be an evidence of that they were made on a simple fixture without fixing, perhaps, on a vertical loom, although due to the lack of edges we won't discuss it in oreder to be on safe side. The studied object is small in size, has no obvious errors in weaving, but is excessively damaged by negligent storage. The first fragment of the study, most likely, refers to men's pants. The second and third fragments probably relate to the hem of a female waist (skirt) or shoulder (dress) clothing. The main difference between the considered fragments is that the cloth of men's clothing is linen, and the one of women's is twill. This is probably due to the gender differentiation of clothing among the population of the Upper Ob River Basin in the Early Iron Age.
Conclusions: The analysis of findings provided a new perspective on design methods for making hem shoulder or waist clothing, traditional casual clothing of the population of the Upper Ob River Basin in the Early Iron Age. The data obtained in the course of the study make it possible to consider in more detail the issues related to the study of archaeological textiles within the complex subject of clothing of the ancient population of North Asia.
Key words: Upper Ob region, Early Iron Age, archaeological fabrics, technical and technological analysis, textiles.
ZOTINSKOE III SETTLEMENT, A FORTIFIED CENTER OF TRANS-URAL METALLURGISTS OF THE EARLY IRON AGE: INVENTORY AND OSTEOLOGICAL COMPLEX
In 1974 and 1977, archaeologists of the Ural State University excavated plots (441 m2) of the defensive system and the inner site of a fortified center of the Early Iron Age, located at the Bagariak River in the foothill part of the forest Trans-Urals. Ceramics of the Itkul culture, animal bones, a bone triangular arrowhead were found in the layer of the early unfortified settlement, under the embankment; pottery of the Itkul culture (first type), including production vessels, were found in the embankment; animal bones and slags were found in the ditch. Fragments of an Itkul «dining-room» (first type) and industrial ceramic ware, bones of domestic and wild animals, slags, a flat-bottomed «censer» made of stone talc, ceramic and clay discs — «spindles» with a hole in the center (probably, details of an archery device for obtaining fire), a bone piercer, a dagger-like point, copper or bronze objects — a wheel-shaped casting (ornament or psaltery) and a rectangular ornamented buckle with a hook, as well as heavily drained iron knives and shards with iron «rivets» of unclear purpose were found at the inner site of the hill-fort. A part of the Itkul ceramics and bones of animals lay under adobe platforms. An imported antique bead of orange carnelian was found near the embankment. The slag bulk was concentrated between the clay pads, they were not found in the embankment. Bones belonged to wild and domestic species: wolf, bear, roe deer, elk, large and small cattle, horse. Remains of domestic animals prevailed (227 bones from 18 individuals against 71 bones from 16 individuals). Horse bones (159 from 8 individuals) and roe deer (52 bones from 10 individuals) represent the major part of the collection. The Gamayun (VII–IV centuries BC), Vorobyevo and Gorokhovo (VI–IV centuries BC) ceramics of the Early Iron Age, medieval pottery, and products of XIX–XX centuries are represented by single findings. The Itkul’ complex dates back to the IV–II centuries BC.
Key words: forestry Trans-Ural region, settlement of metallurgists, the Early Iron Age, ceramics, tools, ornaments, osteological remains.
A TRIPOD FROM THE MONUMENT OF KHANTEPA
The article is dedicated to the study of the details of the material culture of the monument of Khantepa, located in the ancient capital center of Sogd Erkurgan. Materials from the monument gave interesting data, confir-ming ethnocultural relationships of the ancient population of the Kashkadarya Oasis. Archaeological findings from the monument of Khantepa allow us to trace the influence of nomadic cultures on the culture of the agricultural oasis. Such influence can be traced in the ceramics of everyday life and for religious purposes, as well as in terracotta. A tripod leg is of particular interest among the findings. It is thought to be a portable altar or a censer. The study of portable altars and censers of Central Asia proves that finding to appear with the nomads coming from Eastern Europe. The article describes the history of appearance of portable altars and censers in Central Asia from the Bronze Age to the Early Middle Ages in order to confirm this theory. In addition, the remaining terracotta of the monument also requires a special scientific approach. An important place is given to one of such terracotta, which complements the history of the development of the worldview of the population of Southern Sogd.
Key words: tripod, sanctuary, brick, Southern Sogd, Erkurgan, Bronze Age, migration, altar, censer, tower, Early Middle Ages.
«THE BATTLE OF SHULGIN» ON THE MAPS BY S.U. REMEZOV AND ITS SOURCE: HISTORICAL AND NATURAL-GEOGRAPHICAL PLOTS
The specifics of ethnographical and archaeological research is such, that it requires use of new sources for a more detailed analysis. So, potentially, the books, created in the late XVII — early XVIII century by Siberian cartographer S.U. Remezov are very important in modern science. The author of the article examines one of the map of the late seventeenth century, which became a source for a compilation of several pages by S.U. Remezov. The author sees several methodological bases of a research in the field of ethnoarcheology. They are system approach, synergetics, and world-system analysis. However, in this case, the author uses the theorem of Gödel, which he considers possible to adapt for the Humanities in order to justify the need to involve a wide range of sources. The methodology of the study is to compare the same geographic features on past and present maps, as well as to use written sources for analysis and interpretation of data maps. After examining it and comparing it with a modern version, the author concludes that the accuracy and reliability of the map by Strunin is undeniable. This allowed us to draw conclusions about the natural and geographical situation at the end of the seventeenth century, formed by the systems of communication, patterns of settlement of the Russians and their art of war in the defense of the border lands. The author believes that the system of the Russian settlement on the Tobol River banks is a variant of the settling on the banks of large rivers and lower reaches of their tributaries. In this case, the first settlements were founded on the most liveable places. The system of communications between the settlements had been established by the natives before the Russians arrived, they adapted them to fit their needs, and they mainly survived to the present day. As for the military, defending the border lands at the Tobol River, the Russians put an emphasis on constructing fortified settlements, and moving the equestrian army. The author pays great attention to one of the events at the end of the XVI century, the battle of Tobolsk nobleman Vasily Shulgin with the nomads. The author considers the place of the battle, the reasons for its sad outcome, and its importance for the subsequent development of the Tobol region.
Key words: Tobol, maps by S.U. Remezov, ethnographical and archaeological research, methodo-logy, methods, sources.
PALEOPATHOLOGY OF BACTRIA-MARGIANA ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX AND SOME ADJACENT TERRITORIES. A SHORT OVERVIEW
The article provides a brief overview of the paleopathological data on the population of the Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex (BMAC) and some adjacent regions (sites from the territory of Iran and Pakistan). In addition to the literature review, the results of a formalized comparison of some ancient groups according to the frequency of occurrence of several stress markers using correspondence analysis are presented. Based on this results, groups from the Margiana (Gonur-depe) and Bactria oases (Buston VI), are the closest to each other, as well as to the series from the territory of Iran and the Harappian sample. The mechanisms of adaptation to the influencial environmental biological and social factors, judging from the paleopathological data, differed significantly from the agricultural and pastoral population (Andronovo culture). At the same time, the Central Asian oases population (BMAC), samples from the territory of the Iranian plateau and the Indus valley demonstrate an obvious similarity of the pathological status. Local specificity can be considered as a result of the peculiarities of the course of adaptive processes in different environmental conditions, on the one hand, and as a fact caused by inter-researchers errors, on the other. In general, the given data correspond to those in the «idealized model of subsistence systems correlates with demography and health» for agricultural populations proposed by J. Lukacs. However, high frequency of infectious diseases does not find a clear «osteological» reflection in the material from most of the BMAC sites and sites from adjacent territories.
Key words: paleopathology, stress markers, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex, Central Asia, Iran, Indus Valley.
NEW DATA ON SELKUP CRANIOLOGY FROM THE UPPER TAZ RIVER BASIN
Some researchers pointed out that the anthropological originality of some native groups of Western Siberia was formed as a result of late metisation processes that occurred in modern times. Judging by historical and ethnolinguistic data, one of such peoples is the Northern Selkups, who moved to the Upper Taz River basin in the XVII century for political, economic and, possibly, environmental reasons. Paleoontropological data can be an important source for solving the issue of their origin. The article is dedicated to the analysis of the craniological collection from Kikki-Akki burial, received in 2013 and replenished in 2016. The cranial characteristic of this group is reduced to a combination of the following features: a low subdolichocranial skull, a slightly flattened medium-wide and medium-high mesoprozopic face, a flat nose and a very small nasal protrusion angle. The intra-group variability of the male part of the series was studied. In terms of the degree of internal morphological similarity, two groups were singled out in the population under consideration. The first were mesocranial skulls with a mo-derate protrusion medium-high face (8 individuals), the second were subdolichocranial skulls with a flattened low face (5 individuals). It has been established that the Selkups from the Narym River area are indeed the ancestors of the Selkups from the Upper Taz River region, but their physical appearance changed over a short period of time (200–300 years) because of migration to the north. According to its anthropological type, male population of the Upper Taz River region in the XVIII–XIX centuries became as close as possible to the Eastern Khanty. However, it was possible to find in their anthropological structure features of the morphotype associated in genesis with the Selkups from the Narym River region. Formation of the anthropological originality of the Selkups from the Upper Taz River region proceeded with an active metisation of these two components belonging to one West Siberian formation. However, biological connections of the Northern Selkups with the ancestral group from the Narym River region apparently weakened by the XVIII-XIX centuries, and the Ugric component became dominant. A different situation is observed in the female population from the Upper Taz River region. They clearly have both basic components, with a slight predominance of the Southern Samoyedic.
Key words: Western Siberia, Late Middle Ages, Northern Selkup, paleoanthropology, anthropological type, craniology.
Bravina R.I., Petrov D.M.
TRIBES «WHICH BECAME WIND»: AUTOCHTHONOUS SUBSTRATE IN ETHNOCULTURAL GENESIS OF THE YAKUTS REVISITED
The study of the origin of the Yakuts focuses on the ethnic history of their alien Turkic-Mongolian ancestors. Issues of mutual ethnocultural influence of local and alien ethnic groups and identification of autochthonous tribes who took part in formation of the Yakut people are not fully researched. Yakut legends mention the tribes «which became wind», Khara-Sagyly, the mysterious «long-headed» Sakha, the bellicose Tumats/Jirikinei, etc. The question of their ethnic identification is one of the most complex and not fully developed within the issue of ethnocultural genesis of the Yakuts. Some researchers (A.P. Okladnikov, S.I. Tokarev, I.V. Konstantinov, I.E. Zykov and A.I. Gogolev) consider these autochthonous tribes as the Tungusic peoples. According to a hypothesis by A.N. Alekseev and S.I. Nikolaev-Somogotto, an aboriginal layer in the Yakut culture was probably represented by paleo-Siberian and pre-Samoyedic tribes. A successful study of this issue was largely impeded by the lack of informative and sufficiently reliable sources. This problem has been partly solved due to new archaeological discoveries in the last decade, especially to that of a multi-layered man site in Ulakhan Segelenneekh on the Olekma river and thanks to the data of modern molecular-genetic researches. An attempt of a paleoethnic reconstruction of the original culture of the autochthonous tribes of Yakutia and of a comparative historical analysis of ancient traditions and cultures of indigenous peoples of Northern Asia was made in the article combining the data on folklore, toponymics, ethnography, archaeology and ethnic genetics. Integrated research data tell about the presence of ancient ethnocultural links between ancestors of the Yakuts and modern Ural peoples of Western Siberia. The tribes from historical lore and Yakutian legends are said to be aboriginal population of the north-western border of Yakutia, successors of the local archaeological cultures of the Late Neolithic and the Paleometal Age. The material given describes ethnocultural complex processes that took place in ancient Yakutia, which contributed to the formation of the Yakut ethnos and its culture.
Key words: Yakutia, Yakuts, ethnocultural genesis, autochthonous tribes, Samoyeds, Paleo-Asiatics, archaeological cultures, the Neolithic, the Paleometal Age, the Middle Ages.
FIRES IN THE CULTURE OF THE EASTERN KHANTY: MODERN ASPECTS
The study is based on the author's field research conducted in 2002–2016. The research area covers a part of territories traditionally inhabited by the Eastern Khanty in the Middle Ob region, including basins of the rivers Agan, Trom-egan, Pim, Lyamin, Bolshoy Yugan and Malyi Yugan. In the last 30 years, the industrial development, urbanization of the Middle Ob region led to large-scale changes in the culture of the Eastern Khanty, based on traditional nature use. That changes affected all aspects of indigenous culture, including relations between a human and fire. Today, fires in the forest and traditional settlements of the Eastern Khanty are more frequent in the Middle Ob region. Nowadays, weakening of traditional norms of delicate handling of fire is one of the causes of fires. Inaccurate handling of fire during industrial activities and visits to the taiga by urban people is another cause of fires. In addition, cases when the Khanty set fire to forest huts of urban residents take place. Archaic models of attitude to fires in the practical and religious spheres are preserved among the Eastern Khanty, living in the taiga and practicing traditional nature use. The practice of preserving places of human habitation and feeding landscapes (deer pastures and hunting grounds) from fires is still maintained. The traditional practice of using controlled fire to stop forest fires is used. In the last two decades, the Eastern Khanty are a the forefront of discussing the construction of industrial facilities in places of feeding landscapes, in connection with the potential threat of fires. Until now, fires in the religious sphere have been perceived by informants from the standpoint of traditional ideas about the activities of deities of fire. Representations of purifying, destroying and protective functions of fire have been still occupying an important place in the world view of the Eastern Khanty. There are differences in the assessment of the consequences of fires at abandoned settlements and cemeteries by the native inhabitants. In some cases, the Eastern Khanty consider the occurrence of fires in terms of traditional religious views, despite the objective reasons of their appearance. The transformation of religious beliefs is observed in the functioning of religious objects after they are damaged by fires, which is a vivid example of adaptation of the culture of the Eastern Khanty to modernity.
Key words: the Eastern Khanty, attitude to fire, consequences of fires, economic practices, religious beliefs, pantheon of traditional deities, transformation of world view, adaptation strategies.
SMOKE OVER TAIGA AND TUNDRA: FIRE IN THE CULTURE OF NORTHERN PEOPLES OF WESTERN SIBERIA AS A MEANS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
The article describes burning practices used by native northern hunters-gatherers and reindeer herders of Western Siberia as a potential factor of impact on surrounding landscapes. In this sense, the research focuses primarily on aspects of practical importance in the fields of cultural ecology and ethnoarchaeology. Controlled burning of grass, shrubs, and deadwood has been a very effective landscape management tool, though not a common practice among northern natives of Western Siberia. It helped certain groups restore the productivity of berry bushes, attract wild ungulates and create better conditions for reindeer herding and travelling, as well as protect the territory from devastating forest fires. There are some Western Siberian ethnic groups which traditionally have had more freedom in the use of fire (Evenks) and others whose actions in this field have been rather rigidly regulated by traditional rules and beliefs (Ob Ugrians and Selkups). The Tundra and Forest Nenets probably combined their culture features with both of the mentioned groups. This allows us to suggest a version that a relatively freer use of fire is generally a typical feature of the nomadic population. Several areas were discovered in Western Siberia, where the peoples of the North had practiced intentional burning (or supposedly could do it) in order to obtain additional economic benefit from their lands — the Konda river valley, the Upper Taz river area and the interfluve of the Demyanka and the Turtas. The local Khanty and Mansi groups of the Konda river valley adopted this use of fire from the neighbouring Siberian Tatars or Russians in 1860–70s. Simultaneously, it was also a real paradigm shift in the spheres of traditional beliefs and land use practices of the Ob-Ugrian communities. The last two areas mentioned were associated with local groups of Evenks, the people who were brought into disrepute in Siberia and the Far East as arsonists of the taiga. As ethnographic data shows, on the one hand, that was a prejudiced opinion, on the other hand, there were factors that contributed to its formation.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, human-modified landscapes, ethnic land-use practice, cultural ecology, ethnoarchaeology, indigenous knowledge.
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TWO EPOCHS: INCARNATION IN A FESTIVAL
The article was written based on the expedition to the Northern Selkups in Krasnoselkupsky district of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area in March 2016. The author managed to observe the Reindeer Herders' Day in three villages of the district — Ratta and Tolka villages, located in the upper reaches of the Taz River, and the village of Krasnoselkup in the middle reaches of the Taz river. Krasnoselkupsky district embraces almost the entire Taz river basin with the exception of lower areas, which are an ancestral territory of residence of the Northern Selkups, one of the low-numbered peoples of the North. The size and composition of the population of the settlements, which hosted the Reindeer Herders' Day, differ significantly, so the festival in each of the villages has its own special features. Reindeer herders' days in Krasnoselkup district are an important element and a state policy instrument in respect of indigenous low-numbered peoples of the North. The festivals help the Selkups improve their financial situation, give an incentive to reindeer husbandry, contribute to the preservation of traditional culture and strengthen national self-awareness, improve Selkups' relationship with the authorities. At the same time, reindeer herders' days reflect people's mood, determine the state of Selkup reindeer herding and, more broadly, the economy, and also serve as an indicator of effectiveness of the modern state social policy in relation to the Selkups and other indigenous low-numbered peoples of the North in Krasnoselkup district. Reindeer herders' day is neither an original Selkup tradition nor an innovation. The idea of the holiday originated in the depths of the Soviet era and, being successful, moved to the next era as one of the particles of its immense heritage , where it was further developed. The article introduces into scientific circulation and analyzes field materials on a topic that until now has not been examined in detail either in national or in foreign anthropological science.
Key words: ethnography, history, the Selkups, reindeer, holidays, social policy, legacy of the socialist era.
Liskevich N.A., Masharipova A.H.
TERRITORIAL AND ECONOMIC ADAPTATION OF THE KOMI RESETTLERS ON THE TERRITORY OF THE LOWER TOBOL RIVER BASIN IN THE XIX — BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY
The process of development and structuring of space by Komi resettlers in Ivanovo Volost of Yalutorovsk Uyezd of Tobolsk Governorate in the XIX — beginning of the XX century is analyzed based on field research materials, documents of management and record keeping from the state archives of Tyumen and Chelyabinsk regions, published narratives of researchers of the late XIX — early XX century and of contemporary regional ethnographers. The background and history of resettlement of the Komi to the territory of the Lower Tobol River basin, the practice of land use and the arrangement of a new place of residence are described. The main elements of the acquired space are singled out. They are residential, sacred, economic and natural spaces. Their characteristics are given. Territorial and economic adaptation of the Komi resettlers in the territory of the Lower Tobol River basin, taking into account traditions of natural management and ethno-cultural attitudes, related primarily to arrangement of permanent and temporary settlements, deforestation and farming. Formation of the cultural landscape was accompanied by structuring (organization) of the inhabited space. Names given to natural and anthropogenous geographic objects highlight significant elements of space, reflect their location, show the functional purpose and idea of the use of natural resources, corresponding names of people and significant events, structure of the settlement, location of amenity and religious buildings and places. The territory that was developed and «marked» in this way was codified by a system of symbols within residential, sacred, economic and natural spaces that played a part of basic address identifiers that helped accurately determine the location of a necessary object, the path and orientation in space, and also reflected the degree of compliance of the immigrants on a new territory of residence and contributed to the preservation of collective memory.
Key words: the Komi, the Zyrian, Ivanovo Volost of Yalutorovsk Uyezd, resettlers, land use, space structuring.
SPECIAL ASPECTS OF VENERATION OF THE «SAVIOUR» CRUCIFIX FROM KAMENKA VILLAGE IN TYUMEN REGION
The article studies special aspects of venerating the «Saviour» crucifix from Kamenka village in Tyumen region. The cross was measured using the method by D.V. Pejemsky which enables us to typologically organize venerated objects. The article examines paleography and iconography of the cross. On the whole, it is concluded that the crucifix combine orthodox and old-rite aspects due to a specific character of ethnic and religious structure of the local population. According to the analysis of a marking stamp on the crucifix, it is concluded that the cross might had been manufactured for a chapel in Sorokino village or for a church in Kamenka village. Besides, it is suggested that the name of the crucifix is locally related to annual sacred processions with the Holy Image of the Saviour Not-Made-by-Hands from Tyumen city to Kamenka village and the surrounding country. The article presents a detailed analysis of the history and the modern state of the «Saviour» crucifix veneration, mostly through narratives of the native population. On the one hand, worshiping the cross reflects a mass popular tradition of shrine veneration typical of the innates. It dates back to the mid and the end of the XX century when a crucifix was kept indoors in the houses of Sorokino village inhabitants. The crucifix was used during crisis states in the community (offering prayers with a cross in the fields in case of a drought), or in a separate household (praying aimed to recover health). By the present time, the cross has been renovated and exhibited in the church of Kamenka village but the specificity of its veneration assumed a new aspect. It results from dynamic churching of those worshipers who are forming a new ritualism of the crucifix. In connection with the revival of parishes, the practice of the crucifix veneration is oriented towards the church canon and mainly corresponds to the task a modern individual sets for religion — to be a method of healing and achieving health and well-being.
Key words: venerated crucifix, religious culture of Siberian peasants, churching of a shrine.
Korochkova O.N., Mosunova A.V.
THE ENEOLITHIC COMPLEX OF DUVANSKOYE XVII SETTLEMENT
The article deals with publication of the Eneolithic complex of Duvanskoye XVII monument, which is situated just outside the city of Tyumen. The monument is well known as a Fedorovo culture settlement. However, its Eneolithic period is of great interest as well. A dwelling with more than 50 pits was constructed in the 3rdcentury BC. The building of the pole frame construction was reconstructed due to a rectangular pit sized 6×5,3 metres and a number of pole holes situated around the pit at the distance of 1–3 meters. The samples from the building are represented by the Andreevo culture pottery, clay biconic plummets, and things made of silicium and jasper. There were over 50 regularly shaped pits randomly situated to the west of the dwelling. Some of them had debris of vessels of the Andreevo, Lipchin and Shapkul types, small fragments of ceramics, and articles made of stone, including small-sized polished ones. The majority of findings was located in the area between the pits. Their regular shape has considerable resemblance to the burial ones. However, the absence of anthropological remnants gave no chance of identifying them as burial places. The situation has changed by now. The materials from the eneolithic burial grounds of Pereyminsky 1, 2, Chepkul 20 and Buzan 3, located in close proximity, were excavated and published. A number of parallels were discovered, such as regularly shaped pits, concentration of material in the area between the graves, existence of other structures aimed at pre and post funeral rituals. All above mentioned let us consider the published complex as a burial ground. Appearance of a purposeful burial has a universal pattern. It became wide spread in the period of dramatic growth of the population density, which in its turn was caused by forming stable life sustenance systems. In this context, it refers to settled fishing, which meant a necessity to fix and control the catching areas. In the conditions of segmented communities, the processes of cultural consolidation became inevitable, which under the circumstances of the preliterate era were supported by customs and rituals.
Key words: Lower Tobol, Andreevsky lake system, the Eneolitic, burial ground, Andreevo type, Shapkul type, Lipchin type.
THE DECORATIVE PRACTICE BASED ON NATURAL FORMS IN THE PALEOLITHIC OF THE URALS
In recent years, archaeologists have found objects of decorative activity based on natural forms of bone and stone which were manufactured by men in the Ural-Volga region at the Upper Paleolithic monuments in the Kama area (Shirovanovo site), in the Middle Trans-Urals (Gari site), in the Southern Urals (Bogdanovka and Sergeevka 1 sites), in the mountainous part of the Southern Urals (Shulgan-Tash (Kapova) and Bayslantash caves) and in the Southern Trans-Urals (Troitskaya 1 site). The tradition of using natural forms in pictorial practice applies both to the early Upper Paleolithic and to the final stage of the Paleolithic era. Their distinguishing feature is the selection of shaped pebbles or bones, which have a certain similarity to an animal or a human, and they were only slightly altered by men. Depending on the material and the purpose, various processing methods were used: upholstery, sawing, stationing, drilling, engraving. The process was always aimed at obtaining important details that emphasized similarity of natural forms with an imaginary phenomenon, meaning usually eyes, a mouth, if it referred to a head, or in case of a mammoth, a recess between the back and the head, and the trunk. According to the content, items of decorative activity in the Paleolithic epoch fall into: images of people — 3 items, animals — 5 items, bird depictions — 1 item, and ornamented pebbles — 1 item. Along with this, we found examples of offerings in the form of pebbles of unusual rocks (green serpentine, crystal pendants on a shingle slate and serpentinite) in the cave sanctuary of Shulgan-Tash. In case of the Upper Paleolithic, we can assume that the use and veneration of natural forms was an important and specific way of symbolization within the pictorial activity in the territory of the Ural-Volga region. This is characteristic of «Ural» and, more broadly, «Siberian» cultural tradition of the Upper Paleolithic.
Key words: sculptures, processed shaped pebbles, processed shaped bones, the Upper Palaeolithic, the Urals.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SOURCES ON THE USE OF WOOD IN THE CITY OF TARA IN THE 17–18THCENTURIES
This article is based on materials of archaeological researches of Tara, one of the first Russian cities in Western Siberia. The aim of the work is to show the importance of wood in life of the Siberian city — from construction of dwellings and defensive works to its use as the main fuel for heating of constructions in winter time, for cooking and as the main material for production of instruments of labor and household items. The aim of the research is to show deficit of wood in life of the city of Tara which is examplified by reusing of wood in case new objects were constructed. It is possible to single out several directions of the reuse: economic constructions, bases under structures, fences, zavalinkas, for repairment of pavements and roads, as firewood. The construction of the Market square is used as an example of reusing wood as it was made of logs which had formed part of the wooden fence of the Tara fortress. The study revealed that the main reasons of the lack of wood were numerous fires, high level of groundwater and a large swamped area in close proximity to the paled part of the city. The service class population was forced to pass their time free from guard constantly repairing defensive constructions and administrative buildings of the city which suffered of fire or decayed because of the soil saturated with water. Many labor costs were accounted for making pavements and sidewalks on city streets, building drainage trenches and maintaining them in normal state. We also found it interesting to determine the number of gathered firewood for the winter period: it turned out that the city consumed more than three thousand cubic meters for these needs, which is a very large number for a small fortified city. In fact, a small forest on the area of several hectares was annually cut down. The conducted research showed a certain dependence of the city on regular deliveries of wood, both as a construction material, and as firewood. This situation was typical of most of the first Russian cities in Western Siberia, so the results of our work can be used even in the archaeological research of their historical centers.
Key words: Western Siberia, history, city, Tara, wood, fire, water, construction.
SOME ASPECTS OF SACRAL SPACE MARKERING IN THE URAL TERRITORY
The article analyses different aspects of organization of space as its sacred points — sacred places. Ancient sanctuaries were situated exactly in those marked points: caves, grottos, awnings, mountain peaks, rocks, hills, bald mountains, stone capes, etc. There could be one or several sacral centers in each sacred space depending on its dimensions. A cave was the earliest object of sacred place. There were two basic types of cave sanctuaries in the Paleolithic era: caves with painting and caves where demonstration complexes in form of animal skulls formed the central part of the cult complex. Veneration of mountains, rocks, hills, bald mountains, tall capes originated in the Stone Age among the population of the Urals and Siberia as well. Interments and hoards were often used as markers of the sacral space border. Sometimes special elements of the landscape — rocks — were marked with images. Separate water objects — lakes and bogs — were also included into the sacral practice of the local population. This is proved by such findings as ancient hoards, bronze and bone weapons, whole vessels and also large number of human bones and bodies at the bottom of lakes and peat lands. A sacral space of sanctuaries or settlements was sometimes sanctified with ocher or scattering of calcified human bones. The research of ancient sanctuaries shows that we may expect the most unordinary, unexpected and informative findings exactly at the border of a sacral space.
Key words: the Urals, sacral space, caves, mountains, cult markers, symbolic border.
Solodovnikov K.N., Rykun M.P.
AN AUTOCHTHONOUS COMPONENT IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF THE ENEOLITHIC — BRONZE AGE IN THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS REVISITED: MATERIALS FROM THE COLLECTION AND ARCHIVE OF THE ANTHROPOLOGY ROOM AT TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY
The Eneolithic — Bronze Age paleoanthropological materials from the Ulitinsky type Bronze Age burial of Karasu II (the Altai Mountains), as well as previously unpublished measurements of skulls from 1964 excavations of the Afanasievo cemetery of Ust-Kuium are introduced into scientific use. Osteometric characteristics of the individuals from the Ulitinsky type burial affirm that they belong to the steppe morphotype, which is widespread among the populations of the Bronze Age in the steppes and forest-steppe areas of Eurasia. According to the craniometric parameters, a female skull from Karasu II shows features of the anthropological type of the local population of the Altai-Sayan highland with a brachycranial skull shape and some Mongoloid features. Two female skulls from the Afanasievo burial ground of Ust-Kuium originate from burials with a set of ornaments which differ from one-culture complexes. Their Europeoid appearance is typical of the alien Protoeuropeoid population, but one of the skulls is also characterized by brachycrania, which is considered to be influence of local craniological complexes.
Key words: Afanasievo culture, the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age, the Altai Mountains, paleoanthropology, craniometry, Protoeuropeoids, Mongoloids.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Zhamkochyan À.S., Hakopyan N.G., Babayan F.S., Engibaryan A.A., Khachatryan À.À., Eganyan L.G.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS POPULATION AND ETHNOGENETIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGE
The article presents preliminary results of an anthropological research of human bone remains, obtained during excavations of medieval monuments on the territory of the Republic of Armenia. Cases of deliberate artificial modifications of skulls and unintentional cradle deformations were observed. Two unusual shapes (triangular, circular) of gaskets on the occipital bone in the individuals with frontal-occipital deformation were found. An individual from Burakn with artificial modification of the skull is characterized by a static asymmetry of the skull, the facial skeleton and the dental system. Craniological data indicates a heterogeneous anthropological composition of the population. A specific set of characteristics close to the Caucasion type were present among the inhabitants of Hovhannavank in the Late Middle Age. Results of the intergroup statistical analysis identified close morphological affinities between the Middle Age skulls from Armenia with groups from Southern and North-Western Caucasus, Iran, Mesopotamia. This article also analyzes morphological features of the postcranial skeleton. Muscular relief în bones was very well developed in the vast majority of cases.
Key words: Armenia, Middle Ages, Craniology, Osteology, Odontology, artificial modification of skulls, torticollis, heterogeneity of population.
THE TUNDRA NENETS WAYS OF SPATIAL ORIENTATION WITH THE USE OF CARDINAL DIRECTIONS
The article refers to the larger research project on the traditional wayfinding techniques of the Tundra Nenets who are one of the nomad peoples who possess outstanding navigational abilities. The focus of the research project is the description of the Nenets navigational knowledge and experience, an assessment of its practical effectiveness and its correlation with the way of life of the tundra people. This paper presents the traditional Nenets ways of orientation with cardinal directions where the primary interest lies on revealing the characteristic features of this kind of navigational knowledge and techniques, and their dependence on the environmental and traditional worldview factors. When navigating, the Tundra Nenets rely both on cardinal directions and landmarks, and it is specifically the first of the mentioned methods that makes them able to envisage adequately their geographical location on a large scale, creating mental maps that are closely in accordance to real maps. It should also be taken into account that the traditional Nenets way of transmission of geographic information is primarily based on oral descriptions. The results of the research showed that: 1) the north-south axis is of primary importance for the navigation of the Tundra Nenets; 2) they possess detailed information about the annual and daily cycle of motions and relative positions of celestial objects though use only a few of them directly for the determination of the cardinal directions (mainly the Sun, the Moon, Venus and the Ursa Major constellation); 3) they also apply a variety of other methods to adjust their routes and the cardinal directions, based on observations of wind speed and direction, features of the snow cover, shapes of plants, bird activity, etc.; 4) Nenets preferences in the use of navigation devices — they have rejected compass but rapidly became accustomed to satellite navigation systems — is based on methods of their wayfinding system where determination of cardinal directions is inseparable from references to local landmarks.
Key words: Siberian ethnography, wayfinding, Nenets, anthropology of mobility, indigenous know-ledge, navigation systems.
Samigulov G.Kh., Tychinskih Z.A.
NEW SOURCES ON THE HISTORY OF MURZAS KULMAMETEV
Òhe authors of the article return to the topic of the history of a well-known Tatar clan of Tobolsk servicemen Kulmametev. The article is based on the documents found in regional and central archives. Particular attention is paid to the analysis and reasoned criticism of recent publications on the topic, which challenge the conclusions of the authors of this article about the origin, status of clan representatives in the XVII century, which are crucial not only for the history of a particular clan, but also for understanding the whole history of Siberian service Tatars. The revealed archival materials confirm that the family descends from Prince Begish of the Siberian Khanate and that Kulmametevs' ancestors enjoyed a high status and became leaders of the service Tatars in the late 17th century.
Key words: service Tatars, Bukharians, Tatar leaders, the Kulmametevs, Prince Begish, Kulmamet, Avazbakey, Sabanak, landed estates.
Golubkova O.V., Kononova Yu.B.
SACRALIZATION OF SPACE AS A WAY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION THE RUSSIANS AND KOMI IN WESTERN SIBERIA
Ancestor worship was one of the most significant elements of traditional beliefs. In many cultures it is believed that the ancestors can become mythical patrons of a clan or a family (chur, domovoy (hobgoblin)). They help their descendants, protect them from the negative impact of alien spirits, sorcerers, and harmful corpses (navs). Our conclusions are based on the ethnographic field material, collected in different regions of Western Siberia, mainly among the Russians and Komi, as well as among the Ukrainians, Belarusians, Mordovians. The ancestors of these people settled in Siberia relatively recently (it took several generations, many of them remember the places from where their ancestors migrated behind the Urals, keep family traditions associated with «homeland» and migration to Siberia). For them, sacred dangerous loci are sanctuaries and cemeteries of the peoples who had settled in Siberia earlier (Khanty, Mansi, Tatars, indigenous peoples). The informants (Russian, Komi) consider abandoned graves of «aliens» and «infidels» as especially frightening places. They believe that other methods of burial and ritual ceremonies of other nations do not guarantee safety for a living person, especially for «outsiders». The field materials reflect emotional stories about ghosts and hostile spirits associated with the previous population of Western Siberia. Thus, we face the facts of ethnic and cultural divergence, based on the opposition of Orthodox and «non-Christian» (pagan, Muslim) worship. Besides, many informants (Russian, Komi) believe that the Siberian peoples have special secret knowledge and magical abilities. The Russians and the Komi used Christian amulets in order to provide protection from hostile spirits and wizards of the indigenous peoples. In addition, they seek mystical protection of their ancestors. This was true in isolation from their roots, from their native land.
Key words: mythology,sacralization, Russian, Komi, Western Siberia, «own — alien», the cult of ancestors, psychological adaptation.
LAND AND WATER ARRANGEMENT AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN YENISEI REGION IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY
This paper examines the process of land arrangement among the Khakas and water arrangement in the lower reaches of the Yenisei River in the early XX century, which affected the Kets, Dolgans, Selkups, Nenets, Enets and Evenks. The author considers water arrangement and land arrangement as parts of a single process. Land arrangement and water arrangement had different immediate causes, but they were of the same essence: the government secured its rights for natural resources: lands in the south of Yenisei region and fishing areas in the north of the region. During the land arrangement resettlement, the officials withdrew the land from the use of the Khakas people. The author argues that the withdrawn land was more than 744 500 dessiatins (more then 800 000 hectares). But it wasn’t ethnicity-based discrimination, because the land was taken away from the Russian people too. On the contrary, the officials responsible for relocation tried to give the Khakas people land above the limit. Fishing areas in the north of Yenisei region were withdrawn from the use of the indigenous peoples and the Russian people. It had been planned to lease fishing areas. So, there was no ethnicity-based discrimination in the north of Yenisei region. The author also argues that the goal of land and water arrangement was to create legal conditions so that big business could enter Siberia. For example, a large capitalist sheep farm «Vladimir Alekseev» was created in the south of Yenisei region. It was built on the lands that had been taken away from the Khakas people. It had been planned to lease fishing areas to big business in order to organize high-yield fisheries in the north of Yenisei region. «Enisejskaya kompaniya parohodstva» (Yenisei steam navigation company) received a lease. But that enterprise didn’t organize high-yield fisheries. It subleased the fishing areas to the local population. The goal wasn’t reached. Thus, we can conclude that government's activity in the south of Yenisei region was successful, and in the north it was a failure.
Key words: land arrangement, water arrangement, Yenisei governorate, the Khakass, Northern Yenisei region, fishing industry, capitalist economy.
THE NENETS LANGUAGE FROM CENSUS TO CENSUS (ACCORDING TO THE DATA FOR THE NENETS OF YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT)
This article deals with changes in the language situation among the Nenets of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District based on published and unpublished data of the All-USSR and All-Russian Censuses in the second half of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st centuries. Statistical facts allow us to see and analyze the situation in the whole district. According to the historiographic review, such detailed analysis among the Nenets on the base of mass statistical data has not been carried out. The article analyzes knowledge and command of languages among the Nenets, their distribution according to the native languages including the Nenets people living in towns and rural settlements, the distribution of urban and rural Nenets by age groups, native and second languages. The differences between men and women are accentuated. Results of the research demonstrate that the current language situation among the Nenets of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District surely shows a distribution and knowledge of the Russian language in the first decade of the 21st century and a high level of bilingualism. These can be considered as an influence of modern processes of globalization and internationalization, formation of an information society, the growth of urban and sedentary population and of the level of education, appearance of new occupations among them. Involvement of reindeer herders in the world process of economic, political and cultural integration is inevitably accompanied by the acquiring of values and stereotypes of the dominant Russian society and therefore by an increasing number of people who can speak Russian. Sometimes it occurred to the detriment of their native Nenets language. The function of the Nenets language is being narrowed while the ethnic consciousness is preserved at a high level. Nevertheless, we can mention some differences for a local group of the Nenets. The level of proficiency in native language is higher in regions where nomadic reindeer herders live. On the contrary, this level is lower in areas considered as a periphery of the reindeer breeding where fishing traditionally plays a big role in their subsistence, and the way of life is semi-sedentary or sedentary. It can be predicted that the number of the Nenets who know and use the Russian language, including as a mother tongue will only grow. According to the data of the last All-Russian Census, the intensity of linguistic assimilation by the Russian speaking majority has been developing faster in comparison with previous years.
Key words: the Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, All-Russia census, All-USSR census, language situation, population distribution by sex, age and language.
A CUCKOO MAIDEN FROM IURTY PROTOCHNYE (ON THE LOCAL FEATURES OF THE CLOTHES OF THE OB MANSI GUARDIAN SPIRITS IN THE XIX — BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY)
The article is aimed to study images of a female guardian spirit in the form of a cuckoo. It existed in one of the settlements of the Ob Mansi in the XIX — early XX century. The image had been considered lost for a long time, and it was discovered by the author in a museum archive. The article provides its detailed description to determine features of the costume. Based on the comparative typological method, the material, cut, ornaments and other specific features are analyzed. It was found out that the costume of Cuckoo maiden guardian spirit consists of a traditional clothing set of the Ob Mansi. It usually includes a gown shirt, a robe and a kerchief. In the case under consideration, a wooden sculpture in the form of a bird is dressed in two shirts, five robes and three kerchiefs. The robes and shirts are sewn by hand and have a traditional Mansi cut. The composition and the cut of the costume set of Cuckoo maiden image reflects the features of the women's clothing of the Ob Mansi, of the Middle Ob and Northern (Berezovo and Kazym) Khanty of the late XIX and XX centuries. At the same time, such adornments typical of the women's clothes of these Mansi and Khanty groups as embroidery with beads, coloured threads and applied ornaments are not represented on the robes and shirts of Cuckoo maiden. But the clothes have another inherent characteristic which is a coin attached to them in some way. It is assumed that these two features of the clothes, the lack of ornamentation and the presence of coins, are sacred symbols which aim at emphasizing a special status of this image.
Key words: image of the guardian spirit, clothes of the guardian spirit, sacred symbols, image of the cuckoo, religion, cult, rituals, the Mansi, peoples of North-West Siberia.